Philippine presidential election, 2010
|Result according to the final congressional canvass.|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2010 were held on Monday, May 10, 2010. The ruling President of the Philippines, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was barred from seeking re-election by the 1987 Constitution, thus necessitating an election to select the 15th President.
Incumbent Vice-President Noli de Castro was allowed to seek re-election though he could have possibly sought the presidency. As he didn't offer himself in any manner of candidacy at the election, his successor was determined as the 15th Vice President of the Philippines. Although most presidential candidates have running mates, the president and vice president are elected separately, and the winning candidates may be of different political parties.
This election was also the first time that the Commission of Elections (COMELEC) implemented full automation of elections, pursuant to Republic Act 9369, “An act authorizing the Commission on Elections to use an Automated Election System in the May 11, 1998 National or Local Elections and in subsequent National And Local Electoral Exercises”.
The results of the congressional canvassing showed that Senator Benigno Aquino III of the Liberal Party won by a plurality, although he had won with the highest percentage of votes since 1986, but not enough to have the largest margin of victory, even in elections held after 1986.
Meanwhile, in the election for the vice-presidency, Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay of the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban) defeated Senator Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party in the second-narrowest margin in the history of vice presidential elections. Aquino and Binay were proclaimed in a joint session of Congress on June 9, and took their oaths on June 30, 2010. Roxas filed an electoral protest to the Presidential Electoral Tribunal (PET; the Supreme Court) on July 10, 2010.
- 1 Timeline
- 2 Nominations
- 3 Opinion polls
- 4 Results
- 5 Voter demographics
- 6 Campaign expenses
- 7 Literature
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The COMELEC-mandated election period for this election was from January 10 to June 9, 2010.
- August 26 - Then Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) Chairman Bayani Fernando announces bid for presidency.
- September 4 - Senator Manny Villar announces bid for presidency.
- November 12 - Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay announces bid for presidency.
- November 26 - Senator Manuel Roxas is elected as party president of the Liberal Party and is nominated as the standard-bearer.
- March 12 - Former Defense Secretary Gilbert Teodoro, Jr. announces bid for presidency.
- April 25 - Senator Richard Gordon announces bid for presidency.
- May 12 - Senator Panfilo Lacson announces bid for presidency.
- June 6 - Senator Lacson withdraws from presidential race.
- June 17 - Environmentalist Nicanor Perlas announces bid for presidency.
- July 14 - Senator Loren Legarda announces bid for presidency.
- July 22 - The Social Weather Stations Second Quarter Polls: Villar (33%) lead narrows. 
- July 31 - Senator Jamby Madrigal announces bid for presidency.
- August 1 - Former Philippine President Corazon Aquino dies from colorectal cancer. The country descends into a five-day period of mourning and grief for the late President.
- August 21 - Evangelist Eddie Villanueva announces bid for presidency.
- August 30 - Ang Kapatiran names Olongapo City councilor John Carlos de los Reyes as its standard-bearer.
- September 1 - Senator Roxas withdraws and supports fellow Senator Benigno Aquino III.; Jejomar Binay withdraws and supports Former President Joseph Estrada.
- September 4 - Pampanga Governor Ed Panlilio and Isabela Governor Grace Padaca withdraws and supports Aquino.
- September 9 - Senator Benigno Aquino III announces bid for presidency.
- September 21 - Liberal Party completes tandem: Roxas accepts vice presidential offer of Aquino.
- September 26 - Ousted President Joseph Estrada announces bid for presidency
- October 14 - Social Weather Stations Third Quarter survey: Aquino (60%) overtakes Villar and catapults to first place 
- October 23 - Interior and Local Government Secretary Ronaldo Puno withdraws vice presidential bid.
- October 24 - Legarda slides to Vice President.
- October 28 - Amid pressures to run for president, Senator Francis Joseph G. Escudero leaves NPC 
- November 13 - Lakas-Kampi-CMD completes tandem: TV personality Edu Manzano runs for vice president with Teodoro.
- November 16 - Nacionalista Party completes tandem: Villar picks Legarda for Vice President.
- November 19 - Lakas-Kampi-CMD National Convention nominates Teodoro and Manzano.
- November 23 - De los Reyes and Dominador Chipeco, Jr. (Ang Kapatiran) file certificates of candidacy for president and VP, respectively.
- November 24 - Senator Escudero withdraws from the presidential race 
- November 26 - Supreme Court allows "early campaigning".
- November 28 - Aquino and Roxas (Liberal Party) file Certificates of Candidacy.
- November 29 - Nicanor Perlas (Independent) files certificate of candidacy for president.
- November 30 - Villar and Legarda (Nacionalista Party) and ; Estrada and Binay (Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino).; Villanueva and Perfecto Yasay, Jr. (Bangon Pilipinas) file Certificates of Candidacy for Pres and VP, respectively file certificates of candidacy. Hermogenes Ebdane withdraws presidential bid 
- December 1–2 Teodoro and Manzano (Lakas-Kampi-CMD) file Certificates of Candidacy for President and Vce President, respectively. file; Jamby Madrigal (Independent) files for President alone ; Gordon and Fernando (Bagumbayan-VNP); Jose Sonza (KBL) files for Vice President.
- December 2 - ANC Presidential Forum: Analysts and viewers say Aquino gave "strong performance" and sounded "credible" (42%). Teodoro close second (37%); flip-flops on Reproductive Health Bill position. Villar was absent.
- December 11 - Outgoing Vice President Noli De Castro endorses Roxas for vice president.
- December 15 - Commission on Elections releases list of 16 approved candidates for president and vice-president.
- December 21 - Perlas protests disqualification at COMELEC.
- December 28 - COMELEC hears appeal and petition of disqualified candidates.
- December 21–22 - Pulse Asia Dec 2009 polls: Aquino solidifies lead in(45%) and BW-SWS (46%) presidential surveys. Legarda (37%) and Roxas (39%) are statistically tied in first place for the Pulse Asia vice-presidency survey.
- January 10 - Social Weather Stations December 2009 Survey (Zamora commissioned): Villar (33%) cuts Aquino (44%) lead.
- January 14 - Perlas reinstated by COMELEC. Relatively unknown Vetellano Acosta (KBL) is also reinstated as a candidate.
- January 14 - GMA Network Vice-Presidential Forum.
- January 20 - Estrada is allowed to run after the COMELEC threw out all three disqualification cases against him.
- January 29 - De La Salle University and ANC 2010 Presidential Youth Forum Youth 2010: Audience members say Aquino, Gordon, Teodoro "made a favorable impression". Madrigal attends for the first time. Estrada absent.
- February 8 - The Inquirer 1st Edition Presidential Debate with all candidates attending except Acosta and Estrada, with the latter citing "bias" against him.
- February 9 - Official election campaign starts
- February 9 - Campaign kickoff rallies occur at Antipolo (Lakas-Kampi-CMD), Calamba (NP), Imus (Bagumbayan-VNP), Olongapo (Ang Kapatiran), Quiapo (PMP), Luneta Park Manila (Bangon Pilipinas Party ), and Tarlac (Liberal Party).
- March 4 - COMELEC disqualifies Vetellano Acosta. His name, however, would remain in the ballot although votes that would be cast for him will be considered invalid.
- March 21 - ABS-CBN and ANC Vice-Presidential Debate: Analysts and viewers say that Roxas is seen as "most credible candidate" (54%) with Binay, Fernando tie in second (13%) and Yasay (11%); Legarda fared poorly (4%). Absent was Chipeco and Manzano whose absence drew comments on social-networking sites. Analysts point out also not "to belittle" the underdogs and praised Binay, Yasay and Sonza.
- March 28 - A number of Lakas-Kampi-CMD stalwarts leave party to support Villar.The Liberal Party says these defections are "completing the Villarroyo [Villar-Arroyo] puzzle". Malacañang downplays defections and denies alliance with Villar.
- March 30 - Teodoro resigns as Lakas-Kampi-CMD Chairman to focus on campaign. This fuels further speculation that President Arroyo is dropping her financial support for her party in exchange of new support in Villar due to "winnability". Sarangani Governor and party president Miguel Dominguez and secretary-general Francis Manglapus follows in less than 24 hours. Malacañang denies speculations that the resignations have something to do with rumors that Pres. Arroyo has decided to support another presidential candidate.
- April 6 - Pulse Asia March 2010 survey: Villar (25%) falls 4 points as Aquino (37%) widens lead. According to Pulse Asia,this was mainly due to the Villarroyo issue. This came at the heels of talks that Villar is the "secret candidate" of Pres. Arroyo, a charge that he denies.
- April 10 – May 10 – Overseas absentee voting continuing until May 10 (Election day). Two polling precincts encountered technical problems in Hong Kong, raising concerns on the automation system.
- April 28 – 30 – Local absentee voting for government officials, teachers performing election duties outside of their precincts, members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and operatives of the Philippine National Police (PNP) starts.
- April 26 – 29 Social Weather Stations, Manila Standard Today and Pulse Asia survey: Aquino leads in the presidential race as Estrada leads over Villar. Roxas leads in VP race with Binay overtaking Legarda.
- April 29 – COMELEC rejects proposals of a parallel manual count aside from the official tabulation.
- First Week of May - Smartmatic-TIM recalls the Compact Flash Cards (CFC) of all Precinct Count Optical Scanner (PCOS) Machines due to the machines not counting the votes correctly due to the spacing of the ballot. These were found out after testing. By Election Day, 99% of all CF Cards were already delivered. The remaining 1% was due to some inaccessible precincts.
- May 2 – Kingdom of Jesus Christ leader Pastor Apollo Quiboloy finally endorses Gilbert Teodoro for President. and Mar Roxas for vice president
- May 3 - Manila Standard Today Presidential Survey: Aquino leads with Estrada overtaking Villar. 
- May 5 - Iglesia ni Cristo endorses the tandem of Benigno Aquino III and Mar Roxas (Liberal Party). Voting as a block, the INC has an estimated command votes of 5-8 million.
- May 8 – The Supreme Court junks petitions to postpone the electionsdue to the technical sifficulties found with the issue of the CF Cards 
- May 10 — Election Day
- May 10 – COMELEC extends the voting hours until 7 pm.
- May 11 – After initial election results, De los Reyes, Gordon, Teodoro, Villar and Villanueva conceded defeat to Aquino in the presidential race while Estrada says he won't concede and will wait for the congressional canvass. Chipeco, Legarda, Manzano and Yasay conceded defeat in the vice presidential race.
- May 25 – Congress approves the rules for the canvassing of the Certificates of Canvass for the presidential and vice-presidential positions.
- May 26 – The National Board of Canvassers through the Joint Canvassing Committee composed of evenly of both the Senate and the House of Representatives convene.
- May 28 – Canvassing finally starts with the first certificate of canvass (COC) from Laos to be opened.
- May 31 - June 4 - The issue of null votes i.e. overvotes, undervotes, abstentions, were raised by the Aquino-Roxas Bantay Balota (Aquino and Roxas Ballot Watch). COMELEC, however, stated that the rule on null votes is equivalent on the rule on stray votes before automation, thus the rules on stray or null votes would apply even if votes were manually counted in an electoral protest.
- June 4 - Several municipalities which declared failure of Elections on May 10 hold rescheduled elections. These were mostly in Lanao del Sur.
- June 8 – Canvassing ends with Aquino (15,208,678) and Binay (14,645,574) winning the presidential and vice presidential elections.
- June 9 – In a speedy deliberation in a public session, the Congress approves the report of the Joint Committee officially proclaiming Aquino and Binay the winners. Through a speech read by his son Senator Jinggoy Estrada, Estrada concedes and promises to support Aquino.
- June 9 - Congress proclaims Senator Benigno Aquino III as president-elect and Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay as vice president-elect of the Republic of the Philippines.
- June 30 - Aquino and Binay inaugurated as president and vice president of the Philippines.
- July 10 – Roxas files an electoral protest against Binay at the Presidential Electoral Tribunal (PET). Binay's camp shrugged off the protest and says that tribunal will "uphold his victory".
- July 12 – The Presidential Electoral Tribunal (PET) declares the electoral protest of Roxas "sufficient in form and substance". The PET issues summons to Binay to respond to the protest within ten days.
In the Philippines, the multi-party system is implemented. Sometimes a coalition of different parties are made notably this year are the Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino and PDP-LABAN, and Nacionalista Party and NPC. Each party hosts candidates who go through a nomination process to determine the presidential nominee for that party.
The list below is listed in the alphabetical order of the party:
|Ang Kapatiran||John Carlos de los Reyes||President||Nominated|
|Dominador Chipeco, Jr.||Vice president||Nominated|
|Bayani Fernando||Vice president||Nominated|
|Bangon Pilipinas||Eddie Villanueva||President||Nominated|
|Perfecto Yasay||Vice president||Nominated|
|KBL||Jay Sonza||Vice president||Nominated|
|Vetellano Acosta||President||Nominated, later disqualified|
|Edu Manzano||Vice president||Nominated|
|Richard Gordon||President||Not nominated|
|Bayani Fernando||President||Not nominated|
|Liberal||Benigno Aquino III||President||Nominated|
|Mar Roxas||Vice president||Nominated|
|President||Nominated, later withdrew|
|NPC||Loren Legarda||Vice president||Nominated as Manny Villar's running mate|
|Francis Escudero||President||Withdrew from party, later withdrew from the race|
|Gilberto Teodoro||President||Withdrew from party|
|PDP-Laban||Jejomar Binay||Vice president||Nominated as Joseph Estrada's running mate|
|Independents||Jamby Madrigal||President||Nominated, originally a member of the LDP|
|About 100 others||President||Disqualified|
|About 30 others||Vice president||Disqualified|
|Poll source||Date(s) conducted||Sample
|Acosta||Aquino||De los Reyes||Estrada||Gordon||Madrigal||Perlas||Teodoro||Villanueva||Villar||Other/
|Pulse Asia||Apr. 23–25||1,800||±2%||—||39||0.2||20||2||0.1||0.3||7||3||20||9|
|Poll source||Date(s) conducted||Sample
|Pulse Asia||Apr. 23–25||1,800||±2%||28||0.05||3||20||3||37||0.03||1||9|
SWS conducted an exit poll. SWS's 2004 exit poll missed by a large margin the result.
According to the SWS exit poll, 45% of Muslims voted for Binay, while only 17% chose Roxas and 28% for Legarda. About 75% of the members of the Iglesia ni Cristo voted for Roxas. Despite having the endorsement of several Catholic bishops, de los Reyes only got 0.2% of the Catholic vote, while Aquino, despite being branded by some Catholic organizations as not pro-life, got 44%.
|Poll source||Date(s) conducted||Sample
|Aquino||De los Reyes||Estrada||Gordon||Madrigal||Perlas||Teodoro||Villanueva||Villar|
|Poll source||Date(s) conducted||Sample
- Plotted as a 3-period moving average of the surveys included in Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010.
When there are two or more candidates who have an equal and highest amount of votes, Congress, voting separately via majority vote, will choose among the candidates who have an equal and highest amount of votes to be the president.
The Supreme Court shall "be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice President".
There are several parallel tallies, with the Congressional canvass the official tally. The COMELEC used the election returns from the polling precincts; the Congress as the national board of canvassers will base their official tally from the certificates of canvass from the provinces and cities, which were derived from the election returns. The accredited citizen's arm, the Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting (PPCRV) also used the election returns from the polling precincts. In theory, all tallies must be identitcal.
Official Congressional canvass
Congress in joint session as the National Board of Canvassers convened in the Batasang Pambansa Complex in Quezon City, the home of the House of Representatives. Only a committee canvassed the votes, with the same number of members from both the Senate and the House of Representatives.
On June 8, Congress finished canvassing all of the votes, with the final canvass showing that Aquino and Binay had won. Aquino and Binay were proclaimed as president-elect and vice president-elect in a joint session on June 9. The president-elect and vice president-elect were inaugurated on June 30, 2010.
|Benigno Aquino III||Liberal Party||15,208,678||42.08%|
|Joseph Estrada||Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Filipino Masses)||9,487,837||26.25%|
|Manny Villar||Nacionalista Party (Nationalist Party)||5,573,835||15.42%|
|Gilberto Teodoro||Lakas Kampi CMD (People Power–Partner of Free Filipinos–Christian Muslim Democrats)||4,095,839||11.33%|
|Eddie Villanueva||Bangon Pilipinas Party (Rise Up Philippines)||1,125,878||3.12%|
|Richard Gordon||Bagumbayan-VNP (New Nation–Volunteers for a New Philippines)||501,727||1.39%|
|John Carlos de los Reyes||Ang Kapatiran (Alliance for the Common Good)||44,244||0.12%|
|Vetallano Acosta[p 1]||Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement)||181,985||0.48%|
- Disqualified after the ballots were printed. All of his votes are considered spoiled
|Jejomar Binay||PDP-Laban[v 1]||14,645,574||41.65%|
|Loren Legarda||NPC[v 2]||4,294,664||12.21%|
|Perfecto Yasay||Bangon Pilipinas||364,652||1.04%|
|Dominador Chipeco, Jr.||Ang Kapatiran||52,562||0.15%|
|Total valid votes||35,165,555||92.18%|
|Total invalid votes||2,983,816||7.82%|
- Binay is Joseph Estrada's (PMP) guest candidate for vice president.
- Legarda is Manny Villar's (Nacionalista) guest candidate for vice president.
|Results of provincial canvasses for the presidential election|
|Results of provincial canvasses for the vice presidential election|
Margin of victory is less than 5% for the presidential election:
- Guimaras: 0.08% (Nacionalista win)
- Lanao del Norte: 0.31% (Liberal win)
- Nueva Vizcaya: 1.20% (PMP win)
- San Juan: 1.53% (Liberal win)
- Abra: 1.99% (PMP win)
- Sulu: 3.33% (Liberal win)
- Palawan: 3.35% (PMP win)
- Cagayan: 3.78% (PMP win)
- Agusan del Sur: 4.85% (Liberal win)
Margin of victory is less than 5% for the vice presidential election:
- Ilocos Sur: 0.48% (Liberal win)
- Absentee voters: 0.64% (Liberal win)
- Marinduque: 2.07% (Liberal win)
- Palawan: 2:30% (PDP-Laban)
- South Cotabato: 3.36% (PDP-Laban win)
- Zamboanga del Norte: 3.82% (Liberal win)
- Albay: 4.07% (Liberal win)
- Agusan del Norte: 4.44% (Liberal win)
- Quezon: 4.54% (PDP-Laban win)
- Zamboanga City: 4.62% (PDP-Laban win)
- Camarines Norte: 4.72% (PDP-Laban win)
The COMELEC originally released results for president and vice president based from election returns but stopped in order not to preempt Congress. The COMELEC held their tally at the Philippine International Convention Center at Pasay.
|2010 Philippine presidential election, COMELEC tally|
|Benigno Aquino III||Liberal||12,233,002||42.16%|
|Gilbert Teodoro||Lakas Kampi CMD||3,243,688||11.18%|
|Eddie Villanueva||Bangon Pilipinas||916,543||3.16%|
|John Carlos de los Reyes||Ang Kapatiran||34,833||0.12%|
|Total valid votes cast||29,018,156||56.57%|
|Clustered precincts reporting||59,965||78.41%|
|2010 Philippine vice presidential election, COMELEC tally|
|Edu Manzano||Lakas Kampi CMD||593,653||2.10%|
|Perfecto Yasay||Bangon Pilipinas||295,558||1.04%|
|Dominador Chipeco, Jr.||Ang Kapatiran||40,335||0.14%|
|Total valid votes cast||28,326,323||55.23%|
|Clustered precincts reporting||59,965||78.41%|
The PPCRV held their tally at the Pope Pius Center in Manila.
|2010 Philippine presidential election, PPCRV-KBP count|
|Gilbert Teodoro||Lakas Kampi CMD||3,709,681||11.14%|
|Eddie Villanueva||Bangon Pilipinas||1,029,406||3.09%|
|John Carlos de los Reyes||Ang Kapatiran||40,430||0.12%|
|Total valid votes cast||33,288,328||64.90%|
|Clustered precincts reporting||69,001||90.23%|
|2010 Philippine vice presidential election, PPCRV-KBP count|
|Edu Manzano||Lakas Kampi CMD||712,996||2.20%|
|Perfecto Yasay||Bangon Pilipinas||327,501||1.01%|
|Dominador Chipeco, Jr.||Ang Kapatiran||47,799||0.15%|
|Total valid votes cast||32,455,348||63.28%|
|Clustered precincts reporting||69,001||90.23%|
|2010 Presidential vote by demographic subgroup|
|Demographic subgroup||Aquino||Estrada||Villar||Other|| % of
|Some elementary/elementary graduate||38||32||18||12||30|
|Some high school||35||36||18||11||14|
|High school graduate||41||31||16||12||25|
|College graduate/post-college graduate||50||15||13||22||12|
|Iglesia Ni Cristo||85||10||1||4||4|
|2010 vice presidential vote by demographic subgroup|
|Demographic subgroup||Binay||Roxas||Legarda||Other|| % of
|Some elementary/elementary graduate||38||35||19||8||30|
|Some high school||43||35||16||6||14|
|High school graduate||45||38||12||5||25|
|College graduate/post-college graduate||42||43||7||8||12|
|Iglesia Ni Cristo||9||86||3||2||4|
According to the Fair Elections Act, the COMELEC's cap on spending is 10 pesos per voter for each candidate and another 5 pesos per voter for one's political party; since there are about 50 million voters, a candidate can spend up to 500 million pesos and a party can spend an additional 250 million pesos.
|Candidate (Party)||Amount raised (PHP)||Amount spent (PHP)||Votes||Spent per vote (PHP)||Spent per voter (PHP)|
|Benigno Aquino III (LP)||440,050,000 (approx.)||403,119,981.81||15,208,678||26.51||7.86|
|Joseph Estrada (PMP)||8,000,000 (approx.)||227,500,000||9,487,837||23.98||4.44|
|Manny Villar (NP)||431,557,816||431,557,816||5,573,835||77.43||8.41|
|Gilberto Teodoro (Lakas-Kampi)||64,688.88||3,463,307.21||4,095,839||0.85||0.07|
|Jamby Madrigal (I)||55,182,264||55,182,264||46,489||1,187.00||1.08|
|Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban)||231,480,000 (approx.)||217,938,289||14,645,574||14.88||4.25|
|Mar Roxas (LP)||246,000,000 (approx.)||279,351,224||13,918,490||20.07||5.45|
|Loren Legarda (NPC)||N/A||210,280,000||4,294,664||48.96||4.10|
|Bayani Fernando (B-VNP)||61,000,000 (approx.)||80,081,865.61||1,017,631||78.69||1.56|
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- Official Congressional Results
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- Philippines 2010 Election Results - Main Site
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- NAMFREL - 2010 PARALLEL COUNT - NAMFREL Site
- HALALAN 2010: Latest Comelec official results - ABS-CBN Site
- ELEKSYON 2010: National Election Results Tally - GMA Site
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- Auto-Vote 2010: Presidential Election Results - Hatol ng Bayan Site
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- The Vote 2010 Election Results Tally - Bombo Radyo Site
- Official website of National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL)
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- Media websites
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