Philippine presidential election, 2016

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Philippine presidential election, 2016
Philippines
2010 ←
May 9, 2016 → 2022

Turnout 81.5% Increase 7.2%
  Rodrigo Duterte 2013.jpg MAR ROXAS.jpg Grace Poe-Llamanzares portrait.jpg
Candidate Rodrigo Duterte Mar Roxas Grace Poe
Party PDP-Laban Liberal Independent
Running mate Alan Peter Cayetano Leni Robredo Francis Escudero
Popular vote 16,601,997 9,978,175 9,100,991
Percentage 39.01% 23.45% 21.39%

  Philippine Vice-President Jejomar Binay.jpg Senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago.jpg
Candidate Jejomar Binay Miriam Defensor Santiago
Party UNA PRP
Running mate Gregorio Honasan Bongbong Marcos
Popular vote 5,416,140 1,455,532
Percentage 12.73% 3.42%

Presidential Race 2016.png

Map showing the official results taken from provincial and city certificates of canvass. The inset shows Metro Manila.

President before election

Benigno Aquino III
Liberal

Elected President

Rodrigo Duterte[1]
PDP-Laban

Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2016 was held on Monday, May 9, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election. This was the 16th presidential election in the Philippines since 1935 and the sixth sextennial presidential election since 1986.

Incumbent president Benigno Aquino III was ineligible for re-election, pursuant to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Therefore, this election determined the 16th President. The position of president and vice president are elected separately, thus the two winning candidates could come from different political parties.

Rodrigo Duterte led the preliminary count with 38.5% of the vote.[2] Congress had met in late May to canvass the results, issued an official result with Rodrigo Duterte and Leni Robredo emerging as the winners of the presidential and vice presidential races, respectively. They were proclaimed on May 30, in the House of Representatives.

Electoral system[edit]

According to the Constitution of the Philippines, the election is held every six years after 1992, on the second Monday of May. The incumbent president is term limited. The incumbent vice president may run for two consecutive terms. The plurality voting system is used to determine the winner: the candidate with the highest number of votes, whether or not one has a majority, wins the presidency. The vice presidential election is a separate election, is held on the same rules, and voters may split their ticket. Both winners will serve six-year terms commencing on the noon of June 30, 2016 and ending on the same day six years later.[3]

Background[edit]

Map of the results of the 2010 vice presidential election.
Benigno Aquino III, the outgoing president, whose term expired in June 30, 2016

Senator Benigno Aquino III of the Liberal Party, who ran on an anti-corruption platform, won the 2010 election with 42.08% of the votes defeating Joseph Estrada, a former president who was deposed in 2001 after scandals of massive corruption, and several others. Meanwhile, Estrada's running mate, Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay of the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban), defeated Aquino's running mate, Senator Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party and several others, in the vice presidential election.[4] Roxas eventually accused Binay of electoral fraud in the Presidential Electoral Tribunal, citing that some of his votes were recorded as null votes.[5]

Both Binay and Roxas were subsequently appointed by Aquino to his cabinet, with Binay heading the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council,[6] and Roxas first being given the Transportation and Communications portfolio, then finally named as Secretary of the Interior and Local Government, after the ban of appointing losing candidates expired a year after Aquino took office on June 30, 2010.[7] As of 2014, the tribunal had still not yet acted upon the preliminary motions of both parties and on Binay's counter-protest; the suit is expected to still not have been resolved by the time President Aquino's term expires.[8]

For the midterm 2013 Senate election, Aquino and Roxas formed the Team PNoy coalition;[9] Estrada's PMP and Binay's PDP-Laban forged an electoral alliance, the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA).[10] Team PNoy won nine Senate seats against UNA's three.[11]

In March 2014, PDP-Laban withdrew from UNA, a week after Binay resigned as party chairman, due "to differences with its leaders". Party president Aquilino Pimentel III had a public quarrel with Binay over Juan Miguel Zubiri's inclusion in UNA's 2013 senatorial slate, whom Pimentel had accused of cheating in the 2007 Senate election.[12]

Several other stalwarts of UNA, such as senators Juan Ponce Enrile and Jinggoy Estrada, who had manifested his intention to run as Binay's running mate, and others such as Senator Bong Revilla of Lakas-CMD, who is planning to run for president, are currently detained due to their involvement in the pork barrel scam.[13][14] No personalities linked with the Liberal Party but also involved in the scam were investigated; these actions by the government, which it says is part of its anti-corruption drive, have been cited by UNA as "political persecution".[15]

In July 2014, Renato Bondal, a defeated mayoral candidate in the 2013 Makati mayoral election, filed plunder cases against Makati mayor Jejomar Binay, Jr. and his father, the vice president, to the Ombudsman. By the next month, a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Committee composed solely of Pimentel, along with Nacionalista Party members Alan Peter Cayetano and Antonio Trillanes IV, began still ongoing Senate hearings against Binay on his alleged his corruption while serving as mayor of Makati, beginning with the alleged overpriced annex building of the Makati City Hall.[16] It was followed by hearings on alleged corruption on deals supplying Makati senior citizens with birthday cakes,[17] an agricultural estate in Rosario, Batangas that Binay allegedly owns,[18] the allegedly overpriced Makati Science High School,[19] and the relocation of Makati residents to Calauan, Laguna to a community without basic necessities.[20]

Makati City Hall (taller building to the right) as viewed from the Pasig River; the allegedly overpriced annex is the building to the left.

Binay had consistently denied any wrongdoing,[21] and from owning the Rosario estate,[22] but had never appeared at the Senate.[23] UNA Secretary General JV Bautista branded the investigations as part of the "Operation Plan Stop Nognog", insinuating on Binay's dark skin, with Roxas, Cayetano and Trillanes allegedly behind it to prevent Binay from becoming president. He accused billionaire businessman Salvador Zamora as its financier.[24] In May 2015, the Court of Appeals ordered the 242 bank accounts belonging to Binay to be frozen for six months, when it granted the petition of the Anti-Money Laundering Council and of the Ombudsman. Binay's camp had alleged certain people from the Liberal Party to be behind the freeze order,[25] a charge President Aquino, in a Bombo Radyo interview, himself denied.[26]

By late May 2015, the subcommittee report recommending the filing of a plunder (corruption worth more than 50 million pesos) complaint against Binay was signed by all three subcommittee members and Grace Poe.[27] By early June, ten senators had already signed the subcommittee report, making it official and available to be debated upon in the Senate floor.[28] A month later, Binay sued Cayetano, Trillanes and several others for 200 million pesos in damages at the Makati Regional Trial Court for "well-organized and orchestrated effort" to damage his reputation and worsen his chances of becoming president.[29]

Meanwhile, Aquino held several meetings with Roxas, Poe and Francis Escudero on who should be the standard bearer of the Liberal Party. While none of them had announced their preferences at that time, Aquino is expected to announce his preferred candidate after his final State of the Nation Address late in July. Congressional heads Franklin Drilon and Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. denied that Liberal Party members had been dissatisfied with Aquino's indecision, saying that the party is still united.[30]

On early July, Binay launched his party, the United Nationalist Alliance.[31] Later that month, Aquino did endorse Roxas for president, which the latter accepted.[32] In August, Rodrigo Duterte, the Davao City mayor who had been a subject of a strong online following urging him to run, announced his intention to retire from politics after his mayoral term ends in 2016.[33] Poe announced her intention to seek the presidency by mid-September,[34] followed by Escudero's announcing that he'll be her running mate a day later.[35] Several days later, Cayetano announced his vice presidential candidacy, preferring to be Duterte's running mate.

On October 3. Trillanes formally announced his vice presidential campaign as an independent, supporting Poe's presidential campaign.[36] Days later, Leni Robredo, the representative from Camarines Sur and widow of former Secretary of the Interior and Local Government Jesse Robredo who died in a plane crash in 2012, accepted the offer of the Liberal Party to be Roxas' running mate.[37] Also on that day, Senator Bongbong Marcos announced his candidacy as vice president.[38] A week later, after being nominated by UNA, Senator Gregorio Honasan announced that he would be Binay's running mate.[39] A day later, on the launch of her new book, Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago announced her presidential candidacy;[40] a couple of days later, she announced that Marcos would be her running mate.[41]

At the final day of the filing of candidacies, Duterte did not show up; instead, the PDP-Laban nominated Martin Diño, chairman of the Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption.[42] At the end of the day, more than a hundred people registered as presidential candidates, after a 5-day long filing period. These include current OFW Family Club representative Roy Señeres running under the Partido ng Manggagawa at Magsasaka, and former representative Iloilo Augusto Syjuco, who is running as in independent. For the vice presidency, nineteen people manifested their intention to run, including former assemblyman from Ifugao Zosimo Jesus Paredes II, who is running under the Partido Bansang Maharlika.

AC Nielsen Philippines showed on its monitoring report between Jan 1 and Nov 30 that presidential candidate Binay spent 595 million pesos for campaign advertisements on television (before the campaign period). Vice presidentiable Cayetano led the spenders in the race, spending 398 million pesos worth of TV advertisements.[43] Binay, denied the claim.[44] A article from The Manila Times reported also that the administration's bet, Mar Roxas, led the list of the biggest ad spenders in the country with P774 million in television advertisement expenses from January to December, in a survey also conducted by AC Nielsen.[45]

Candidates[edit]

An initial list of 8 presidential candidates were uploaded on the certified candidates list in the commission's database on January 21, 2016.[46] But only trimmed down to 5, due to declaration by the commission en banc of Dante Valencia as a nuisance candidate and the withdrawal of certificates of candidacies of Romel Mendoza and Roy Señeres.[47][48][49]

This is the final and certified list of candidates for the elections to be included in the ballots:[50][51] Jejomar Binay,[52] Miriam Defensor Santiago,[53] Rodrigo Duterte,[54][55] Grace Poe,[56] Mar Roxas.[57] [58]

Although Señeres withdrew his candidacy and later died, his name is still included on the printed ballots.

Presidential tickets[edit]

Under the Constitution of the Philippines, the President and Vice President are elected separately.

Presidential candidate Vice Presidential candidate Slogan Campaign manager
Jejomar Binay (UNA) Gringo Honasan (UNA) "Kay Binay, gaganda ang buhay" (lit. "With Binay, life will get better.") Collective leadership
Miriam Defensor Santiago (PRP) Bongbong Marcos (Independent)[a] "Aangat Tayo sa Galing ng Pilipino!" (lit. "We will rise through the excellence of the Filipino people!") Jun Santiago
Rodrigo Duterte (PDP–Laban) Alan Peter Cayetano (Independent)[a] "Tapang at Malasakit" (lit. "Courage and Compassion") Leoncio Evasco, Jr.
Grace Poe (Independent) Francis Escudero (Independent) "Gobyernong May Puso" (lit. "Government with a Heart") Joseph Ace Durano
Mar Roxas (Liberal) Leni Robredo (Liberal) "Ituloy ang Daang Matuwid" (lit. "Continue the Straight Path") Feliciano Belmonte, Jr.
Antonio Trillanes (Independent)[b] "Push Up Pilipinas" (lit. "Push Up Philippines")

Notes:

  1. ^ a b Cayetano, Marcos and Trillanes are all members of the Nacionalista Party, but failed to get that party's nomination; instead, all of them are running as independents.
  2. ^ Trillanes is supporting Poe's presidential campaign, although he is not her running mate.

For president[edit]

Jejomar Binay[edit]

When questioned by the media at the Coconut Palace in September 2011, Vice President Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban) confirmed his plans of running as president.[59]

By May 2014, Binay began his search for a running mate. As his potential running mate Senator Jinggoy Estrada in jail due to his implication in the PDAF scam,[60] Binay's offers were declined by JV Ejercito,[61] Manny Villar (via wife Cynthia Villar),[62] Vilma Santos (via husband Ralph Recto),[63] Mar Roxas,[64] Grace Poe,[65] Rodrigo Duterte[66] and Joseph Estrada.[67] Binay's daughter Abigail, also the Representative from Makati, said that Binay would accept anyone as his running mate except for Antonio Trillanes, and that she prefers Grace Poe, however Sen. Bongbong Marcos was the most preferred by UNA officials to be his running mate.[68] On June 12, Independence Day, speech in Iloilo, President Aquino said that he could only offer Binay the conduct of a clean and honest election, but not an outright endorsement.[69]

On June 22, Binay resigned from the Aquino cabinet, both as presidential adviser on Overseas Filipino Workers' concerns and as chairman of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council, but did not say why.[70] Two days later, Binay addressed the public from his Coconut Palace offices, branding the current administration as "manhid at palpak" (insensitive and bumbling), but did not mention Aquino by name.[71]

Miriam Defensor Santiago[edit]

In a press conference on July 2, 2014, Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago (People's Reform Party) revealed she was suffering from stage 4 lung cancer and she might run as president for the third time if it goes into remission. Called "the Iron Lady of Asia" and a recipient of the Ramon Magsaysay Award, she was the widely expected winner of the 1992 election, but lost after an inexplicably unscheduled power outage during the counting of votes. She then run for a Senate seat in 1995 and won in a landslide victory. She has become one of the most popular senators since then, owing to her broad media visibility as well as to the high number of laws and bills she authored, a record that stands up to this day. She once again ran for president in 1998, but lost, citing black propaganda against her during the campaign.[72]

By November 2014, Santiago, in a tweet, announced that "In the 2016 presidential elections, when I am rid of my lung cancer, I intend to claim the presidency I won in 1992." In a letter to the Senate, Santiago said that more than 90% of the cancer cells have regressed.[73]

Santiago announced her candidacy for president in the launch of her book Stupid is Forever on October 13, 2015. She is currently running under the People's Reform Party, the same party in which she ran under during her 1992 and 1998 presidential campaigns.[40] Days later, Santiago announced that Senator Bongbong Marcos would be her vice presidential running mate, a decision that largely earned criticism from progressives as Bongbong is the scion of the former dictator Ferdinand Marcos. Her platform stands on the effective and efficient upholding and implementation of national and state-recognized international laws, enhancement of the agriculture industry with a focus on irrigation and farm-to-market roads, enhancing all seaports and airports in the country, creating at least one major government project in all provinces and all regions in the Philippines, building and highlighting the country's diplomatic affairs in the international level while skyrocketing the country's defense capabilities, and eradicating graft and corruption, which she believes to be the cause of poverty and inefficiency in the country.[41] Presidential candidate Rodrigo Duterte gave in an interview in November 2015 his comments on his fellow candidates' qualities, stating that "[i]f you want extraordinary competence and integrity, vote for Miriam."[74]

Rodrigo Duterte[edit]

Early in 2015, Duterte made hints to the media of his intent to run for the presidency come 2016, with a widely praised promise of abolishing Congress altogether in favor of a Parliament should he win.[75][76][77] Earlier, in February 2014, Duterte was reportedly enjoying the support of several netizens lauding his performance as mayor of Davao City, especially in maintaining peace and order in the city, but he was quick to shrug off calls for him to run for President, saying he was not qualified for a higher public office.[78] A year later, Duterte said in a Baguio federalism forum that he'll only run for president "if (it is) to save the republic." Duterte cited the need of about 10 to 15 billion pesos for a campaign war chest as what was keeping him from running.[79] Days later, however, Duterte "re-entered" PDP-Laban; he maintained he never left the party, and only had to stand under a local party banner (Hugpong) in the 2013 local election in order to ensure his victory.[80] PDP-Laban president Aquilino Pimentel III later said that Duterte was among his party's options for a presidential candidate for 2016, noting that the party's position on federalism coincides with Duterte's advocacy.[81] A few days after reports came out saying incumbent Vice-President Jejomar Binay (a presidential aspirant) was eyeing Duterte as his possible running mate, Duterte issued a statement saying he was not interested in running for a national post.[82]

In September 2014, Duterte already declined presidential aspirant and incumbent senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago's offer to be her running mate, saying that instead of picking him as the senator's running mate, she could ask former defense secretary Gilberto Teodoro, Jr. instead.[83] However, in October 2015, Santiago chose Bongbong Marcos as her running mate.[84]

Later, during the June 21, 2015 airing of his weekly program in a local channel (Gikan Sa Masa, Para Sa Masa), Duterte stated that he was considering suggestions from his friends and supporters to run for President. He also added that he will stop expressing non-interest in starting a presidential campaign.[85]

On September 7, 2015, in a press conference held at Davao City, Duterte officially declared he will not be running for President in 2016 and apologized to all of his supporters on the decision. He additionally stated that he might retire from politics after his term as mayor of Davao City ends in 2016 and his daughter runs for the office. Other factors of his possible retirement include age, health concerns and his family's objections.[86] Mixed reactions erupted in social media hours after the declaration and several supporters still continued to petition online, urging the mayor to revert his decision.[87]

On September 26, 2015, a large number of supporters gathered at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila to urge Duterte to officially run for the presidency in 2016.[88][89] Despite being an undeclared candidate, Pulse Asia Research Director Ana Tabunda still considered Duterte "a serious contender" as he was already ranked 4th in a presidential survey done by Pulse Asia from late August to early September, as well as in a Social Weather Stations survey.[90] Duterte's long-time political rival and critic, former House Speaker Prospero Nograles, also expressed his support for Duterte if ever the latter decided to run for the presidency.[91] On September 29, incumbent Senator Alan Peter Cayetano declared his intention to run for the 2016 Vice-Presidential post in a press event held in Davao City and considered Duterte his first choice as running mate for the presidential post; this eventually led to a meeting between the two parties.[92] A day after meeting with Cayetano, Duterte met with another incumbent senator, Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., who also went to Davao City to personally talk to Duterte. Marcos was reportedly considering running for the Vice-Presidential post as well; Marcos had not yet made any formal proclamation at that time. As in the Cayetano meeting, Duterte still declared that he was not running for president.[93]

On October 13, 2015, in a press conference held at a local hotel in Davao City, Duterte finalized his decision not to run for the presidency, with daughter Sara's objection being pointed out as one of the main contributors.[94]

On October 15, 2015, Duterte, through a representative, filed his candidacy for Mayor of Davao City at the local elections office.[95] A day later, Duterte's daughter Sara, posted on her Instagram account a photo of her candidacy as mayor of Davao City, while hinting that her father would seek a higher post and withdraw his mayoral re-election bid.[96] However, it was received that it was not received by the commission in Davao City.[97] Duterte’s possibility of substitution until December 10 was opened after Martin Diño, father of celebrity Liza Diño and chairman of the Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption and former barangay captain of Brgy. San Antonio, Quezon City, filed his candidacy for president on the last minute. Diño is a member of PDP-Laban, the same party advocating the federalism system where Duterte belongs.[98] Diño clarified that there was a "clerical error" on his submitted candidacy (running for Pasay City mayor, instead of president). On their general meeting held in Pasay City on October 26, members of PDP-Laban had expressed their support to Diño in his presidential bid.[99] On October 21, Duterte told CNN Philippines' News.PH interview that there was still a chance he would change his mind. The decision, however, would have to be made by the PDP-Laban.[100]

On October 27, PDP-Laban confirmed that Duterte will substitute as the party's presidential bet if Diño withdraws or is disqualified by the Commission of Elections.[101] Two days later, Diño withdrew his presidential bid and named Duterte as his substitute because of a possibility that Diño might be declared as a nuisance candidate by the commission.[102]

On November 21 in a gathering held in his alma mater San Beda College, Duterte formally announced his presidential bid and also finally accepted Alan Peter Cayetano's offer to be his running mate.[103] Duterte said he is disappointed over the decision made by the Senate Electoral Tribunal regarding Grace Poe's citizenship as well as the current administration's handling of the ‘laglag-bala’ issue.[104] Duterte further stated that he will file his candidacy immediately after he reached out to his party.[105] However, the legality of Duterte's substitution for Diño was questioned by some electoral lawyers because of an error made in Diño's certificate of candidacy that made him a Pasay mayoral bet despite being a resident of Quezon City.

Duterte topped all other candidates, including former front-runner Grace Poe, in a survey published November 25, 2015 and held by Pulse Asia.[106] Poe said that the survey was 'inconclusive' and 'not reflective' and claimed it was made by Duterte's camp.[107] The day after, Duterte filed his certificate of candidacy at the commission main office in Manila and withdrew his bid for Mayor of Davao City (for which he will be substituted to by his daughter, Sara).[108]

Grace Poe[edit]

Grace Poe's surprising first-place finish in the 2013 Senate election as an independent made her a likely contender for the presidency but she dismissed any plans of running in April 2014, saying she was not considering "anything higher at this point" and even declaring that Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago is the most qualified to run as president [109]

On President Aquino's state visit to Canada in May 2015, the president disclosed that he had met with Poe prior to the trip, although he didn't say what the meeting was for.[110] A couple of days later, Poe confirmed that she did meet with Aquino. Poe said that "We discussed his intention to choose a candidate who, first and foremost, has the trust of the nation, and, secondly, has the potential to win in the election, in order to sustain the reforms especially against corruption and the pro-poor programs of the government." Poe expects more meetings with Aquino in June.[111]

On June 2, UNA interim president Toby Tiangco, responding to calls for Jejomar Binay to "come clean" on his corruption allegations, said in a press conference that Poe is not qualified to run either for president or vice president after citing her certificate of candidacy in the 2013 Senate election, which stated that she is a resident for six years and six months; adding three years for the 2016 election, nine years and six months or six months short mandated by the constitution.[112] Two days later, before a Senate session, Poe said that she wrote "six years and six months" because it was in April 2006 that her home in the United States was sold. Poe, who had been a resident of the United States for 13 years, returned to the Philippines after her father Fernando Poe, Jr., a presidential candidate in the 2004 elections, died in December 2004. She said that she has proof that she has been living in the Philippines since February 2005. She said, that despite being a congressman for Navotas, Tiangco lives elsewhere, and that her decision on whether to run in 2016 is "50%" sure. Poe also observed that the attacks from UNA only began after she signed the Senate Blue Ribbon subcommittee report recommending plunder and graft cases against Binay.[113]

On September 16, at a gathering at the University of the Philippines Diliman in Quezon City, Poe announced her intention to seek the presidency, saying that "No one person or group has a monopoly on a straight path advocacy" of President Aquino, a shot against the Aquino party's nominee Roxas, who is advocating for continuation of the "Daang Matuwid" (straight path) advocacy of Aquino; while also hitting the Administration programs. This resulted in the Palace questioning their Daang Matuwid advocacy contrary to their speeches.[114]

On December 1, the commission's second division had formally disqualified Poe from running as President in the 2016 elections and cancelled her filed Certificate of Candidacy for not failing to meet with citizenship and residency requirements. The division voted 3-0 in favor of the petition filed by Attorney Estrella Elamparo to disqualify Poe. The decision stated that Poe had failed to comply with the 10-year residency requirement, mandatory for a presidential candidate.[115]

On December 23, 2015, the commission en banc disqualified Poe from running as president in the 2016 elections for failing to meet the 10-year residency requirement.[116][117] Poe said she would appeal the disqualification to the Supreme Court. On December 28, 2015 the Supreme Court issued two temporary restraining orders against the decision of the commission en banc.[118]

On March 8, 2016, voting 9–6, the Supreme Court voted to affirm Poe's natural-born status and 10-year residency.[119][120] On April 9, 2016, the Supreme Court declared their ruling as final and executory.[121]

Mar Roxas[edit]

Senate President Franklin Drilon, when describing the Liberal Party's plans for Interior Secretary Mar Roxas' in 2016, told the media in January 2013 that "so far as the LP is concerned, [and] in so far as I am concerned, we believe that he is best qualified for 2016."[122] Two years later, Drilon told DZIQ AM radio that Roxas had expressed his interest internally within the party.[123] Several Liberal Party stalwarts had by then expressed that Roxas should declare his intentions at that time,[124] with some such as Budget Secretary Florencio Abad suggesting that Roxas may slide down to run for the vice presidency again.[125]

Aquino had a series of meetings between Roxas, Grace Poe and Francis Escudero from prior to Aquino's state visit to Canada in May, until days before his final State of the Nation Address in July, including a July dinner with all three of them at the Bahay Pangarap, Aquino's official residence at the Malacañang Palace complex. While Roxas was seen as Aquino's choice to succeed him, another question was who would be Roxas' running mate, as Poe had earlier said that she'd rather run with Escudero as her running mate.[126]

On July 31, 2015, at an event dubbed as "A Gathering of Friends", Roxas formally accepted the Liberal Party's nomination after he was officially endorsed by President Benigno Aquino III in the presence of their political allies at the Club Filipino, San Juan, where Roxas had announced his decision to withdraw from the 2010 presidential election and give way to Aquino's presidential bid. Aquino also announced his candidacy there on September 9, 2009.[32] On the same day, Roxas formally launched his campaign website.

For vice president[edit]

Alan Peter Cayetano[edit]

In a March 2013 interview with the ABS-CBN News Channel, Senator Alan Peter Cayetano (Nacionalista Party), said that "I want to be president of this country."[127] In September 2015, after several surveys saw him trailing in the presidential race, said that he is withdrawing from the presidential election, and would instead focus for the vice presidency, preferably as the running mate of either Mar Roxas or Rodrigo Duterte.

A few days later in a Davao City meeting, Cayetano announced that he will seek candidacy for running as Vice President. Cayetano, who he is the member of Nacionalista Party, did not mention his presidential running-mate as the Nacionalistas will meet in a few days, for their decision.[128] On October 1, Duterte said that if he would ever run for president, he would prefer Cayetano to be his running mate.[129] Days later, Duterte declined the offer to be Cayetano and Bongbong Marcos' offers to be their presidential running mate.[130] However, during a phone interview with the Philippine Daily Inquirer in November 2015, Cayetano confirmed Duterte as his running mate if ever the latter confirms his candidacy for presidency.[131]

Francis Escudero[edit]

Senator Francis Escudero (independent) said in a March 2012 Rappler interview that "Let me be honest, candid, yet factual about it. I would be very interested in seeking a higher office in 2016 for the simple reason that I’m halfway through my last term."[132] By May 2015, Grace Poe told reporters that she would not run against Escudero.[133]

On September 17 at the Club Filipino in San Juan, Escudero announced his vice presidential bid, becoming Poe's running mate.[35]

Gringo Honasan[edit]

Senator Gringo Honasan (United Nationalist Alliance) denied that he was going to be Jejomar Binay's running mate in September 2015.[134] By the next month, however, he said that his team-up with Binay was possible.[135] On October 12, 2015, Honasan announced that he will be running with Binay as the latter's vice president.[39]

Bongbong Marcos[edit]

Asked on a November 2012 interview at DZBB on his plans to run in 2016, Senator Bongbong Marcos (Nacionalista Party) said "Never say never."[136] By March 2015, in another interview, this time at DZMM, he said that he "will thoroughly study everything."[137] In August 2015, after reports surfaced of him being Jejomar Binay's running mate, Marcos clarified on an interview at the ABS-CBN News Channel that he is still undecided on what position to run for, but he would certainly not be defending his Senate seat.[138] On October 5, 2015, Senator Bongbong Marcos announced his candidacy for Vice President of the Philippines in the 2016 election, and would support the candidacy of Rodrigo Duterte if he ever does run.[38] Days later, Duterte declined Cayetano's and Marcos' offers to be their presidential running mate.

Leni Robredo[edit]

In August 2015, Representative Leni Robredo, from Camarines Sur's third district (Liberal Party), said that talk of plans of her running in 2016 is "too soon", and that she'd only run if she's "indispensable".[139]

After the initial objections of her daughters, Robredo decided to run for Vice President, accepting the offers of President Aquino and Mar Roxas.[140] She officially announced her candidacy for the office on October 5, 2015, at the Club Filipino.[37]

Antonio Trillanes[edit]

In the news program Bandila's May 30, 2014 segment where a guest is asked to answer only "yes" or "no," Senator Antonio Trillanes IV (Nacionalista Party) was asked if he would run for vice president in 2016 and responded by saying "Let’s just say yes, I will run. As for what position, I will abide by the Nacionalista Party."[141]

By August 2015, Trillanes revealed his plans of running as an independent vice presidential candidate, saying that the Nacionalistas would not endorse a candidate if more than one of them ran for the vice presidency. Trillanes' own group, Magdalo, is backing his vice presidential bid.[142]

Recently, in a general assembly of MAGDALO coalition members, Trillanes announced he will run for vice president as an Independent, but will support the presidential bid of Senator Grace Poe.[143][144]

Trillanes questioned the presidential bid of Rodrigo Duterte, saying that if Duterte wins, his presidency will be a disaster to the Philippines.[145]

Debates[edit]

The Commission on Elections confirmed that they will organize three presidential debates and one vice presidential debate. This was the first time that the commission organized debates since the 1992 elections. The debates were dubbed as PiliPinas Debates 2016.[146]

Office Date Media partners Location
President February 21, 2016 GMA Network and Philippine Daily Inquirer Mindanao Cagayan de Oro Capitol University
March 20, 2016 TV5, Philippine Star and BusinessWorld Visayas Cebu City University of the Philippines Cebu College
April 24, 2016 ABS-CBN and Manila Bulletin Luzon Dagupan University of Pangasinan
Vice President April 10, 2016 CNN Philippines, Rappler and Business Mirror Metro Manila Manila University of Santo Tomas

A separate debate, Harapan ng Bise, was organized and hosted by ABS-CBN.[147]

Office Date Media partners Location
Vice President April 17, 2016 ABS-CBN Metro Manila Quezon City ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center

Opinion polling[edit]

Opinion polling in Philippines is conducted by Social Weather Stations (SWS), Pulse Asia and other pollsters.

Only polls conducted after January 10, 2016, the start of the election period, are included. The front-runner is in bold. Those that are within the margin of error are in italics.

For president[edit]

Opinion polling in the presidential election using three-survey moving average.
  Others
  None/undecided
Date(s) conducted Pollster Sample
size
Margin of
error
Binay
(UNA)
Defensor
Santiago

(PRP)
Duterte
(PDP-Laban)
Poe
(Ind.)
Roxas
(LP)
Undecided
None
Other
Jan 8–10 SWS[148] 1,800 ±2.0% 31 3 20 24 21 2
Jan 19 First round of oral arguments of Grace Poe's petition to the Supreme Court to overturn the disqualification against her candidacy
Jan 24–28 Pulse Asia[149] 1,200 ±3.0% 23 4 20 30 20 3
Jan 27 – Feb 4 Standard[150] 3,000 ±1.8% 22 2 20 29 22 4
Feb 5–7 SWS[148] 1,200 ±3.0% 29 4 24 24 18 2
Feb 8 Presidential candidate Roy Señeres dies of cardiac arrest
Feb 9 Start of campaign period for candidates for president, vice president, senators and party-lists
Feb 13 DZRHMBC[151][152] 7,572 ±1.13% 23.2 3.9 26.4 27 19 2.3
Feb 21 First presidential debate in Cagayan de Oro
Feb 16–27 Pulse Asia[153] 5,200 ±1.4% 22 3 24 26 19 6
Feb 24 – Mar 1 Standard[154] 3,000 ±1.8% 23 2 24 26 22 4
Mar 4–7 SWS [155] 1,800 ±2.0% 24 4 21 27 22 1
Mar 8 In a 9-6 vote, the Supreme Court affirms Grace Poe's natural-born status and declares she is qualified to run based on her 10-year residency
Mar 15–20 Pulse Asia[156] 4,000 ±1.5% 23 2 24 28 19 5
Mar 20 Second presidential debate in Cebu City
Mar 26 – Apr 1 Standard[157] 3,000 ±1.8% 18 2 30 27 21 2
Apr 2 MBCDZRH[158] 7,490 ±1.13% 15 3.5 36 28.2 15.2 1.8
Apr 9 The Supreme Court declares that their vote on Grace Poe's natural-born status and 10-year residency is final and executory and she is eligible to become president
Apr 11–16 The Center[159] 1,800 ±2.5% 23.25 2 26.75 26.25 20.75 1
Apr 17 Rodrigo Duterte makes a joke about a murdered and raped Australian kidnap victim in a campaign rally
Apr 13–18 D' Strafford[160] 2,800 ±1.9% 19.1 4.1 20.4 25.9 26.2 4.2
Apr 16–20 Pulse Asia[161] 1,800 ±2.3% 16 2 35 23 17 6
Apr 18–20 SWS[162] 1,800 ±2.0% 14 2 33 24 19 8
Apr 19–24 Pulse Asia[163] 4,000 ±1.5% 18 2 33 22 20 5
Apr 24 Third presidential debate in Dagupan
Apr 27 Antonio Trillanes' expose on Rodrigo Duterte's alleged multimillion peso bank accounts and properties
Apr 23–29 The Center[164] 1,800 ±2.5% 23 2 29 25 21
Apr 25–29 D' Strafford[165] 4,500 ±1.2% 16.6 2.7 25.4 23.6 27.8 3
Apr 26–29 Pulse Asia[166] 4,000 ±1.5% 17 2 33 21 22 5
Apr 28–30 Argus [167] 6,000 ±1.9% 19 4 31 27 19
Apr 27 – May 1 Standard[168] 3,000 ±1.8% 15 2 32 25 22 4
May 1–3 SWS[169] 4,500 ±1.0% 13 2 33 22 20 10
May 1–5 D' Strafford [170] 4,500 ±1.2% 16.6 3 25.4 22.5 30.5 2
May 9 Election day

For vice president[edit]

Opinion polling in the vice presidential election, using three-survey moving average.
  Others
  None/undecided
Date(s) conducted Pollster Sample
size
Margin of
error
Cayetano
(Ind.)
Escudero
(Ind.)
Honasan
(UNA)
Marcos
(Ind.)
Robredo
(LP)
Trillanes
(Ind.)
Undecided
None
Other
Jan 8–10 SWS[148] 1,800 ±2.0% 14 28 8 25 17 3 4
Jan 24–28 Pulse Asia[149] 1,200 ±3.0% 14 33 5 23 18 4 3
Jan 27 – Feb 4 Standard [150] 3,000 ±1.8% 15 31 5 25 20 4
Feb 5–7 SWS[148] 1,200 ±3.0% 16 26 6 26 19 5 2
Feb 9 Start of campaign period for candidates for president, vice president, senators and party-lists
Feb 13 DZRHMBC[151] 7,572 ±1.13% 14.8 26.8 5.5 25.1 18.8 6.2 2.7
Feb 16–27 Pulse Asia[153] 5,400 ±1.4% 13 26 5 26 19 6 6
Feb 24 – Mar 1 Standard[171] 3,000 ±1.8% 11 30 4 24 20 7 5
Mar 4–7 SWS [155] 1,800 ±2.0% 11 28 5 26 24 6
Mar 15–20 Pulse Asia[156] 4,000 ±1.5% 14 25 5 25 21 4 5
Mar 26 – Apr 1 Standard[157] 3,000 ±1.8% 15 28 3 25 21 5 4
Apr 2 MBCDZRH[158] 7,490 ±1.13% 18.4 22.6 4.3 29.8 17.9 5.5 1.6
Apr 10 First vice presidential debate in Manila
Apr 11–16 The Center[159] 1,800 ±2.5% 15 23 4 29 25 3 1
Apr 17 Second vice presidential debate in Quezon City
Apr 13–18 D' Strafford[160] 2,800 ±1.9% 17 23 1 25 32 2
Apr 16–20 Pulse Asia[161] 1,800 ±2.3% 16 18 4 29 24 3 7
Apr 18–20 SWS[162] 1,800 ±2.0% 16 18 2 25 26 5 8
Apr 19–24 Pulse Asia[163] 4,000 ±1.5% 15 18 2 31 26 3 5
Apr 27 Antonio Trillanes' expose on Rodrigo Duterte's alleged multimillion peso bank accounts and properties
Apr 23–29 The Center[164] 4,000 ±2.5% 15 18 5 31 25 3 3
Apr 25–29 D' Strafford[165] 4,500 ±1.2% 16 18 2 28 34 1 1
Apr 26–29 Pulse Asia[166] 4,000 ±1.5% 15 18 3 28 30 2 4
Apr 28–30 Argus [167] 6,000 ±1.9% 13 22 4 33 24 4
Apr 27 – May 1 Standard[172] 3,000 ±1.8% 12 20 3 30 29 3 3
May 1–3 SWS[173] 4,500 ±1.0% 13 15 3 29 28 3 9
May 1–5 D' Strafford [170] 4,500 ±1.2% 17 18 1 25 35 3 2
May 9 Election day

Exit polls[edit]

The Social Weather Stations, together with TV5, published their exit poll a few hours after polling closed. The results were:

For president
Date(s) conducted Pollster Sample
size
Margin of
error
Binay
(UNA)
Defensor Santiago
(PRP)
Duterte
(PDP-Laban)
Poe
(Ind.)
Roxas
(LP)
May 9 SWS[174] 45, 123 N/A 13.5 3.1 39.3 19.2 24.0
For vice president
Date(s) conducted Pollster Sample
size
Margin of
error
Cayetano
(Ind.)
Escudero
(Ind.)
Honasan
(UNA)
Marcos
(Ind.)
Robredo
(LP)
Trillanes
(Ind.)
May 9 SWS[174] 45,123 N/A 14.9 11.0 2.5 34.6 32.8 2.1

Campaign[edit]

While the campaign period as set by law started on February 9, 2016, candidates had earlier started campaigning as early as late 2015, as the courts have struck the ban on premature campaigning as unconstitutional.

Issues[edit]

The continuation of outgoing president Benigno Aquino III's policies is seen to be the main theme for the election. Former Interior Secretary Mar Roxas promises the continuation of the "Daang Matuwid" ("straight path") anti-corruption drive, which is appealing among the elites. Roxas's base was mostly middle-class Filipinos. Vice President Jejomar Binay's policies is seen to be opposite of Aquino's, such as the former's opposition to the enactment of the Bangsamoro Basic Law, and on how to approach China concerning the territorial disputes in the South China Sea, while presenting himself as a man of the people, and fighting out allegations of corruption while serving as mayor of Makati, the country's financial hub. Senator Grace Poe's campaign is seen to be an alternative to Roxas and Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte; her image as untarnished by corruption is liked by the elite, while she sends messages that are pro-poor. Duterte is banking on a law and order platform, which includes the proposals concerning federalism in the Philippines. Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago, who almost won the presidency in 1992, insists that she has recovered from cancer.[175]

Start of campaign period for national positions[edit]

Proclamation rallies were held by all five presidential tickets at the start of campaigning on February 9. The Jejomar BinayGringo Honasan ticket started their campaign at a slum in Mandaluyong, to "be with the Filipino poor". Rodrigo Duterte and Alan Peter Cayetano started campaigning at Tondo, Manila. Roxas City, the hometown of Mar Roxas, was the host of the Roxas–Leni Robredo tandem's proclamation rally. Grace Poe and Francis Escudero had their proclamation rally at Plaza Miranda in Quiapo, Manila. Miriam Defensor Santiago held their proclamation rally at her running mate's Bongbong Marcos' hometown of Batac, Ilocos Norte. Antonio Trillanes kicked off his campaign at General Santos.[176]

On the first presidential debate since 1992 in February 21 in Cagayan de Oro hosted by GMA Network, the candidates commented that they were not given enough time to express their views.[177][178] The Binay campaign lamented that the question on political dynasties was asked on him at a round where supposedly issues about Mindanao were the topics.[179] Several weeks later, on March 8, the Supreme Court reversed the decision of the commission to disqualify Poe, thereby allowing her to run.[180]

In the Visayas leg of the presidential debate held in Cebu City hosted by TV5, the respective campaigns were generally more receptive of the conduct of the debate. The debate proper though was delayed due to a misunderstanding of the rules: Binay was informed by debate moderator Luchi Cruz-Valdez that bringing of notes was allowed, but the commission ruled it out when the Roxas camp objected to it.[181]

Start of campaign period for local positions[edit]

Candidates started gaining endorsements from local politicians when campaigning for local positions started just right before Easter. Poe got the endorsement of Manila Mayor Joseph Estrada over Binay, who was Estrada's running mate in 2010.[182] One Cebu abandoned their original support for Binay to Duterte, vowing to deliver one million votes.[183] Binay also lost the support of the Remullas of Cavite of which Cavite Governor Jonvic is his spokesperson, for Duterte.[184]

On an April 17 campaign rally, Duterte said on an Australian rape victim that "Was I mad because she was raped? Yes, that's one of the reasons. But she really was beautiful. The mayor should have been first."[185] This was met by condemnation both from his opponents,[186] and other sectors of society, including the Australian ambassador to Manila.[187] Duterte apologized for the incident, blamed his "gutter language", but did not apologize for his remarks.[188]

On April 26, Antonio Trillanes claims that Duterte has a bank account worth 211 million pesos that wasn't declared in his statement of assets, liabilities and net worth. On the same day, Duterte denied the existence of the bank accounts, which were supposedly in a Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) branch in Julia Vargas Avenue in Pasig, and was jointly held with his daughter Sara.[189] A day later, Duterte acknowledged the existence of the bank account at the BPI branch in Julia Vargas, but it had "only thousands" in funds. Duterte later challenged Trillanes to execute an affidavit stating how he got the information, and he'd promise to open the account.[190] On May 2, Trillanes and Duterte's lawyer met at the BPI Julia Vargas branch. Duterte's lawyer brought with him a special power of attorney requesting BPI to certify the existence of Duterte's account.[191] In the end, no bank records were released, as the bank asked for more time to accede to the request. Trillanes expressed disappointment, as the special power of attorney invoked on whether the bank account asked for the current balance of the account, not the transaction history that he wanted.[192]

A week before the election, an anti-Duterte advertisement began appearing on television; it was already on rotation in radio stations. Paid for by Trillanes, the commercial features children reacting to Duterte's controversial remarks. It was widely disapproved at social media.[193] ABS-CBN defended their decision to air the ad, saying that "We are duty bound to air a legitimate ad." A similar ad also aired on GMA Network. Alan Peter Cayetano said that the ad had been rejected by other TV networks, but was "blindly approved" by ABS-CBN's ethics committee.[194] A Taguig court later disallowed the commercial to be aired, saying that "These advertisements do manifestly oppose a candidate and thus the court cannot allow minor children to be used in such black propaganda".[195]

A few days before the election, Roxas called for Poe to back out, in order to defeat Duterte. Poe rebuffed Roxas' offer, saying that she would never withdraw from the presidential race.[196] Meanwhile, President Aquino also called on Poe, Binay and Santiago to unite against Duterte. A Binay spokesperson retorted that instead of the president calling for unity against a specific candidate, Aquino should've just insured of clean elections.[197]

Miting de avance[edit]

A tradition of Philippine politics, the "miting de avance" is the final political rally before the election itself. For the Duterte campaign, the miting de avance was held at Rizal Park in Manila; however, his campaign pointed to the Liberal Party of sabotaging the rally, as backhoes dug up holes in the park. The administrators of the park countered that they were only removing the asphalt from the Burnham green of the park.[198]

Two days before the election, all mitings de avance were held in Metro Manila. The Santiago campaign held their "youth supporters rally" at West Triangle, Quezon City. The Roxas campaign held theirs at the Quezon Memorial Circle in the same city, while the Binay campaign held it at the corner of Kalayaan Avenue and Lawton Avenue in Makati. Grace Poe held her miting de avance at Plaza Miranda in Manila. The Duterte campaign pushed through with their rally at Rizal Park.[199]

Results[edit]

Congress canvassed the results in record time of three days. Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte and Representative from Camarines Sur Leni Robredo were proclaimed president and vice president on May 30, in front of a joint session, at the Batasang Pambansa Complex. Duterte notably skipped his proclamation, as he has consistently skipped his prior proclamations.[200]

For president[edit]

As above, but showing the percentages of the winning candidate per province and city. Note that to avoid confusion with Roxas, the color used for Duterte here is red, which was his campaign color.

Duterte carried Metro Manila, its metropolitan-provincial counterpart Rizal, several other provinces that nearby or neighboring to Manila and all but five provinces in Mindanao. Roxas carried most of the Visayas, except for the Central Visayas, Biliran and Leyte provinces that went for Duterte, and several southern Luzon provinces that won by Poe. Binay won in Cagayan Valley where his family originated as well as in Makati City, while Poe won the rest of Luzon that Duterte and Binay did not win. Santiago failed to win in any province.

e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Rodrigo Duterte Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan
(Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power)
16,601,997 39.01%
Mar Roxas Liberal Party 9,978,175 23.45%
Grace Poe Independent 9,100,991 21.39%
Jejomar Binay United Nationalist Alliance 5,416,140 12.73%
Miriam Defensor Santiago People's Reform Party 1,455,532 3.42%
Total 42,552,835 100%
Valid votes 42,552,835 94.61%
Roy Señeres[p 1] Partido ng Manggagawa at Magsasaka (Workers' and Peasants' Party) 25,779 0.06%
Total invalid votes 2,426,316 5.39%
Votes cast 44,979,151 81.5%
Registered voters 55,739,911 100%
  1. ^ Withdrew on February 5, 2016, and died three days later. All of his votes are to be considered as spoiled votes.

For vice president[edit]

Provincial and city breakdown of the vice presidential election.
As above, but showing the percentages of the winning candidate per province and city. Note that to avoid confusion with Robredo, the color used for Cayetano here is red. To further avoid confusion with Cayetano, green is used for Marcos.

Robredo won most of Bicol Region and Visayas, MIMAROPA and northern Mindanao. Marcos won the so-called "Solid North", most of Central Luzon and Metro Manila, other parts of CALABARZON and SOCCSKSARGEN in Mindanao. Cayetano won in the Davao Region and Surigao del Sur, as well as Cebu City, Butuan City, Iligan City (not shown on the map), and Taguig, while Escudero carried his home province of Sorsogon. Honasan and Trillanes failed to win a province.

e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine vice presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Leni Robredo Liberal Party 14,418,817 35.11%
Bongbong Marcos Independent [v 1] 14,155,344 34.47%
Alan Peter Cayetano Independent [v 2] 5,903,379 14.38%
Francis Escudero Independent 4,931,962 12.01%
Antonio Trillanes Independent [v 3] 868,501 2.11%
Gringo Honasan United Nationalist Alliance 788,881 1.92%
Total 41,066,884 100%
Valid votes 41,066,884 91.30%
Invalid votes 3,912,267 8.70%
Votes cast 44,979,151 81.5%
Registered voters 55,739,911 100%
  1. ^ Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; Miriam Defensor Santiago's (PRP) guest candidate for vice president
  2. ^ Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; Rodrigo Duterte's (PDP-Laban) guest candidate for vice president
  3. ^ Member of Nacionalista Party, which does not field an official candidate; supported by Magdalo and endorsed Grace Poe for President

Allegation of manipulated results[edit]

On the evening of May 10, Leni Robredo took first place on the unofficial vote count led by the Parish Pastoral Council on Responsible Voting (PPCRV), and Bongbong Marcos suspected that the Liberal Party manipulated the vice presidential votes in favor of Robredo.[201] Marcos soon ordered the Commission on Elections to stop the unofficial count by the PPCRV, and he stated that no one has been aware that his lead on the unofficial vote count fell down.[202]

Unofficial results[edit]

Municipal level breakdown of the presidential race

Prior to the canvassing by Congress, other groups such as the media and non-governmental organizations may issue their own separate tallies.

2016 Philippine presidential election, COMELEC transparency server
Candidate Party Votes
Rodrigo Duterte PDP-Laban 15,970,018
Mar Roxas Liberal 9,700,382
Grace Poe Independent 8,935,733
Jejomar Binay UNA 5,318,249
Miriam Defensor Santiago PRP 1,424,520
Roy Señeres PMM 25,161
Turnout 43,716,817
Registered voters 55,739,911
Clustered precincts reporting 90,635 of 94,276
As of May 18, 2016, 7:45 PM Philippine Standard Time[203]
Municipal level breakdown of the vice presidential race
2016 Philippine vice presidential election, COMELEC transparency server
Candidate Party Votes
Leni Robredo Liberal 14,023,093
Bongbong Marcos Independent 13,803,966
Alan Peter Cayetano Independent 5,679,102
Francis Escudero Independent 4,812,375
Antonio Trillanes Independent 844,157
Gringo Honasan UNA 760,409
Turnout 43,716,817
Registered voters 55,739,911
Clustered precincts reporting 90,635 of 94,276
As of May 18, 2016, 7:45 PM Philippine Standard Time[204]
Robredo Percentages.png
Robredo
Marcos Percentages.png
Marcos
Cayetano Percentages1.png
Cayetano
Escudero Percentages.png
Escudero

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External links[edit]