Philippine parliamentary election, 1978

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Philippine parliamentary election, 1978
Philippines
← 1969 April 7 and 27, 1978 1984 →

179 (of the 189) seats in the Interim Batasang Pambansa
95 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Ferdinand Marcos.JPEG
PB
MA
Leader Ferdinand Marcos Hilario Davide, Jr. Reuben Canoy
Party KBL Pusyon Bisaya Mindanao Alliance
Leader's seat none Region VII Region X
Last election new party new party new party
Seats won 150 13 1
Seat change Increase 150 Increase 13 Increase 1
Popular vote 155,866,553 9,495,416 6,685,224
Percentage 74.97% 4.57% 3.22%

  Fourth party Fifth party
 
KB
Ninoy Aquino 3.jpg
Leader Ernesto Roldan Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Party Independent / Konsensiya ng BayanA LABAN
Leader's seat Region XII Region IV-A (lost)
Last election new party new party
Seats won 1 0
Seat change Increase 1 Steady
Popular vote 7,633,851 21,541,600
Percentage 3.67% 10.36%

Prime Minister-designate

Ferdinand Marcos
KBL

Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines

A general election was held in the Philippines on April 7, 1978 for the election of the 165 regional representatives to the Interim Batasang Pambansa (the nation's first parliament). The elections were participated by the leading opposition party, the Lakas ng Bayan (LABAN) which had twenty-one candidates for the Metro Manila area and the leading candidate was the jailed opposition leader Ninoy Aquino while the regime's party known as the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) which was led by the then First Lady Imelda Marcos. Ninoy was allowed to run by the his fellow party mates in the Liberal Party who boycotted the elections but was not allowed to campaign, so his family campaigned for him. The night before the elections on April 6, 1978, a noise barrage was organized by the supporters of (LABAN) which occurred up to dawn.

These elections were followed by the sectoral election on April 27 which elected additional 14 representatives. Another 10 representatives were appointed, bring up the total representatives to 189.

Background[edit]

The Philippines was under martial law since 1972, thereby the incumbent president Ferdinand Marcos ruled by decree. Prior to this, the Constitution of the Philippines was being drafted by the Constitutional Convention whose delegates were elected in 1970. The Constitutional Convention approved the final draft of the Constitution which consisted of the abolition of the Philippine Congress and replaced with an interim National Assembly to consisted of the President, the Vice-President, the President of the Constitutional Convention and Members of the Senate and House of Representatives in November 1972 and later ratified on January 17, 1973 through so-called "citizens' assemblies". The Constitution were amended twice in July 27–28, 1973 and February 27–28, 1975. The Constitution was amended once again in October 16–17, 1976 which contained the "Amendment No. 6" which changed the name of the interim National Assembly from the "National Assembly" to "Batasang Pambansa" more commonly as the "Batasan".

Campaign[edit]

Lakas ng Bayan[edit]

Main article: Lakas ng Bayan

In 1978, from his prison cell, Aquino was allowed to take part in the elections. Although his friends, former Senators Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, preferred to boycott the elections, Aquino urged his supporters to organize and run 21 candidates in Metro Manila. Thus his political party, dubbed Lakas ng Bayan ("People's Power"), was born. The party's acronym was "LABAN" ("fight" in Tagalog). He was allowed one television interview on Face the Nation (hosted by Ronnie Nathanielsz) and proved to a startled and impressed populace that imprisonment had neither dulled his rapier-like tongue nor dampened his fighting spirit. Foreign correspondents and diplomats asked what would happen to the LABAN ticket. People agreed with him that his party would win overwhelmingly in an honest election. On April 6, 1978, supporters of the Lakas ng Bayan (LABAN), the opposition party headed by former Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. who was still in jail and twenty other candidates contesting the Region IV-A (Metro Manila) seats, came out in protest by asking bystanders and cars to make noise in support the opposition.

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan[edit]

President Marcos created the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement).

Results[edit]

The top bar represents seats won, while the bottom bar represents the proportion of votes received.

District Other
150 13 1 1
14 10
74.97% 10.36%
KBL LABAN [1] [2] [3] [4]
.
[5] [6]
1 Pusyon Bisaya: 4.57%
2 Mindanao Alliance: 3.22%
3 Independents: 3.67%
4 No seats won: 3.22%
5 Sectoral seats: unknown votes
6 Appointed seats

District elections[edit]

e • d Summary of the April 7, 1978 Interim Batasang Pambansa election results
Party Popular vote Seats won
Total  % Swing Total  % +/−
KBL 155,866,553 74.97% Increase 74.97% 150 90.90% Increase 150
LABAN 21,541,600 10.36% Increase 10.36% 0 0.00% Steady
Pusyon Bisaya 9,495,416 4.57% Increase 4.57% 13 7.88% Increase 13
Mindanao Alliance 6,685,224 3.22% Increase 3.22% 1 0.61% Increase 1
Bicol Saro 2,105,599 1.01% Increase 1.01% 0 0.00% Steady
Young Philippines 1,471,381 0.71% Increase 0.66% 0 0.00% Steady
Concerned Citizens' Aggrupation 1,374,549 0.66% Increase 0.66% 0 0.00% Steady
Nacionalista 688,130 0.33% Decrease 58.60% 0 0.00% Decrease 88
Emancipated Scientists 392,819 0.19% Increase 0.19% 0 0.00% Steady
Partido ng Bagong Pilipino 140,365 0.07% Increase 0.07% 0 0.00% Steady
Democratic 112,140 0.05% Increase 0.05% 0 0.00% Steady
Philippine Labor 94,287 0.05% Increase 0.05% 0 0.00% Steady
Confederation of Ilocano Associations 81,594 0.04% Increase 0.04% 0 0.00% Steady
Consumers 69,216 0.03% Increase 0.03% 0 0.00% Steady
Citizens Union Progress 44,893 0.02% Increase 0.02% 0 0.00% Steady
Youth Democratic Movement 40,571 0.02% Increase 0.02% 0 0.00% Steady
Sovereign Citizens 18,814 0.01% Increase 0.01% 0 0.00% Steady
Partido Sambayanang Pilipino 15,050 0.01% Increase 0.01% 0 0.00% Steady
Lapiang Bagong Silang 11,457 0.01% Increase 0.01% 0 0.00% Steady
Bagong Anyo ng Buhay 11,190 0.01% Increase 0.01% 0 0.00% Steady
Independent 7,633,851 3.67% Decrease 1.40% 1A 0.61% Decrease 1
Total 207,894,699 100% 165 100% Increase 55
Valid votes 207,894,699
Total turnout 18,356,849 85.52%
Registered voters 21,464,213 100%
Note:^ An independent candidate won under the banner of Konsensiya ng Bayan.
No separate tally was made for the independent candidates who ran under Konsensiya ng Bayan.[1][2]
Sources: Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann, Graham Hassall & Soliman M. Santos.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific
.
 
& Julio Teehankee. "Electoral Politics in the Philippines" (PDF). quezon.ph. 

Sectoral election[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Supreme Court of the Philippines (February 8, 1979). "G.R. No. L-49705-09". The LAWPHiL Project. Retrieved December 14, 2016. 
  2. ^ Olivia C. Caoili (2006). "The Philippine Legislature: The Martial Law Period" (PDF). UP sa Halalan. Retrieved December 14, 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Philippine Commission on Elections — Records and Statistics Division
  • Philippine House of Representatives Congressional Library
  • Pobre, Cesar P. Philippine Legislature 100 Years. ISBN 971-92245-0-9. 

External links[edit]