Philippine National Police
|Philippine National Police
Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas
Insignia of the Philippine National Police
|Motto||"To Serve and to Protect"|
|Formed||January 1, 1902 (as Philippine Constabulary and Integrated National Police), January 29, 1991 (merged into PNP)|
|Legal personality||Governmental: Government agency|
|Headquarters||Camp Crame, Quezon City|
|Agency executive||Dir. Gen. Ronald dela Rosa,
Police Director General - Chief PNP
|Parent agency||Department of Interior and Local Government via National Police Commission|
The Philippine National Police (Filipino: Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas and abbreviated as PNP) is the armed, civilian national police force of the Philippines. Its national headquarters is at Camp Crame in Quezon City, Metro Manila, and it has 160,000 personnel.
It is administered and controlled by the National Police Commission and is part of the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). Local Police officers are operationally controlled by municipal mayors (except during the 30 days immediately preceding and following any national, local and barangay elections. During these periods, the local police forces are under the supervision and control of the Commission on Elections). DILG, on the other hand, organizes, trains and equips the PNP for the performance of police functions as a police force that is national in scope and civilian in character.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Officers
- 4 Controversies
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The common history of the police forces of the Philippines can be traced back to the reigns of the pre-Hispanic lakans, datus and sultans in the islands, where soldiers who served in the communities where the people lived (and which reported directly to local leaders) also enforced local laws. All changed with the arrival of the Spanish rule and the introduction of Western law to the archipelago. Until 1868, personnel of the Spanish army and local militias were also tasked with policing duties in local communities, together with the Island Carabiniers (raised 1768 and the colony's first ever police service). In that year, the local branch of the Civil Guard was officially established by order of then Governor-General Carlos María de la Torre y Nava Cerrada. Starting from a single division, during the Revolutionary period it grew into a corps of military police with detachments in Luzon and the Visayas, and was notorious for its abuses against Filipinos. (These abuses were mentioned in José Rizal's two novels, Noli Me Tángere and El filibusterismo, both writing about several cases of Civil Guardsmen abusing the local populace.)
With the beginning of American rule and the Philippine–American War, the Philippine Constabulary (PC) was raised in 1901 as a national gendarmerie force for law enforcement, directly reporting to the American government. At the same time, what is now the Manila Police District came into existence as the Philippines' first city police force. Later police forces began to model the US departments.
The PC was later integrated into the ranks of the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the late 1930s - first as a command of the Army, and later on its own after the State Police folded. (The PC's personnel would later be fighting on both sides in the Second World War.)
Passed on December 13, 1990, Republic Act No. 6975, the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990, ordered the merger of both the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police and formally created the Philippine National Police. R.A. 6975 was further amended by R.A. 8551, the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998, and by R.A. 9708. The R.A. 8551 envisioned the PNP to be a community- and service-oriented agency.
List of Chiefs of the Philippine National Police
The "Director General" is head of the Philippine National Police and the position is invariably held by a four-star general.
|1||Cesar P. Nazareno||March 31, 1991 – August 28, 1992|
|2||Raul S. Imperial||August 28, 1992 – May 6, 1993|
|3||Umberto A. Rodriguez||May 6, 1993 – July 8, 1994|
|4||Recaredo A. Sarmiento II||July 8, 1994 – December 15, 1997|
|5||Santiago L. Alino||December 15, 1997 – July 1998|
|6||Roberto T. Lastimoso||July 1998–1999|
|7||Edmundo L. Larroza||1999 – November 16, 1999|
|8||Panfilo M. Lacson||November 16, 1999 – January 2001|
|9||Leandro Mendoza||March 16, 2001** - July 2002|
|10||Hemogenes E. Ebdane Jr.||July 2002 – August 23, 2004|
|11||Edgar B. Aglipay||August 23, 2004 – March 14, 2005|
|12||Arturo Lomibao||March 14, 2005 – August 29, 2006|
|13||Oscar C. Calderon||August 29, 2006 – October 1, 2007|
|14||Avelino I. Razon Jr.||October 1, 2007 – September 27, 2008|
|15||Jesus A. Verzosa||September 27, 2008 – September 14, 2010|
|16||Raul Bacalzo||September 14, 2010 – September 9, 2011|
|17||Nicanor Bartolome||September 9, 2011 – December 17, 2012|
|18||Alan Purisima||December 17, 2012 – February 5, 2015|
|19||Leonardo Espina (OIC)||February 5, 2015 – July 16, 2015|
|20||Ricardo C. Marquez||June 16, 2015 – June 30, 2016|
|21||Ronald Dela Rosa||July 1, 2016 – present|
Within the PNP operational units there are:
This group provides security to all airports throughout the country.
This group is a mobile strike force or a reaction unit to augment regional , provincial, municipal and city police force for civil disturbance control, internal security operations, hostage-taking rescue operations, search and rescue in times of natural calamities, disasters and national emergencies and other special police operations such as ant-hijacking, anti-terrorism, explosives and ordnance disposal. On a special note, the PNP Air Unit is placed under the supervision of SAF.
This group monitors, investigates, prosecutes all crimes involving economic sabotage, and other crimes of such magnitude and extent as to indicate their commission by highly placed or professional criminal syndicates and organizations. It also conducts organized- crime –control, all major cases involving violations of the revised penal Code, violators of SPECIAL LAWS assigned to them such as Anti-hijacking, Anti-Carnapping and Cyber crimes among others and atrocities committed by Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP)/New People’s Army (NPA)/National Democratic Front (NDF).
- Maritime Group (MG)
This group is responsible to perform all police functions over Philippine Territorial waters, lakes, and rivers along coastal areas to include ports and harbors and small islands for the security and the sustainability development of the maritime environment.
- Intelligence Group (IG)
This group serves as the intelligence and counter-intelligence operating unit of the PNP.
- Crime Laboratory (CL) / Scene of the Crime Operatives (SOCO)
This group provides scientific and technical, investigative aide and support to the PNP and other investigative agencies. It also provides crime laboratory examination, evaluation and identification of physical evidence gathered at the crime scene with primary emphasis on medical, biological and physical nature.
- Police Security and Protection Group (PSPG)
This group provides security to government vital installations, government officials, visiting dignitaries and private individuals authorized to be given protection.
- PNP Anti-Cybercrime Group (PNP-ACG)
This Group is responsible for the implementation of pertinent laws on cybercrimes and anti-cybercrime campaigns of the PNP.
- Police-Community Relations Group (PCRG)
This group undertakes and orchestrates Police Community Relations program and activities in partnership with concerned government agencies, the community, and volunteer organizations in order to prevent crime and attain a safe and peaceful environment.
- Highway Patrol Group (HPG)
This group enforces the traffic laws and regulations, promote safety along the highways, enhances traffic safety consciousness through inter- agency cooperation concerning Police Traffic Safety Engineering, Traffic Safety Education and Traffic Law enforcement functions and develops reforms in the crime prevention aspect against all forms of lawlessness committed along National Highway involving the use of motor vehicles.
- Civil Security Group (CSG)
This group regulates business operations and activities of all organized private detectives, watchmen, security guards/agencies and company guard forces. It also supervises the licensing and registration of firearms and explosives.
- PNP Anti-Kidnapping Group (PNP-AKG)
This Group serves as the primary unit of the PNP in addressing kidnapping menace in the country and in handling hostage situations.
Internal Affairs Service
The PNP created a national Internal Affairs Service (IAS) on June 1, 1999. It is an organization within the structure of the PNP and one of its tasks is to help the Chief institute reforms to improve the image of the police force through assessment, analysis and evaluation of the character and behavior of the PNP personnel. It is headed by the Inspector General.
Philippine National Police Academy
The Philippine National Police Academy is located at Camp Gen. Mariano N. Castaneda, Silang, Cavite and is the premier training academy for the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Jail Management & Penology and Bureau of Fire Protection.
National Operations Center (NOC)
The National Operations Center (NOC) is at Camp Crame. Chief Superintendent Constante Azares Jr., chief of the PNP-NOC, explained that "the NOC is the hub and nerve of this facility."
Police Regional / Provincial / Component City and Municipal Offices
Regional Police Offices manage and administer Police Stations within the various regions of the Philippines, each of which include several province and independent cities. Each unit exercises independent control over all police units within their areas of operation and attached units of the PNP National Headquarters ordered to assist these Regional Offices. The National Capital Region Police Office is one such regional office.
PNP Provincial Offices Website
City and Municipal Offices
PNP City and Municipal Offices Website
Recruitment and training
The PNP conducts regular recruitment programs, depending on the annual budget. The entry level for non-commissioned officers is the rank of Police Officer 1 or PO1. The new recruits will undergo Public Safety Basic Recruit Course for six months, and a Field Training Program for another six months. Prior for their actual duty, they are required to undergo the mandatory special training of PNP SCOUT or PNP Special Counter-insurgency Unit Training course for 45 days to 5 months to enhance them in militaristic/tactics for future assignment in the field whether in the Striking Force or in the Police Station.
Commissioned officers for the Philippine National Police are from the Philippine National Police Academy as well as through "lateral entry" for specialized disciplines and requirements such as criminologists in line-officers, lawyers, doctors, engineers,chaplain and other technical positions and also the rose-from-the-rank personnel who have reached the qualifications to be a commissioned officer.
Manila blackmail incident
A blackmail case occurred in Binondo, Manila when police officers abducted and blackmailed seven Chinese citizens suspected of drug trafficking on December 30, 1998. After many months of detainment and torture, two Hong Kong residents were killed when the ransom money was not paid. One police superintendent who knew of the operation was also killed.
Euro Generals scandal
The Euro Generals scandal involves Eliseo de la Paz and several Philippine National Police officials who went to Russia on October 2008 to attend an Interpol conference. De la Paz was detained for carrying a large sum of undeclared money. A House panel investigating the scandal concluded that the six police officials who attended the conference had made the trip illegally. In 2010, the Office of the Ombudsman filed graft charges against twelve former and active ranking PNP officials for their alleged involvement in the incident.
On December 5, 2008, ten suspected criminals, one policeman, and five civilians, a total of sixteen people, including a seven-year-old girl, were killed in a bloody shootout in Parañaque. Several others were wounded, including a ranking officer of the Highway Patrol Group, two members of the Special Action Force, a village watchman, and a security guard, said Director Leopoldo Bataoil, head of the Metro Manila regional police. The head of the Internal Affairs Service of the PNP said, "We failed in our mission to protect the civilians. Because during the conduct of operation many civilian lives were lost," On July 29, 2009, it was reported that the Department of Justice (DOJ) had filed multiple murder charges against 29 policemen, including three generals, in connection with the shootout following the filing of a complaint-affidavit by Lilian de Vera, who lost her husband and daughter, age seven, in the incident. On January 11, 2010, the Commission on Human Rights recommended the filing of criminal and administrative charges against 26 policemen In March, it was reported that after two witnesses had said De Vera and his daughter were not killed in the shootout, that policemen already had complete control of the area where the two were killed, the Department of Justice filed two counts of murder charges against 25 policemen for the killings.
Binayug torture case
Inspector Joselito Binayug, chief of the Asuncion police community precinct in Tondo arrested Darius Evangelista on March 5, 2009 for alleged robbery. A torture video was leaked to the media and shown on television showing a police officer whipping and cursing the suspect and pulling on a rope that was tied to the victim’s genitals. The incident allegedly happened inside the Asuncion police precinct in Tondo. Binayug was arrested for violating the Anti-Torture act of 2009. Separate charges were filed for Evangelista being tortured to death.
On November 24, 2009, Senior Superintendent Abusana Maguid, the police chief of Maguindanao province, was reported to have been relieved of his duties after witnesses reported seeing three of his officers at the scene of the Maguindanao massacre in which 57 people, including journalists, lawyers, aides, and motorists who were witnesses were killed. On November 25 Maguid and Chief Inspector Sukarno Dikay were reported to have been relieved from post and placed under restrictive custody. On November 26, Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) Secretary Ronaldo Puno announced that Maguid, Dikay, and others were suspected of involvement in the massacre. On December 19, Maguid, Dikay, and others were reported to have been recommended for summary dismissal by the PNP high command. On April 16, 2010, the National Police Commission ordered a 90-day suspension against Maguid, Dikay, and 60 other police personnel for their possible involvement in the killings. On July 10, it was reported that Dikay had applied to become state witness, saying that he is confident that his testimony will pin down the masterminds of the killing.
Failed hostage rescue operation
The Philippine National Police conceded that in the 2010 Manila hostage crisis they made blunders in ending a bus hijacking, as outrage grew over the bloody assault played out on live television that left eight Hong Kong tourists dead. The Hong Kong Economic Journal was reported to have accused the PNP of having "appalling professional standards" and "...[a] lack of strategic planning".
"Wheel of Torture" secret detention facility
The Philippine Commission on Human Rights filed charges against ten police officers after it was discovered that they routinely tortured detainees inside a secret detention facility in Biñan, Laguna. The facility was maintained by the PNP Provincial Intelligence Branch (PIB) to extract confessions or information from detainees, or to extort money from them in exchange for being charged with lighter offenses or the dropping of the charges altogether. It was also alleged that some "were tortured for the police officers’ amusement" when they're intoxicated. The facility is notorious for utilizing a roulette called the "Wheel of Torture", a play on the Wheel of Fortune, where various torture methods were printed. The wheel is rotated and wherever the pin stops, the indicated torture method is perpetrated on the detainee.
The torture methods included, a 20-second Manny Pacman punch, named after the famous boxer Manny Pacquiao, where the detainee is beaten for 20 seconds; "Paniki" which means being hung like a bat; "Tusok ulo ka" which means being pierced through the head; "Zombies" which means being electrocuted; and other degrading tasks like "duck walk" and "Ferris wheel".
On January 25, 2015, 44 members of the Special Action Force were killed after they killed the Jemaah Islamiyah terrorist Zulkifli Abdhir aka Marwan, allegedly by Moro Islamic Liberation Front and Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters.
- Philippine Constabulary
- Philippine National Police Academy
- Women in the Philippine National Police
- Women in the Philippine military
- Crime in the Philippines
- About the Philippine National police
- About the Philippine National Police
- ABS-CBNnews.com, PNP unveils state-of-the-art operations center
- Newsinfo.inquirer.net. "Newsinfo.inquirer.net." Acting MPD chief facing raps over abduction of HK residents. Retrieved on 2010-08-28.
- HKdailynews.com.hk. "HKdailynews.com.hk." 新任警察總長一天下台 涉綁架謀殺3港人. Retrieved on 2010-08-28.
- Jess Diaz, Moscow trip illegal - PNP, The Philippine Star, November 21, 2008.
- Kristine L. Alave, Alcuin Papa, Ombudsman says ‘euro generals’ lied, Philippine Daily Inquirer, August 13, 2010.
- Michael Punongbayan, 'Euro generals' charged with graft, The Philippine Star, August 13, 2010.
- Parañaque shootout a failed operation – police internal affairs head, GMA News, December 10, 2008.
- Multiple murder raps filed vs cops in Paranaque shootout, datelinephilippines.com, July 29, 2009.
- CHR wants cops in Parañaque shootout charged, ABS-CBN News, January 12, 2010.
- DOJ files murder raps vs 25 cops in Parañaque shootout, ABS-CBN News, March 11, 2020.
- Philstar.com, Tondo precinct cops face torture raps
- Philstar.com, Torture victim identified
- Philippine Local Police Chief Detained After Massacre, Bloomberg.com, November 24, 2009.
- Paolo Romero, State of emergency in Maguindanao, The Philippine Star, November 25, 2009.
- Maguindanao massacre suspect turns self in, ABS-CBN News, November 26, 2009.
- 7 policemen face dismissal over 'neglect' in Maguindanao massacre, GMA News, December 19, 2009.
- 5 Ampatuans moved to Manila jail, Sun-Star, April 17, 2010.
- Aie Balagtas, Andal Jr., 16 others plead not guilty, The Philippine Star, July 29, 2010.
- Channel NewsAsia - Philippine police admit blunders in deadly hostage ordeal
- "Police Torture Chamber Found in Laguna". Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- "Philippine police accused of using "wheel of torture"". NYPost. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- "Filipino cops accused of "Wheel of Torture"". NewsBeat Social. Retrieved 2014-01-30.