Philippine Normal University

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Philippine Normal University
Pamantasang Normal ng Pilipinas
PNU Official Seal.png
Former names
  • Philippine Normal School (1901–1949)
  • Philippine Normal College (1949–1991)
MottoTruth. Excellence. Service.
TypeState university
Research university
EstablishedJanuary 21, 1901[1][2][3]
(120 years and 239 days)
AccreditationAACCUP
Academic affiliations
Budget₱843.98 million (US$ 17.62 million) (2021)[4]
ChairmanPerfecto A. Alibin
PresidentBert J. Tuga[5]
Vice-president
  • Jennie Jocson
    (Academics)
  • Harry Huliganga
    (Finance & Administration)
  • Ronald Allan Mabunga
    (Research, Planning, & Quality Assurance)
  • Lordinio Vergara
    (University Relations & Advancement)
Academic staff
339 (All Campuses, 2019)[6]
Administrative staff
345 (All Campuses, 2019)[6]
Location,
Philippines (Main Campus)

14°35′16″N 120°58′59″E / 14.5877°N 120.9831°E / 14.5877; 120.9831Coordinates: 14°35′16″N 120°58′59″E / 14.5877°N 120.9831°E / 14.5877; 120.9831
CampusMultiple sites
HymnO, Alma Mater Ko
Colors Royal Blue  and  Gold 
Sporting affiliations
SCUAA-NCR
Websitewww.pnu.edu.ph

The Philippine Normal University (PNU; Filipino: Pamantasang Normal ng Pilipinas[7]) is a public coeducational teacher education and research university in the Philippines. It was established in 1901 through Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission "for the education of natives of the Islands in the science of teaching".[8] It has campuses in Manila, North Luzon, South Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Pursuant to Republic Act No. 9647, it is the country's National Center for Teacher Education.[9]

In addition to the powers and functions provided for in its charter, the university is mandated to conduct researches, build and develop a database of education policies, and provide technical support to the Department of Education and the Commission on Higher Education, as well as assistance to the Congress of the Philippines, in the design and analysis of programs, projects, and legislative proposals concerning teacher training, teacher education, continuing professional education of teachers and academic supervisors, teacher education curricula, and other issues affecting teacher education.[9]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Historical marker installed in 1952

The Philippine Normal University was originally established as the Philippine Normal School (PNS), an institution for the training of teachers, by virtue of Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission enacted on January 21, 1901. It opened on September 1, 1901 on the site of a former Spanish normal school in the Escuela Municipal in Intramuros.[10]

Provincial normal schools were also established in different parts of the country as branches of the PNS such as the Cebu Normal School (1902),[11] Iloilo Normal School (1902; present-day West Visayas State University and Iloilo National High School),[12][13] Zamboanga Normal School (1904),[14] and an experimental vacation school in Laoag, Ilocos Norte (1917) that became the North Luzon State College in 1976 (which was merged with the Mariano Marcos Memorial College of Science and Technology to form the Mariano Marcos State University in 1978).[15]

For more than two decades, PNS offered a two-year general secondary education program. In 1928 it became a junior college offering a two-year program to graduates of secondary schools.

In 1944, during World War II, the PNS building (now Geronima T. Pecson Hall) housed the National Library of the Philippines after the Legislative Building (now the National Museum of Fine Arts) was occupied by Japanese soldiers. However, after two weeks, the PNS building was also occupied and some of the collections were moved to the Manila City Hall.[16] The war-damaged school buildings were reconstructed under the Philippine Rehabilitation Act of 1946.

Conversion into college[edit]

The Geronima T. Pecson Hall, main building of the Philippine Normal University Manila.

When PNS was converted into the Philippine Normal College (PNC) in 1949 through Republic Act No. 416 (also known as the PNC Charter), the four-year Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education (BSEE) program was introduced. Subsequently, other undergraduate programs started, such as the Bachelor of Science in Education (BSE) with specialization in Elementary Education; a BSEE major in Home Economics; and a three-year Combined Home Economics diploma.

In 1953, the Graduate School was established. PNC included the Master of Arts (MA) in Education curriculum in the academic program. The organization of a full-fledged Graduate School came five years later.[17]

PNC established branches in Negros Occidental, Agusan del Sur, and Isabela by virtue of Republic Act No. 4242 of 1965.[18] The law also called for the establishment of branches in the Jolo-Tawi-Tawi area and Marinduque but it was not realized.

In 1970 the Bachelor of Science in Education curriculum, offering major and minor subjects, was introduced. The passage of Republic Act No. 6515 in July 1972, which amended Republic Act No. 416, paved the way for the offering of the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) and the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees and the provision of other academic programs relevant to the in-service training of teachers, school supervisors, administrators, researchers, and other education specialists and personnel.[17]

Aside from the creation of campuses, the college expanded its services, most significant of which was its designation as the Curriculum Development Center for Communication Arts (English and Filipino) under the Language Study Center-Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force (LSC-EDPITAF) Project and afterward as Center of Excellence (CENTREX) in English, Filipino and Values Education. Its major functions included the development of English and Filipino textbooks and teacher manuals for use in public elementary and secondary schools nationwide, and the conduct of national level trainers-training programs for the Bureau of Secondary Education, Department of Education, Culture and Sports, and the Fund for Assistance to Private Education.[17]

University status[edit]

The welcome marker of the Philippine Normal University in Manila.

The school was elevated to university status on December 26, 1991 by Republic Act No. 7168.[19]

A fourth campus was constructed in Quezon province in 1993. The university was designated as Center of Excellence in Teacher Education (COE) for the National Capital Region and Center of Excellence in Filipino at the national level.

On September 1, 2001, the university celebrated its centennial founding anniversary.[17]

In 2008, it was declared as the country's National Center for Teacher Education by virtue of Republic Act No. 9647.[17]

In 2011, PNU convened a group of state universities that were founded as normal schools during the American period – Bicol University, Bukidnon State University, Cebu Normal University, Leyte Normal University, Mariano Marcos State University, Palawan State University, Pangasinan State University, West Visayas State University, and Western Mindanao State University – to establish the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS). The group aims to promote collaboration and cooperation in research, professional development, extension, and a local student Erasmus Mundus program. [20][21]

In 2014, PNU, together with other teacher education institutions in Southeast Asia, established the Association of Southeast Asian Teacher Education Network (AsTEN) which became an entity associated with ASEAN on March 29, 2021. The current members of the organization include Seri Begawan Religious Teachers University College, the National Institute of Education (Cambodia), Indonesia University of Education, National University of Laos, Sultan Idris Education University, Yangon University of Education, the National Institute of Education of the Nanyang Technological University, Kasetsart University, and the University of Social Sciences and Humanities (Vietnam).[22]

Campuses[edit]

Philippine Normal University is located in Philippines
Manila
Manila
North Luzon
North Luzon
South Luzon
South Luzon
Visayas
Visayas
Mindanao
Mindanao
Location of the five campuses

The university has five campuses. The flagship and oldest campus is in Manila while the four non-autonomous branches are in different parts of the country.

Republic Act No. 4242, approved on June 19, 1965, established the North Luzon (Isabela), Visayas (Cadiz City), and Mindanao (Agusan) branches.[18] The South Luzon (Lopez) branch started through a consortium with the Polytechnic University of the Philippines in 1980.

In 2012, the regional branches were designated as university hubs for specific advocacies in response to regional demands and were later renamed in 2014.[23][24][25]

As of May 2018, three campuses are recognized by the Commission on Higher Education as Centers of Excellence in Teacher Education.[26]

Campus Location Opened Designation
Manila Manila 1901 Main Campus
Center of Excellence in Teacher Education[26]
North Luzon Alicia, Isabela 1971 Indigenous Peoples Education Hub
Center of Excellence in Teacher Education[26]
South Luzon Lopez, Quezon 1980 Technology and Livelihood Education Hub
Visayas Cadiz City, Negros Occidental 1968 Environment and Green Technology Education Hub
Mindanao Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur 1968 Multicultural Education Hub
Center of Excellence in Teacher Education[26]

PNU Manila[edit]

Normal Hall, the main student dormitory of PNU Manila built in 1914.

PNS first occupied the building of the Escuela Municipal in Intramuros then moved to the old Exposition Grounds in Ermita, now occupied by the Philippine General Hospital, after a year. In 1912, it transferred to its present location at the corner of Taft Avenue and Ayala Boulevard. Its two oldest buildings were designed by American architect William E. Parsons using the California Mission style. The construction was then budgeted at ₱374,000.[27][28]

The campus occupies a 3.7-hectare lot in Ermita, the civic center of Manila. Within its vicinity are the Manila City Hall, SM City Manila, the main campus of the Technological University of the Philippines, Rizal Park, the National Museum of Anthropology, and the National Museum of Fine Arts.

PNU North Luzon[edit]

PNU North Luzon (formerly known as PNU Alicia or PNU Isabela) is the third regional branch of the university established by Republic Act No. 4242, principally authored by then-Isabela Lone District Representative Delfin Albano.

The branch was housed at the Home Economics Building of Alicia Central School when it opened on July 26, 1971. After a year, it moved to its present 5-hectare site in Brgy. Aurora donated by Rev. Cornelio Tomas of the United Church of Christ in the Philippines and by the Abuan family.[23]

PNU South Luzon[edit]

The campus started through a consortium program in Teacher Education with a then-emerging campus of PUP (now Polytechnic University of the Philippines Lopez). When the consortium agreement expired in 1993, a memorandum of agreement was signed by PNC, the provincial government of Quezon, the municipal government of Lopez, and the then Department of Education, Culture and Sports (now the Department of Education), to continue the operation of the PNU Teacher Education Program. [29]

The branch stayed in the compound of the Lopez National Comprehensive High School from 1993 to 1999 before moving to its present site donated by the provincial and municipal governments.

PNU Visayas[edit]

PNU Visayas (formerly known as PNC Cadiz City) opened on July 22, 1968, through the effort of Negros Occidental First District Representative Armando C. Gustilo and Cadiz City Mayor Heracleo Villacin.

From Bachelor of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Secondary Education, its program offerings expanded to include master's degrees and, more recently, doctorate. For a few years, it also offered engineering courses in consortium with Technological University of the Philippines – Visayas.[30]

PNU Mindanao[edit]

The Mindanao branch opened on August 12, 1968 as the second regional branch of PNC.[18] It sits on a 15.4-hectare donated lot along the Gibong River in Prosperidad, Agusan (now part of Agusan del Sur after the division of the province) secured by then-Agusan Lone District Representative Jose C. Aquino.[31]

It provides leadership in cultural activities for the preservation of folk arts: the music, dance, and rituals of the Manobos and Higaonons of the province. [32]

Academics[edit]

The Edilberto P. Dagot Hall houses the university library .
The Faculty Center (formerly College of Education Building)

PNU offers programs in elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels. However, the majority of the undergraduate and graduate programs are offered only on the Manila campus. The undergraduate programs follow an outcomes-based teacher education curriculum that puts emphasis on content specialization.[33]

In 2014, PNU was identified by a study of the Philippine Business for Education as one of the top-performing schools in the licensure examination for teachers in both elementary and secondary levels. The five-year study analyzed the passing rates of 1,025 institutions that offer an elementary education program and 1,259 institutions that offer a secondary education program. [34]

Under Republic Act No. 10931 or the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act, PNU students are exempted from tuition and other school fees.[35]

Colleges and Institutes[edit]

College of Flexible Learning and e-PNU (CFLeX)[edit]

The College of Flexible Learning and e-PNU functions as a degree and non-degree college that manages the university's online undergraduate and graduate degree programs, and continuing education programs.

College of Graduate Studies and Teacher Education Research (CGSTER)[edit]

The College of Graduate Studies and Teacher Education Research of the Philippine Normal University is the largest graduate school of education in the country with 12 doctorate programs and 62 masters programs in fields of specialization. It has only one faculty, the Graduate Teacher Education Faculty. CGSTER is in the Pedro Orata Hall of the university.

College of Teacher Development (CTD)[edit]

The College of Teacher Development is the undergraduate school of the university that offers bachelor's degree in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education with fields of specialization. The College Dean is assisted by four associate deans of faculties — Arts and Languages (FAL) that houses the fields of English, Filipino, Literature, Music and Arts, and Speech and Theater Arts; Behavioral and Social Sciences (FBeSS) that houses the fields of History, Psychology, Social Sciences, and Values Education; Education Sciences (FES) that houses the fields of Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education and Nutrition and Dietetics; and Science, Technology and Mathematics (FSTeM) that houses the fields of Biology, Chemistry, General Science, Mathematics, and Physics.

Institute of Knowledge Management (IKM)[edit]

The Institute of Knowledge Management is concerned with the entire process of discovery and creation, dissemination, and use of knowledge. IKM has one degree granting unit: the School of Information and Knowledge Management that manages and supervises academic programs such as Library and Information Science (LIS) and Information Technology Education (ITEd).

Institute of Physical Education, Health, Recreation, Dance and Sports (IPEHRDS)[edit]

The Institute of Physical Education, Health, Recreation, Dance and Sports offers the bachelor's degree in Physical Education and Health, and spearheads the athletic, recreation, and dance events in the university.

Institute of Teaching and Learning (ITL)[edit]

The Institute of Teaching and Learning is the basic education unit of the university. It houses the kindergarten, grade school and junior high school students and serves as the training ground for the Field Studies of the Pre-Service Teachers of the university.

Organization and administration[edit]

Superintendents of the
Philippine Normal School
Name Tenure of office

Elmer B. Bryan 1901-1903
George Beattie 1903-1909
Andrew W. Cain 1911-1913
Harvey Albert Bordner 1915-1918
Charles W. Franks 1918-1920
Homer L. Nearpass 1920-1922
Scott McCormick 1922-1924
Roy K. Gilmore 1924-1929
Mary E. Polley 1929
Roy Gilmore 1929-1939
Manuel Escarilla 1939
Apolonio M. Ramos 1946-1947
Venancio Trinidad 1947
Antonio A. Maceda 1949-1950
Presidents of the
Philippine Normal College
Name Tenure of office

Macario Naval 1950-1958
Emiliano Ramirez 1958-1970
Gregorio Borlaza 1971–1972
Bonifacio P. Sibayan 1972-1981
Edilberto P. Dagot 1981-1990
Presidents of the
Philippine Normal University
Name Tenure of office

Gloria Salandanan 1991–1998
Lilia S. Garcia 1998–2002
Nilo L. Rosas 2002–2006
Lutgardo B. Barbo 2006-2010
Ester B. Ogena 2011–2018
Bert J. Tuga 2019-present

References [17][36]

Board of Regents[edit]

The highest decision-making body of the university is the Board of Regents. It is vested with general powers of administration and the exercise of title powers of the corporation.[37] As of September 2020, its members are:

Position Board Member Designation
Chairperson Perfecto A. Alibin Commissioner, Commission on Higher Education
Vice chairperson Bert J. Tuga President, Philippine Normal University
Member Emmanuel Joel Villanueva Chairperson, Senate Committee on Higher, Technical and Vocational Education
Member Marquez O. Go Chairperson, House Committee on Higher and Technical Education
Member Jose Miguel Dela Rosa Undersecretary for Corporate Affairs, National Economic and Development Authority
Member Feliece I. Yeban President, Federation of PNU Faculty Association
Member Alexis Sebote Chairperson, PNU National Union of Student Governments
Member Lutgardo Barbo President, PNU Alumni Association
Member Jose D. Lina Private Sector Representative
Member Juan Miguel Luz Private Sector Representative

The University and Board Secretary is Prof. Janir T. Datukan.

The members serve without compensation but they are reimbursed for necessary expenses incurred in their attendance of meetings of the Board or in connection with their official business authorities by resolution of the Board.[37]

Administration[edit]

The administration of the university is vested in the president, who is appointed to a four-year renewable term, by the Board of Regents upon the recommendation of a search committee.[37] As provided by law, the PNU President also sits as a member of the Literacy Coordinating Council.[38]The incumbent University President is Bert J. Tuga who was appointed on December 10, 2019.

The University President is assisted by four vice presidents - for academics; finance and administration; research, planning, and quality assurance; and university relations and advancement.

Each regional branch is headed by an executive director and provost appointed by the Board of Regents upon the recommendation of the University President.

Campus Head[36] Designation Faculty
(2019)[6]
Administrative Personnel
(2019)[6]
Total
Manila Bert J. Tuga University President 204 249 453
North Luzon Leticia N. Aquino Executive Director and Provost 38 26 64
South Luzon Roel V. Avila Executive Director and Provost 15 16 31
Visayas Denmark L. Yonson Executive Director and Provost 41 16 57
Mindanao Elvira V.Chua Executive Director and Provost 43 36 79

Budget and Finance[edit]

As a state university, funding for PNU primarily comes from the government subsidy allocated in the national budget or General Appropriations Act (GAA).

For 2021, the university has a budget of ₱843,984,000 detailed as follows: ₱596, 373, 000 for Personnel Services; ₱184,713,000 for Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses; and ₱62,534,000 for Capital Outlays.[4]

In 2019, PNU reported a total of ₱87,681,698.92 in revenues and ₱685,820,495.39 in expenses.[6]

In 2016, PNU budget was decreased by ₱132 million (19%) from its 2015 budget of ₱690 million due to a one-time congressional insertion in 2015 of ₱100M and its low utilization rate.[39]

Student publication[edit]

The Torch, the official symbol of the university and name of its official publication

Founded in 1912, The Torch (Filipino: Ang Sulo) is the official student publication of the university. It publishes periodicals and other printed materials funded, managed, and written by the students. The Torch publishes at least seven issues annually with the option of supplements, a special Filipino issue, called Ang Sulo, and a literary folio, called Aklas.

It also holds activities, contests, and events, such as the annual "Liyab", a citywide journalism training seminar for high school publications, the "LitSem" or Literary Seminar workshop, and the Gawad Genoveva Edroza-Matute.[40]

The publication is a member of the Progresibong Lupon ng mga Manunulat ng PNU (PLUMA-PNU) and the College Editors Guild of the Philippines (CEGP).[40]

Notable faculty and alumni[edit]

Education and Social Work[edit]

Politics and Government Service[edit]

Arts, Literature, and Media[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Philippine Normal College (Historical Marker). Manila: Philippine Historical Committee. 1952.
  2. ^ Philippine Normal University (Historical Marker). Manila: National Historical Institute. 2001.
  3. ^ Reyes, Wensley (2020). "Interrogating Tradition: A History Inquiry on the 'Foundation Day' of Philippine Normal School" (PDF). Manila Journal. Manila Studies Association. 16 (1): 35–53. ISSN 2094-5159. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "PNU 2021 Budget" (PDF). Department of Budget and Management. December 28, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  5. ^ "President's Message". Philippine Normal University. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e COA National Government Sector Cluster 5-Education and Employment (August 28, 2020). "Executive Summary of the Commission on Audit Annual Audit Report for PNU, 2019" (PDF). Commission on Audit. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  7. ^ "Direktoryo ng mga Ahensiya at Opisyal ng Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas" [Directory of Agencies and Officials of the Government of the Philippines] (PDF). Department of Budget and Management (in Filipino). 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  8. ^ Act No. 74 (January 21, 1901), An Act Establishing a Department of Public Instruction in the Philippine Islands and Appropriating Forty Thousand Dollars for the Organization and Maintenance of a Normal and a Trade School in Manila, and Fifteen Thousand Dollars for the Organization and Maintenance of an Agricultural School in the Island of Negros for the Year Nineteen Hundred and One, retrieved December 19, 2010
  9. ^ a b Republic Act No. 9647 (June 30, 2009), Philippine Normal University Modernization Act, retrieved December 19, 2010
  10. ^ Quodala, Schatzi (September 3, 2013). "'Did you know: Philippine Normal University'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  11. ^ Cebu Normal University. "History". Cebu Normal University. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  12. ^ West Visayas State University. "College of Education". West Visayas State University. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  13. ^ Iloilo National High School. "History". Iloilo National High School. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  14. ^ Western Mindanao State University. "History Timeline". Western Mindanao State University. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  15. ^ Laoag City Government. "Laoag City History in Pictures". Laoag City Government. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  16. ^ Morallos, Chando P. (1998). Treasures of the National Library: A Brief History of the Premier Library of the Philippines. Manila: Quiapo Printing. ISBN 971-556-018-0.
  17. ^ a b c d e f "History and Milestones: A Brief History of the Philippine Normal University". Philippine Normal University. Archived from the original on October 3, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
  18. ^ a b c Republic Act No. 4242 (June 19, 1965), An Act Providing for the Establishment of Regional Branches of the Philippine Normal College and Authorizing the Appropriation of Funds Therefor, retrieved December 19, 2010
  19. ^ Republic Act No. 7168 (December 26, 1991), An Act converting the Philippine Normal College into a State University to be known as the Philippine Normal University, retrieved December 19, 2010
  20. ^ "National Network of Normal Schools launched". Pressreader. Philippine Daily Inquirer. September 19, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  21. ^ "Senate OK'S Angara Proposal for Teacher Scholarships". Senate of the Philippines (18th Congress). Senate of the Philippines. November 7, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  22. ^ AsTEN. "Association of Southeast Asian Teacher Education Network". asten1.org. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  23. ^ a b "History of PNU North Luzon Campus". Philippine Normal University North Luzon. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  24. ^ Cajetas-Saranza, Rennie (2020). "Approaches to Integrating Multicultural Concepts as Input to Multicultural Teacher Education Program" (PDF). The Normal Lights. 14 (1): 25–55. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  25. ^ "BOR approves PNU LIDER Program". Philippine Normal University. March 12, 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2021.
  26. ^ a b c d "List of CHED Centers of Excellence (COEs) and Centers of Development (CODs) as of May 2018" (PDF).
  27. ^ Lico, Gerard (2008). Arkitekturang Filipino: A History of Architecture and Urbanism in the Philippines. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press. pp. 269–270. ISBN 978-971-542-579-7.
  28. ^ Alarcon, Norma (2008). The Imperial Tapestry:American Colonial Architecture in the Philippines. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House. p. 93. ISBN 978-971-506-474-3.
  29. ^ "PNU South Luzon". Philippine Normal University. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  30. ^ "PNU Visayas". Philippine Normal University. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  31. ^ "A Brief History of Philippine Normal University Mindanao". Philippine Normal University Mindanao. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  32. ^ "PNU Mindanao". Philippine Normal University. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  33. ^ Bumanglag-Ruscoe, Rita. "The Philippine Normal University Outcomes-Based Teacher Education Curriculum (OBTEC) Model" (PDF). Philippine Association of Teachers for Educational Foundation - United Professional for the Development and Advancement of Teacher Education, Inc. (PATEF-UPDATE). Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  34. ^ Geronimo, Jee Y. (March 19, 2014). "Know the best schools for teachers in PH". Rappler. Retrieved May 21, 2021.
  35. ^ Republic Act No. 10931 (August 3, 2017), Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act (PDF), retrieved May 18, 2021
  36. ^ a b "Philippine Normal University Directory". Philippine Normal University. 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  37. ^ a b c Republic Act No. 8292 (June 6, 1997), Higher Education Modernization Act (PDF), retrieved May 15, 2021
  38. ^ Republic Act No. 10122 (May 27, 2010), An Act Strengthening the Literacy Coordinating Council by Amending Republic Act No. 7165, otherwise knowns as "An Act Creating the Literacy Coordinating Council, Defining its Powers and Functions, Appropriating Funds Therefor and for other purposes" (PDF), retrieved May 25, 2021
  39. ^ "SUCs' budget at all-time high" (PDF). Commission on Higher Education. 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  40. ^ a b "The Torch Publications". Philippine Normal University. Archived from the original on October 3, 2014. Retrieved October 3, 2014.

External links[edit]