Philippine Military Academy

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Philippine Military Academy
Akademiyang Militar ng Pilipinas
Former names
  • Philippine Constabulary Officer's School (1905–1926)
  • Philippine Constabulary Academy (1926–1935)
MottoCourage Integrity Loyalty
TypeService academy
EstablishedOctober 25, 1898
SuperintendentLTGEN Rowen S. Tolentino, PA
Commandant of CadetsBGEN Julius A. Tomines, PA
Fort Gen. Gregorio H. del Pilar
Baguio City
CampusFort Gen. Gregorio H. del Pilar
373 ha (3,730,000 m2)
Alma Mater song"PMA, Oh Hail to Thee."
Colours  Gray
NicknamePMA Cavaliers -
"Mistah" or "Bok"
AffiliationsNDCP, AFP
Melchor Hall, PMA

The Philippine Military Academy (Filipino: Akademiyang Militar ng Pilipinas / Spanish: Academia Militar de Filipinas) also referred to by its acronym PMA is the premier military academy for Filipinos aspiring for a commission as a military officer of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).[2] It was established on December 21, 1936, by the virtue of National Defense Act of 1935. It is patterned after the United States Military Academy, in West Point, New York.[3] The academy is located in the city of Baguio,[4] and serves as the primary training school for future officers of the AFP.[5][6]

The academy traces its roots to 1898, when Emilio Aguinaldo decreed the establishment of the Academia Militar in the Philippines.[7][8] The present academy serves as a national historical landmark for historic contribution and its “long and unending line of quality military education.”[9] The campus is a popular tourist destination in Baguio.[10]

Cadet candidates for admission must undergo and pass series of testing (Written, Physical, Medical and Neuro-Psychiatric); around 400 men and women enter the academy each June.[11][12] Students are officers-in-training and referred to as "cadets" or collectively as the "Cadet Corps Armed Forces of the Philippines" (CCAFP).[13] Tuition and monthly allowances are fully funded by the government in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation.

The academic program grants a Bachelor of Science in National Security Management with a curriculum that maintains a high level standard of cadet's performance in academics, military tactics and sports & physical fitness. Cadets are required to conform with the Honor Code which states that "We, the cadets, do not lie, cheat, steal, nor tolerate among us those who do." PMA bases cadet's development in four aspects: character, academics, military and physical.[14][better source needed] Graduates are commissioned as second lieutenants in the Philippine Army and Philippine Air Force and as ensigns in the Philippine Navy.

Despite the limited baccalaureate offered, the academy consistently places in the top 100 Universities and Colleges in Philippines for its quality education and management.[15] PMA is ISO 9001:2015 certified.[16]


An Officer's School of the Philippine Constabulary was established on February 17, 1905, within the walls of Intramuros in Manila.[17] This school was relocated to Baguio on September 1, 1908, at Camp Henry Allen where it would stay for many years to come. On February 4, 1916, a cadet academy denominated the Academy for officers of the Philippine Constabulary was created for training and instructing cadets and preparing them for service as commissioned officers of the Philippine Constabulary or of any other armed force of the Philippine Government which might later be created.[18]

Just months later, on October 23, 1916, during the 4th Philippine Legislature session, Senator Hadji Butu Abdul Baqui, representing Mindanao and Sulu, sponsored his first bill, Senate Bill No. 9 creating a law establishing a military academy in the country and to require military instruction in colleges and universities. On the same day, he also sponsored Senate Bill No. 10 creating a law to establish a naval academy. Three months later, US President Woodrow Wilson congratulated Senator Hadji Butu "for being the first among those in the upper house to introduce measures for their establishment", saying that military or naval training will be a good thing for the young men of the country.[19]

On December 8, 1928, the academy was renamed as The Philippine Constabulary Academy.[20]

The National Defense Act was approved on December 21, 1935, creating the Army of the Philippines and incorporating the Constabulary into that organization. The Act also established a Constabulary Division within the PMA and a Philippine Military Academy (PMA), but specified that the PMA operation was not a Constabulary function.[21] The PMA was modeled after the United States Military Academy with officers from the Philippine Scouts and regular United States Army as instructors and members of the general staff.[22][23] PMA Class of 1940, with 79 graduates, was the pioneer batch to complete four years of training. Quirico Evangelista and Reynaldo Mendoza of Class '40 composed the PMA alma mater song, "PMA, Oh Hail to Thee."

Facade of Melchor Hall, PMA

With the outbreak of the Second World War, training was disrupted at the PMA with Classes 1942 and 1943 being graduated prematurely and assigned to combat units in Bataan and other parts of the country. Many of these young officers perished in the war.

After the war, the academy was reopened on May 5, 1947, at Camp Henry T. Allen in Baguio and, due to its increasing need for larger grounds, was soon moved to its present location at Fort General Gregorio H. del Pilar, Loakan, some ten kilometers from downtown Baguio.[citation needed] The main building, Melchor Hall, was completed in 1949 under the supervision of military engineer Lt. Pacifico C. Cabrera, a decorated WWII hero, who later as a full colonel, became Chief of Engineers of the AFP. During the 1960s, as a need for more well-rounded individuals was found to be desirable, and socio-humanistic courses were added to the school's curriculum.

On 18 March 1987, the PMA was targeted by a bomb attack that killed four people, namely a colonel, two enlisted men and a civilian woman, and injured 38 people, including 17 civilians. The explosion occurred at a grandstand during a rehearsal for the annual graduation ceremonies that were to be attended by President Corazon Aquino. Some sources suggested that "disgruntled military elements" may have been responsible.[24]

During the August 1987 Philippine coup attempt, all 863 cadets of the academy mounted a silent demonstration of support for the coup before donning combat gear and reiterating their support over the radio. After a briefing by two senior Reform the Armed Forces Movement members, the group set out at midnight on 29 August to launch a takeover of Baguio, only to abort the plan after being informed by sentries of the coup's failure. The incident prompted Vice President Salvador Laurel and other government officials to launch a dialogue with them, while the academy administration suspended classes for two days and confined the entire student body inside the campus for 90 days.[23]

In 1993, the PMA admitted its first female cadets and introduced specialization based on branch-of-service. Senator Santanina Rasul authored Republic Act 6949, the law recognizing March 8 each year as National Women’s Day in the Philippines and together with the late Senator Raul Roco authored Republic Act 7192 or the Women in Development and Nation Building Act. The RA 7192 outlawed discrimination against women, opening the doors of the Philippine Military Academy to women, and mandated that a substantial portion of government funds at all levels be used for programs that would benefit and develop women's capabilities. Senator Rasul is the daughter in law of the late Senator Hadji Butu who authored the bill in 1916 to establish a military academy. The first female cadets graduated from the academy in 1997.

In 1998, a proclamation by President Joseph Estrada, while acknowledging the academy's roots lay with the 1905 founding of the Philippine Constabulary school, changed the official celebration day of the academy to October 25, in honor of the Academia Militar which was established on October 25, 1898, in Malolos, Bulacan.[17] Other sources have since acknowledged this change.[25][failed verification][26] The Academia Militar was opened during the establishment of the insurgent First Philippine Republic. It was closed on January 20, 1899, before the Philippine–American War and thus was the first ever all-Filipino military academy to be established.[27]

Since 2005, a modified rayadillo West Point-styled uniform, in light blue with the shako and black hackle, has been used by the Corps of Cadets instead of the former gray and blue design.

The academy also has a museum exhibiting historical weapons and tanks of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.[28] The Air Power Park was opened on February 18, 2022, to exhibit a collection of retired aircraft of the Philippine Air Force (PAF). The collection included the SIAI Marchetti S.211, Cessna T-41 Mescalero, Bell UH-1 Iroquois, SIAI-Marchetti SF.260, Northrop F-5, McDonnell Douglas MD-520MG Defender, Vought F-8 Crusader, and MBB Bo 105.[29]


Academic program[edit]

Headed by the dean of academics, the academic program has both military and civilian male and female instructors. It has the following seven departments:

  • Department of Managerial Sciences
  • Department of Mathematics
  • Department of Humanities
  • Department of Physical Sciences
  • Department of Engineering Sciences
  • Department of Social Sciences
  • Department of Information and Computing Sciences[30]

On June 1, 2019, the PMA upgraded its academic curriculum; every cadet now focuses on national security management in response to the growing national security threats at home and overseas. Upon completing the 4-year program, cadets graduate and earn the degree of BS National Security Management and commissioned as 2nd Lieutenant or Ensign in the service branches of the Armed Forces by the authority of the President.[31]

Military program[edit]

This program is headed by the Commandant of Cadets and is responsible for the professional military training, character development, leadership, and physical training of the cadets. The mission of the Tactics Group is likewise carried out by the tactical officers who are responsible for the different companies of the Cadet Corps. This group is made up of the following departments:

  • Department of Leadership Development
  • Department of Physical Education
  • Department of Ground Warfare
  • Department of Air Warfare
  • Department of Naval Warfare


Cadet life[edit]

Four classes[edit]

Unlike other colleges and universities, cadets are not referred to as freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors. They are classified as fourth class, third class, second class, and first class cadets.

  • Fourth class Cadets are the first year students. In the academy, they are called "plebes" and are the equivalent of the college freshmen in civilian universities. The first day of plebe hood starts with the Reception Ceremonies on June 1 of each year. Then, they undergo an eight-week summer training or "beast barracks" during which time they are indoctrinated with the military and cadet systems of training. During this period, the plebes form the New Cadet Battalion and their training is handled by the tactical officers and upper-class cadets forming the "Plebe Detail." After the beast barracks, the plebes are formally accepted into the ranks of the Cadet Corps in another ceremony called Incorporation which is held during the last week of July.
  • Third class Cadets are the sophomores in civilian universities, and are referred to as "yearlings" in the academy. Upon completion of fourth class year, the yearling adjusts to life as an upper class cadet. Although they are the least ranking of the upper class cadets, they are now entitled to the privileges of being upper class cadets. One of their responsibilities is being a "buddy" to a plebe. As buddies, they set the examples of how a cadet should behave and they are responsible for ensuring that the plebes conform with the standards of cadet ship.
  • Second class Cadets are also called the "cows". The second class year marks the point at which the cadet starts to specialize according to the branch of service he or she has elected to join upon graduation. Thus, the second class cadets may no longer take the same subjects as that of some of his or her classmates. They now take different subjects depending on their choice of branch of service after graduation and fields of specialization. Within the cadet chain of command, the second class cadets now act as squad leaders. Moreover, in the absence of the first class cadets, they take over the responsibility of running the Cadet Corps.
  • First class Cadets, also known as "firsties", are the ruling class and as such they occupy the major positions of responsibility in the cadet chain of command. They are designated the chairmen and cadet-in-charge of the various committees, clubs and corps squads. They also enjoy certain privileges peculiar only to the "firsties". Their academics are also more specialized as they now embark on the final year of their training for future officership in the Armed Forces of the Philippines. These cadets receive their military officership commissions and academic degrees equivalent to degrees from civilian universities in May every year.


The Cadet Corps is organized into a brigade. The highest ranking cadet, the Brigade Commander, is traditionally known as the First Captain or "Baron".[33] The brigade is organized into four battalions. Within each battalion there are two companies. Companies are lettered A through H (Alfa to Hawk). First class cadets hold key leadership positions within the brigade from the First Captain down to platoon leaders within the companies. First class cadets hold the rank of cadet captain and cadet lieutenant. Second class cadets hold the rank of cadet sergeant and serve as squad leaders, third class cadets hold the rank of cadet corporal, and fourth class cadets as cadet private.[34]

Honor code and system[edit]

The Philippine Military Academy is governed by an honor code, and it binds the cadets to the following principle — “We, the cadets, do not lie, cheat, steal, nor tolerate among us those who do.”.[citation needed] Cheating, lying, and stealing are major honor code violations. Cadets who will be charged for violating the honor code are subjected to series of trials conducted by Cadets from Honor Committee. When a cadet is found guilty for violating the honor code, he/she will be banned from cadetship. One of the most sensationalized cases was during 2014; the lying case of ex-cadet Aldrin Jeff Cudia.[35]

Hazing videos[edit]

On October 23, 2019, two videos, dated 2017 and 2018, of hazing by the cadets were uploaded on social media. The 2018 video shows a plebe-cadet being punched and kicked by an upper class cadet. Another upper class cadet wearing earphones is seen in the background of the video. In the video, two plebe-cadets were doing squats; when one of them collapses, he is kicked as punishment by an upperclassman. The attack stops when someone opens the door to inspect the room. The 2017 video shows four upperclassmen with two plebes. An upperclassman is seen using his helmet to repeatedly hit one of the plebe's hands and the back of the other plebe. While the upperclassman was hitting the plebes, the other upper class cadets in the background were seen watching and laughing, actively bystanding and allowing the hazing to continue.[36][37][38]

Of the six upper-class cadets seen attacking the plebes in the video, five were transferred to the PMA holding center while the academy investigated the incident; on the other hand, the sixth cadet was discharged from the academy due to an "Honor Code" violation.[36][37]

Admission requirements[edit]

  • Natural born Filipino citizen
  • Physically fit and of good moral character
  • Single and has never been married
  • Must pass the PMA Entrance Examination
  • No Administrative / Criminal Case
  • At least High School Graduate with 85% GPA or must graduate not later than June of the year following the date of examination taken for Grade 12 students (K-12)
  • Height Requirement for both Male and Female is 5 feet (not to exceed 6’4″ for both)
  • At least 17 years old but not a day older than a 22 years on June 1 of the year following the date of examination taken

Notable alumni[edit]


The following list are incomplete:

Name Term Notes and Ref.
Capt. Manuel T. Sityar 1898 (1898 Revolutionary Army School)
Capt. Arthur S. Guthrie 15 Apr 1905 – 14 Nov 1905 Philippine Constabulary Officer's School
Maj. Thomas I. Mair 15 Nov 1905 – 4 Mar 1907
Capt. John B. Bennet 5 Mar 1907 – 30 Jun 1907
Capt. Charles J. Kindler 1 Jul 1907 – 30 Aug 1907
Lt. Col. Thomas I Mair 31 Aug 1907 – 23 Dec 1907
Capt. James F. Quinn 5 Jan 1908 – 11 Sep 1908
Capt. John B Bennet 12 Sep – 11 Dec 1908
Capt. James F. Quinn 12 Dec 1908 – 14 May 1910
Lt. Col. John R. White 15 May 1910 – 21 Aug 1910
Lt. Col. Edward N. Griffith 15 May 1910 – 21 Aug 1910
Capt. Charles K. Kilbourne 1 Oct 1910 – 1 Jan 1911
1Lt. Joseph B. Pate 11 Mar 1911 – 2 May 1911
2Lt. Frank M. Sowers 3 May 1911 – 17 Aug 1911
Maj. James F. Quinn 18 Aug 1911 – 17 Feb 1913
Lt. Col. James C. Rhea 30 May 1913 – 14 Dec 1913
1Lt. Floyd O. Tobey 22 Dec 1913 – 29 Apr 1914
Col. John R. White 30 May 1914 – 22 Sep 1914
Capt. Jean A. Jeancon 22 Sep 1914 – 17 Nov 1914
Maj. George S. Holmes 18 Nov 1914 – 3 Sep 1917
Maj. Harry G. Upham 4 Sep 1917 – 10 Mar 1918
Capt. Antonio Costosa 5 Mar 1918 – 9 Mar 1919
Maj. Clarence H. Bowers 10 Mar 1919 – 15 Aug 1921
Capt. Jose N. Evangelista 16 Aug 1921 – 22 Jan 1922
Col. Ralph W. Jones 23 Jan 1922 – 25 Dec 1923
Maj. Jose N. Evangelista 26 Dec 1923 – 31 Mar 1924
Maj. Dorr H. Malone 28 Apr 1924 – 15 Sep 1924
Maj. Charles E. Livingston 16 Sep 1924 – 30 Jun 1927
Lt. Col. Luther R. Stevens 1 Jul 1927 – 31 Dec 1927
Lt. Col. Robert A. Duckworth Ford 1 Jan 1928 – 28 Dec 1932 Philippine Constabulary Academy
Col. Orville M. Johnson 29 Dec 1932 – 21 December 1935
21 December 1935 – 18 May 1936 start as Philippine Military Academy
Maj. Telesforo C. Martinez 1936
Capt. Calixto Duque 1936
Lt. Col. Pastor Martelino 1 Jun 1936 – 31 May 1940
Maj. Alejandro Garcia 1 Jun 1940 – 31 Aug 1940
Col. Rafael Garcia 1 Sep 1940 – 26 Aug 1941
Col. Fidel Segundo 27 Aug 1941 – 14 Dec 1941
Lt. Col. Ramon Enriquez 5 Nov 1946 – 28 Apr 1947
Lt. Col. Tirso G. Fajardo 28 Apr 1947 – 26 Mar 1951
Lt. Col. Patricio B. Borromeo 26 Mar 1951 – 31 May 1955
Col. Marcos G. Soliman 1 Jun 1955 – 3 Jun 1958
Col. Oscar Rialp 4 Jun 1958 – 2 Nov 1958
Capt. Alberto N. Navarete 3 Nov 1958 – 4 Nov 1958
BGen. Manuel T. Flores 10 Nov 1958 – 28 Feb 1962
Col. Eustacio D. Orobia 1 Mar 1962 – 31 Aug 1963
Col. Godofredo F. Mendoza 1 Sep 1963 – 1 Oct 1964
Col. Cesar B. Jimenez 11 Oct 1964 – 1 Nov 1964
Col. Felimon C. Reodica 4 Nov 1964 – 1 Jan 1965
Col. Amos M. Francia 2 Jan 1965 – 14 Jun 1966
Col. Reynaldo A. Mendoza 15 Jun 1966 – 14 Aug 1967
Col. Ernesto F. Santos 15 Aug 1967 – 4 Apr 1968
Col. Cesar M. Garcia 5 Apr 1968 – 31 Mar 1970
Col. Aurelio S. Ugalde 1 Apr 1970 – 8 Jan 1971
Capt. Gregorio P. Lim 9 Jan 1971 – 1 Jun 1972
Col. Ernesto S. Gidaya 10 Jun 1972 – 1 Jun 1976
Col. Florencio F. Magsino 2 Jun 1976 – 30 Apr 1978
BGen. Angel G. Kanapi 8 May 1978 – 28 May 1982
Col. Jose Ma. Carlos L. Zumel 29 May 1982 – 27 Feb 1986
Col. Maximino M. Bejar 28 Feb 1986 – 29 Feb 1986
Col. Rodolfo G. Biazon 1 Mar 1986 – 22 Jul 1987
Cmdre Rogelio A. Dayan 28 Jul 1987 – 20 Mar 1988
BGen. Andrew R. Francisco 28 Mar 1988 – 31 Jul 1989
BGen. Arturo T. Enrile 1 Aug 1989 – 4 Apr 1991
Cmdr. Virgilio Q. Marcelo 10 Apr 1991 – 31 Jul 1993
MGen. Rodolfo S. Estrellado 1 Aug 1993 – 15 Jun 1996
BGen. Victor A. Mayo 16 Jun 1996 – 21 Jul 1998
Cmdr. Juan A. de Leon, Jr. 22 Jul 1998 – 1998
BGen. Jaime de los Santos 1998 – 1999 [39]
MGen. Melchor Rosales 1999 – 2000 [40][41]
MGen. Manuel Carranza 2000 – 2001 [42][43]
MGen. Rufo "Rufus" de Veyra 2001 – 2002 [44][45]
MGen. Edilberto Adan 2002 – 2004 [46][45]
Lt. Gen. Cristolito Balaoing 2004 – 2006 [47]
Lt. Gen. Leopoldo Maligalig 28 Jan 2006 – 2008 [47]
VAdm. Leonardo Calderon 2008 – 14 March 2011 [48]
MGen. Nonato Peralta Jr. 14 March 2011 – 24 November 2012 [49]
Lt. Gen. Irineo Espino 24 Nov 2012 – 10 April 2023 [50]
VAdm. Edgar Abogado 10 April 2013 – 17 Feb 2014 [51]
Lt. Gen. Oscar P. Lopez 17 Feb 2014 – Feb 13, 2016 [52]
MGen. Donato San Juan III 12 Feb 2016 – 12 October 2018 [53]
Lt. Gen. Ronnie Evangelista 12 Oct 2018 – 1 Oct 2019 [54]
RAdm. Allan Cusi 1 October 2019 – 16 Nov 2020 [55]
Lt. Gen. Ferdinand Cartujano 16 November 2020 – 26 June 2022 [56]
BGen. Julius Tomines June 2022 – 13 Aug 2022 [57]
Lt. Gen. Rowen S. Tolentino 13 Aug 2022 – present [57]

Acting in italic


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "New PMA Superintendent installed". Manila Bulletin. August 13, 2022.
  2. ^ "Over 11,000 men, women apply for PMA exam - ZamboTimes". Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  3. ^ "Commonwealth Act No. 1". Government of the Philippines. December 21, 1935. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2023 – via Official Gazette.
  4. ^ "Philippine Military Academy".
  5. ^ "Armed Forces of the Philippines".
  6. ^ "The Manila Times Online - Trusted Since 1898". The Manila Times. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  7. ^ "History, Traditions and General Information". Philippine Military Academy. Archived from the original on May 20, 2021. Retrieved October 23, 2021. The Philippine Military Academy began on October 25, 1898 with the establishment of the Academia Militar in Malolos, Bulacan by virtue of a decree issued by the first president of the young Philippine Republic, General Emilio Aguinaldo.
  8. ^ Jose 1992, p. 12, "Aguinaldo decreed that a military academy be established in Malolos, but the time for schooling officers was not available."
  9. ^ Quitasol, Kimberlie (May 21, 2019). "PMA declared national historical landmark".
  10. ^ "PMA is still the best tourist spot to go in Baguio City - Review of Philippine Military Academy, Baguio, Philippines". Tripadvisor.
  11. ^ Dumlao, Artemio. "400 plebes to enter PMA".
  12. ^ "400 young Filipinos compose PMA Class of 2022".
  13. ^ "CCAFP" – via The Free Dictionary.
  14. ^ [1] (archived from the original on March 2, 2001)
  15. ^ "2020 Top 200 Universities, Colleges in the Philippines". February 2, 2020.
  16. ^ "ID No. 9105074148: Philippine Military Academy - Certipedia".
  17. ^ a b "Proclamation No. 35, s. 1998". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
  19. ^ Buffalo Enquirer. February 9, 1917. {{cite news}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ "Commonwealth Act No. 1, The National Defense Act". the Philippine Legislature. December 21, 1935 – via
  22. ^ Jose 1992, p. 36.
  23. ^ a b McCoy, Alfred W. (1999). Closer Than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. Yale University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780300077650. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  24. ^ Mydans, Seth (March 18, 1987). "BOMB KILLS 4 IN THE PHILIPPINES". New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
  25. ^ "About the Academy". Official website of the Philippine Military Academy. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010.
  26. ^ "Philippine Military Academy 115th Anniversary". Tempo. Archived from the original on October 26, 2013.
  27. ^ "Today in Philippine History, October 25, 1898, the Academia Militar was established in Malolos, Bulacan by General Emilio Aguinaldo". .com. October 23, 2012.
  28. ^ "About Us". Philippine Military Academy. Retrieved June 21, 2023.
  29. ^ "Blessing and Inauguration of Air Power Park". Philippine Military Academy Alumni Association Inc. Retrieved June 21, 2023.
  30. ^ [2] (archived from the original March 13, 2019)
  31. ^ Guieb, Marilou (May 27, 2019). "PMA training now focuses on national security management | Marilou Guieb". BusinessMirror.
  32. ^ [3] (archived from [ the original Fe4bruary 1, 2019)
  33. ^ Cimatu, Frank. "7 things you need to know about PMA valedictorians, barons". Rappler.
  34. ^ "PMA mistah Part2" – via
  35. ^ "Did PMA cadet Cudia lie? Document shows details". Rappler. February 25, 2014.
  36. ^ a b "Saksi: 5 kadete na sangkot sa na-videohang pananakit ng ilang plebo ng PMA, under strict confinement". GMA News on YouTube.
  37. ^ a b "WATCH: Hazing inside the PMA barracks". Rappler. Retrieved October 24, 2019.
  38. ^ "1 PMA cadet discharged, 5 others detained over newly-surfaced hazing video". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on October 24, 2019. Retrieved October 24, 2019.
  39. ^ Cabreza, Vicente (February 12, 2021). "Duterte generals in Cabinet are awardees in 2021 PMA alumni homecoming".
  40. ^ "Mystery shrouds death of PMA cadet in Cavite". The Philippine Star.
  41. ^ "PMA alumni to honor Lacson with 'Lifetime Achievement Award'". Philippine News Agency.
  42. ^ "Dahil sa pagkamatay ng PMA cadet, Carranza di magbibitiw". The Philippine Star.
  43. ^ "Another PMA cadet dies of hazing". The Philippine Star.
  44. ^ Dumlao, Artemio. "PMA topnotcher, 'goat' set goals". Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  45. ^ a b Dumlao, Artemio. "Former AFP spokesman named PMA superintendent". Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  46. ^ "PMA topnotcher a woman - again". March 9, 2003. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  47. ^ a b "RAM leader's brod named PMA superintendent". Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  48. ^ "Calderon's brother named PMA head". December 19, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  49. ^ "Northern Philippine Times: Oban installs Peralta as new PMA chief". Northern Philippine Times. March 14, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  50. ^ Dumlao, Artemio. "PMA has new superintendent". Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  51. ^ Analyst, Retired (April 10, 2013). "Key Philippine Military and Insurgency-Related Events: PMA welcomes new superintendent". Key Philippine Military and Insurgency-Related Events. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  52. ^ Sunnexdesk (February 17, 2014). "New Academy chief installed". SunStar Publishing Inc. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  53. ^ "New PMA chief assumes post". February 13, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  54. ^ Damian, Valerie (October 12, 2018). "PMA gets new superintendent". Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  55. ^ Gotinga, J. C. (September 26, 2019). "AFP appoints new PMA superintendent, commandant of cadets". RAPPLER. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  56. ^ Reyes, Victor (November 16, 2020). "Air Force general is new PMA head". Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  57. ^ a b "New PMA Superintendent installed". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved January 1, 2024.
  • Senate Diaries, 4th Philippine Legislature, Volume 1, page 32, October 23, 1916 (original in Spanish)

Original copy located in Adams Building, US Library of Congress

External links[edit]