Philippine presidential election, 2016

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Philippine presidential election, 2016
2010 ←
May 9, 2016 → 2022

  VP Binay.jpg Miriam beams as she attends a wedding as a sponsor.JPG Rodrigo Duterte (2009).jpg
Candidate Jejomar Binay Miriam Defensor Santiago Rodrigo Duterte
Party UNA PRP PDP-Laban
Running mate Gregorio Honasan
Bongbong Marcos
Alan Peter Cayetano

  Grace Poe-Llamanzares portrait.jpg MAR ROXAS.jpg
Candidate Grace Poe Mar Roxas
Party Independent Liberal
Running mate Francis Escudero
Leni Robredo

2016 Philippine presidential election provincial results.png

Results will be taken from provincial and city certificates of canvass. The inset shows Metro Manila.

Incumbent President

Benigno Aquino III

Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential election of 2016 is the next presidential election in the Philippines, scheduled on Monday, May 9, 2016. Incumbent President Benigno Aquino III is barred from seeking re-election, pursuant to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Therefore, this election will determine the 16th President of the Philippines. The position of president and vice president are elected separately, and the winning candidates may come from different political parties.

This will be the 16th presidential election in the Philippines since 1935, and the sixth sextennial presidential election since 1986. This will be a part of the 2016 general election where elections to the Senate, House of Representatives and local government above the barangay level, including the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao shall be held.

Electoral system[edit]

The election is held every six years after 1992, on the second Monday of May. The incumbent president is term limited. The incumbent vice president may run for two consecutive terms. As Joseph Estrada, who was elected in 1998, was able to run in 2010, it is undetermined if the term limit is for life, or is only limited to the incumbent.

The plurality voting system is used to determine the winner: the candidate with the highest number of votes, whether or not one has a majority, wins the presidency. The vice presidential election is a separate election, is held on the same rules, and voters may split their ticket. Both winners will serve six-year terms commencing on the noon of June 30, 2016 and ending on the same day six years later.

The candidates are determined via political conventions of the different political parties. As most political parties in the Philippines are loosely structured, with most politicians switching parties from time to time, a person not nominated by a party may either run as an independent, get drafted by another party, or form their own party. The candidacy process is supervised by the Commission on Elections (usually referred by its abbreviation "COMELEC") which also regulates and holds the elections. It is not uncommon for the Commission to disqualify certain candidates as "nuisance candidates" or those candidates who have no capacity to mount a nationwide campaign. This usually limits the candidates to a small number. The campaign will run for three months, beginning in early February 2016 and ending on the eve of the election, with a break for Maundy Thursday and Good Friday.

The counting of votes is initially held in the individual voting precincts, which are all then tabulated for the different municipalities and cities, then to the provinces, and finally to Congress, which is the final canvasser of the votes. Election protests are handled by the Supreme Court, when it sits as the Presidential Electoral Tribunal.


Map of the results of the 2010 vice presidential election. Provinces and cities won by Binay are in orange shades, Roxas in yellow shades, and Edu Manzano's are in blue.

Senator Benigno Aquino III of the Liberal Party, who ran on an anti-corruption platform, won the 2010 election with 42.08% of the votes defeating Joseph Estrada, a former president who was deposed in 2001 after scandals of massive corruption, and several others. Meanwhile, Estrada's running mate, Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay of the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban), defeated Aquino's running mate, Senator Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party and several others, in the vice presidential election.[1] Roxas eventually accused Binay of electoral fraud in the Presidential Electoral Tribunal, citing that some of his votes were recorded as null votes.[2]

Both Binay and Roxas were subsequently appointed by Aquino to his cabinet, with Binay heading the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council,[3] and Roxas first being given the Transportation and Communications portfolio, then finally named as Secretary of the Interior and Local Government, after the ban of appointing losing candidates expired a year after Aquino took office on June 30, 2010.[4] As of 2014, the tribunal had still not yet acted upon the preliminary motions of both parties and on Binay's counter-protest; the suit is expected to still not have been resolved by the time President Aquino's term expires.[5]

For the midterm 2013 Senate election, Aquino and Roxas formed the Team PNoy coalition;[6] Estrada's PMP and Binay's PDP-Laban forged an electoral alliance, the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA).[7] Team PNoy won nine Senate seats against UNA's three.[8]

In March 2014, PDP-Laban withdrew from UNA, a week after Binay resigned as party chairman, due "to differences with its leaders". Party president Aquilino Pimentel III had a public quarrel with Binay over Juan Miguel Zubiri's inclusion in UNA's 2013 senatorial slate, whom Pimentel had accused of cheating in the 2007 Senate election.[9]

Several other stalwarts of UNA, such as senators Juan Ponce Enrile and Jinggoy Estrada, who had manifested his intention to run as Binay's running mate, and others such as Senator Bong Revilla of Lakas-CMD, who is planning to run for president, are currently detained due to their involvement in the pork barrel scam.[10][11] No personalities linked with the Liberal Party but also involved in the scam were investigated; these actions by the government, which it says is part of its anti-corruption drive, have been cited by UNA as "political persecution".[12]

On July 2014, Renato Bondal, a defeated mayoral candidate in the 2013 Makati mayoral election, filed plunder cases against Makati mayor Jejomar Binay, Jr. and his father, the vice president, to the Ombudsman. By the next month, a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Committee composed solely of Pimentel, along with Nacionalista Party members Alan Peter Cayetano and Antonio Trillanes IV, began still ongoing Senate hearings against Binay on his alleged his corruption while serving as mayor of Makati, beginning with the alleged overpriced annex building of the Makati City Hall.[13] It was followed by hearings on alleged corruption on deals supplying Makati senior citizens with birthday cakes,[14] an agricultural estate in Rosario, Batangas that Binay allegedly owns,[15] the allegedly overpriced Makati Science High School,[16] and the relocation of Makati residents to Calauan, Laguna to a community without basic necessities.[17]

Makati City Hall (taller building to the right) as viewed from the Pasig River; the allegedly overpriced annex is the building to the left.

Binay had consistently denied any wrongdoing,[18] and from owning the Rosario estate,[19] but had never appeared at the Senate.[20] UNA Secretary General JV Bautista branded the investigations as part of the "Operation Plan Stop Nognog", insinuating on Binay's dark skin, with Roxas, Cayetano and Trillanes allegedly behind it to prevent Binay from becoming president. He accused billionaire businessman Salvador Zamora as its financier.[21] In May 2015, the Court of Appeals ordered the 242 bank accounts belonging to Binay to be frozen for six months, when it granted the petition of the Anti-Money Laundering Council and of the Ombudsman. Binay's camp had alleged certain people from the Liberal Party to be behind the freeze order,[22] a charge President Aquino, in a Bombo Radyo interview, himself denied.[23]

By late May 2015, the subcommittee report recommending the filing of a plunder (corruption worth more than 50 million pesos) complaint against Binay was signed by all three subcommittee members and Grace Poe.[24] By early June, ten senators had already signed the subcommittee report, making it official and available to be debated upon in the Senate floor.[25] A month later, Binay sued Cayetano, Trillanes and several others for 200 million pesos in damages at the Makati Regional Trial Court for "well-organized and orchestrated effort" to damage his reputation and worsen his chances of becoming president.[26]

Meanwhile, Aquino held several meetings with Roxas, Poe and Francis Escudero on who should be the standard bearer of the Liberal Party. While none of them had announced their preferences at that time, Aquino is expected to announced his preferred candidate after his final State of the Nation Address late in July. Congressional heads Franklin Drilon and Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. denied that Liberal Party members had been dissatisfied with Aquino's indecision, saying that the party is still united.[27]

On early July, Binay launched his party, the United Nationalist Alliance.[28] Later that month, Aquino did endorse Roxas for president, which the latter accepted.[29] In August, Rodrigo Duterte, the Davao City mayor who had been a subject of a strong online following urging him to run, announced his intention to retire from politics after his mayoral term ends in 2016.[30] Poe announced her intention to seek the presidency by mid-September,[31] followed by Escudero's announcing that he'll be her running mate a day later.[32] Several days later, Cayetano announced his vice presidential candidacy, preferring to be Duterte's running mate.

On October 3. Trillanes formally announced his vice presidential campaign as an independent, supporting Poe's presidential campaign.[33] Days later, Leni Robredo, the representative from Camarines Sur and widow of former Secretary of the Interior and Local Government Jesse Robredo who died in a plane crash on 2012, accepted the offer of the Liberal Party to be Roxas' running mate.[34] Also on that day, Senator Bongbong Marcos announced his candidacy as vice president.[35] A week later, after being nominated by UNA, Senator Gregorio Honasan announced that he would be Binay's running mate.[36] A day later, on the launch of her new book, Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago announced her presidential candidacy;[37] a couple of days later, she announced that Marcos would be her running mate.[38]

At the final day of the filing of candidacies, Duterte did not show up; instead, the PDP-Laban nominated Martin Diño, chairman of the Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption.[39] At the end of the day, more than a hundred people registered as presidential candidates, after a 5-day long filing period. These include current OFW Family Club representative Roy Señeres running under the Partido ng Manggagawa at Magsasaka, and former representative Iloilo Augusto Syjuco, who is running as in independent. For the vice presidency, nineteen people manifested their intention to run, including former assemblyman from Ifugao Zosimo Jesus Paredes II, who is running under the Partido Bansang Maharlika.

AC Nielsen Philippines showed on its monitoring report between Jan. 1 and Nov. 30 that presidential candidate Binay spent 595 million pesos for its campaign advertisements in television (before the campaign period). Vice presidentiable Cayetano led the spenders in the race, he spent 398 million pesos worth of TV advertisements.[40] Binay, denied the claim.[41] A article from The Manila Times reported also that the administration's bet Mar Roxas led the list of the biggest ad spenders in the country with a P774 million television advertisement expenses from January to December, in a survey also conducted by AC Nielsen.[42]


An initial list of 8 presidential candidates were uploaded on the certified candidates list in the COMELEC's database on January 21, 2016.[43] But only trimmed down to 5, due to declaration by the COMELEC en banc of Dante Valencia as a nuisance candidate and the withdrawal of certificates of candidacies of Romel Mendoza and Roy Señeres.[44][45][46]

This is the certified list of candidates for the elections to be included in the ballots:[47] Jejomar Binay, Miriam Defensor Santiago, Rodrigo R. Duterte, Grace Poe, Mar Roxas.[48] [49]

For president[edit]

Jejomar Binay[edit]

When questioned by the media at the Coconut Palace in September 2011, Vice President Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban) confirmed his plans of running as president.[50]

By May 2014, Binay began his search for a running mate. As his potential running mate Senator Jinggoy Estrada in jail due to his implication in the PDAF scam,[51] Binay's offers were declined by JV Ejercito,[52] Manny Villar (via wife Cynthia Villar),[53] Vilma Santos (via husband Ralph Recto),[54] Mar Roxas,[55] Grace Poe,[56] Rodrigo Duterte[57] and Joseph Estrada.[58] Binay's daughter Abigail, also the Representative from Makati, said that Binay would accept anyone as his running mate except for Antonio Trillanes, and that she prefers Grace Poe, however Sen. Bongbong Marcos was the most preferred by UNA officials to be his running mate.[59] On June 12, Independence Day, speech in Iloilo, President Aquino said that he could only offer Binay the conduct of a clean and honest election, but not an outright endorsement.[60]

On June 22, Binay resigned from the Aquino cabinet, both as presidential adviser on Overseas Filipino Workers' concerns and as chairman of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council, but did not say why.[61] Two days later, Binay addressed the public from his Coconut Palace offices, branding the current administration as "manhid at palpak" (insensitive and bumbling), but did not mention Aquino by name.[62]

Miriam Defensor Santiago[edit]

In a press conference on July 2, 2014, Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago (People's Reform Party) revealed she was suffering from Stage 4 lung cancer and she might run as president for the third time if it goes into remission. A Magsaysay Awardee, the Nobel Prize of Asia, and the Iron Lady of Asia, she was widely believed to have won the 1992 Philippine Presidential Elections, but lost after hours of blackout during the counting of votes. She then run for the Senate in 1995 and won with a landslide victory, becoming the most popular female senator and one of the most respected senators in Philippine history with the highest number of laws and bills authored and passed up to this day. She once again run for president in 1998, but lost after black propaganda was used against her campaign.[63]

By November 2014, Santiago, in a tweet, announced that "In the 2016 presidential elections, when I am rid of my lung cancer, I intend to claim the presidency I won in 1992." In a letter to the Senate, Santiago said that more than 90% of the cancer cells have regressed.[64]

Santiago announced her candidacy for president in the launch of her book Stupid is Forever on October 13, 2015. She will run under the People's Reform Party, the same party in which she ran under during her 1992 and 1998 presidential campaigns.[37] Days later, Santiago announced that Senator Bongbong Marcos would be her vice presidential running mate. Her platform stands on the effective and efficient upholding and implementation of national and state-recognized international laws, enhancement of the agriculture industry with a focus on irrigation and farm-to-market roads, enhancing all seaports and airports in the country, creating at least one major government project in all provinces and all regions in the Philippines, building and highlighting the country's diplomatic affairs in the international level while skyrocketing the country's defense capabilities, and eradicating graft and corruption, which she believes to be the cause of poverty and inefficiency in the country.[38] Presidential candidate Rodrigo Duterte gave in an interview in November 2015 his comments on his fellow candidates' qualities, stating that "[i]f you want extraordinary competence and integrity, vote for Miriam."[65]

Rodrigo Duterte[edit]

Early in 2015, Duterte made hints to the media of his intent to run for the presidency come 2016, with the promise of abolishing the Philippine Congress altogether in favor of a Parliament should he win.[66][67][68] Earlier, in February 2014, Duterte was reportedly enjoying the support of several netizens who were lauding his performance as mayor of Davao, especially in maintaining peace and order in the city, but he was quick to shrug off calls for him to run for President, saying he was not qualified for a higher public office.[69] A year later, Duterte said in a Baguio federalism forum that he'll only run for president "if (it is) to save the republic." Duterte cited the need of about 10 to 15 billion pesos for a campaign war chest as what was keeping him from running.[70] Days later, however, Duterte "re-entered" PDP-Laban; he maintained he never left the party, and only had to stand under a local party banner (Hugpong) in the 2013 local election in order to ensure his victory.[71] PDP-Laban president Aquilino Pimentel III later said that Duterte was among his party's options for a presidential candidate for 2016, noting that the party's position on federalism coincides with Duterte's advocacy.[72] A few days after reports came out saying incumbent Vice-President Jejomar Binay (a presidential aspirant) was eyeing Duterte as his possible running mate, Duterte issued a statement saying he was not interested in running for a national post.[73]

In September 2014, Duterte already declined presidential aspirant and incumbent senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago's offer to be her running mate, saying that instead of picking him as the senator's running mate, she could ask former defense secretary Gilberto Teodoro, Jr. instead.[74] However, in October 2015, Santiago chose Bongbong Marcos as her running mate.[75]

Later, during the June 21, 2015 airing of his weekly program in a local channel (Gikan Sa Masa, Para Sa Masa), Duterte stated that he was considering suggestions from his friends and supporters to run for President. He also added that he will stop expressing non-interest in starting a presidential campaign.[76]

On September 7, 2015, in a press conference held at Davao City, Duterte officially declared he will not be running for President in 2016 and apologized to all of his supporters on the decision. He additionally stated that he might retire from politics after his term as mayor of Davao City ends in 2016 and his daughter runs for the office. Other factors of his possible retirement include age, health concerns and his family's objections.[77] Mixed reactions erupted in social media hours after the declaration and several supporters still continued to petition online, urging the mayor to revert his decision.[78]

On September 26, 2015, a large number of supporters gathered at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila to urge Duterte to officially run for the presidency in 2016.[79][80] Despite being an undeclared candidate, Pulse Asia Research Director Ana Tabunda still considered Duterte "a serious contender" as he was already ranked 4th in a presidential survey done by Pulse Asia from late August to early September, as well as in a Social Weather Stations survey.[81] Duterte's long-time political rival and critic, former House Speaker Prospero Nograles, also expressed his support for Duterte if ever the latter decided to run for the presidency.[82] On September 29, incumbent Senator Alan Peter Cayetano declared his intention to run for the 2016 Vice-Presidential post in a press event held in Davao City and considered Duterte his first choice as running mate for the presidential post; this eventually led to a meeting between the two parties.[83] A day after meeting with Cayetano, Duterte met with another incumbent senator, Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., who also went to Davao City to personally talk to Duterte. Marcos was reportedly considering running for the Vice-Presidential post as well; Marcos had not yet made any formal proclamation at that time. As in the Cayetano meeting, Duterte still declared that he was not running for president.[84]

On October 13, 2015, in a press conference held at a local hotel in Davao City, Duterte finalized his decision not to run for the presidency, with daughter Sara's objection being pointed out as one of the main contributors.[85]

On October 15, 2015, Duterte, through a representative, filed his candidacy for Mayor of Davao City at the local elections office.[86] A day later, Duterte's daughter Sara, posted on her Instagram account a photo of her candidacy as mayor of Davao City, while hinting that her father would seek a higher post and withdraw his mayoral re-election bid.[87] However, it was received that it was not received by the COMELEC in Davao City.[88] Duterte’s possibility of substitution until December 10 was opened after Martin Diño, father of celebrity Liza Diño and chairman of the Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption and former barangay captain of Brgy. San Antonio, Quezon City, filed his candidacy for president on the last minute. Diño is a member of PDP-Laban, the same party advocating the federalism system where Duterte belongs.[89] Diño clarified that there was a "clerical error" on his submitted candidacy (running for Pasay City mayor, instead of president). On their general meeting held in Pasay City on October 26, members of PDP-Laban had expressed their support to Diño in his presidential bid.[90] On October 21, Duterte told CNN Philippines' News.PH interview that there was still a chance he would change his mind. The decision, however, would have to be made by the PDP-Laban.[91]

On October 27, PDP-Laban has made it official that Duterte will substitute as the party's presidential bet if Diño withdraws or is disqualified by the Commission of Elections.[92] Two days later, Diño withdrawn his presidential bid and named Duterte as his substitute because there’s a possibility that Diño might be declared as nuisance candidate by the COMELEC.[93]

On November 21 in a gathering held in his alma mater San Beda College, Duterte formally announced his presidential bid and also finally accepted Alan Peter Cayetano's offer to be his running mate.[94] Duterte said he is disappointed over the decision made by the Senate Electoral Tribunal regarding Grace Poe's citizenship as well as the current administration's handling of the ‘laglag-bala’ issue.[95] Duterte further stated that he will file his candidacy immediately after he reached out to his party.[96] However, the legality of Duterte's substitution for Diño was questioned by some electoral lawyers because of an error made in Diño's certificate of candidacy that made him a Pasay mayoral bet despite being a resident of Quezon City.

Duterte topped all other candidates, including former front-runner Grace Poe, in a survey published November 25, 2016 and held by Pulse Asia.[97] Poe said that the survey was 'inconclusive' and 'not reflective' and claimed it was made by Duterte's camp.[98] The day after, Duterte filed his certificate of candidacy at the COMELEC office in Manila and withdrew his bid for Mayor of Davao City (for which he will be substituted by his daughter, Sara.[99]

Grace Poe[edit]

Grace Poe's surprising first-place finish in the 2013 Senate election as an independent made her a likely contender for the presidency but she dismissed any plans of running in April 2014, saying she was not considering "anything higher at this point."[100]

On President Aquino's state visit to Canada in May 2015, the president disclosed that he had met with Poe prior to the trip, although he didn't say what the meeting was for.[101] A couple of days later, Poe confirmed that she did meet with Aquino. Poe said that "We discussed his intention to choose a candidate who, first and foremost, has the trust of the nation, and, secondly, has the potential to win in the election, in order to sustain the reforms especially against corruption and the pro-poor programs of the government." Poe expects more meetings with Aquino in June.[102]

On June 2, UNA interim president Toby Tiangco, responding to calls for Jejomar Binay to "come clean" on his corruption allegations, said in a press conference that Poe is not qualified to run either for president or vice president after citing her certificate of candidacy in the 2013 Senate election which stated that she is a resident for six years and six months; adding three years for the 2016 election, nine years and six months or six months short mandated by the constitution.[103] Two days later, before a Senate session, Poe said that she wrote "six years and six months" because it was on April 2006 that her home in the United States was sold. Poe, who had been a resident of the United States for 13 years, returned to the Philippines after her father Fernando Poe, Jr., a presidential candidate in the 2004 elections, died in December 2004. She said that she has proof that she has been living in the Philippines since February 2005. She said, that despite being a congressman for Navotas, Tiangco lives elsewhere, and that her decision on whether to run in 2016 is "50%" sure. Poe also observed that the attacks from UNA only began after she signed the Senate Blue Ribbon subcommittee report recommending plunder and graft cases against Binay.[104]

On September 16, at a gathering at the University of the Philippines Diliman in Quezon City, Poe announced her intention to seek the presidency, saying that "No one person or group has a monopoly on a straight path advocacy" of President Aquino, a shot against the Aquino party's nominee Roxas, who is advocating for continuation of the "Daang Matuwid" (straight path) advocacy of Aquino; while also hitting the Administration programs. This resulted in the Palace questioning their Daang Matuwid advocacy contrary to their speeches.[105]

On December 1, the COMELEC's second division had formally disqualified Poe from running as President in the 2016 elections and cancelled her filed Certificate of Candidacy for not failing to meet with citizenship and residency requirements. The division voted 3-0 in favor of the petition filed by Attorney Estrella Elamparo to disqualify Poe. The decision stated that Poe had failed to comply with the 10-year residency requirement, mandatory for a presidential candidate.[106]

On December 23, 2015, the COMELEC meeting en banc formally disqualified Poe from running as president in the 2016 elections for failing to meet the 10-year residency requirement.[107][108] Poe said she would appeal the disqualification to the Supreme Court. On December 28, 2015 the Supreme Court issued two temporary restraining orders against the decision of the COMELEC en banc.[109]

Mar Roxas[edit]

Senate President Franklin Drilon, when describing the Liberal Party's plans for Interior Secretary Mar Roxas' in 2016, told the media on January 2013 that "so far as the LP is concerned, [and] in so far as I am concerned, we believe that he is best qualified for 2016."[110] Two years later, Drilon told DZIQ AM radio that Roxas had expressed his interest internally within the party.[111] Several Liberal Party stalwarts had by then expressed that Roxas should declare his intentions at that time,[112] with some such as Budget Secretary Florencio Abad suggesting that Roxas may slide down to run for the vice presidency again.[113]

Aquino had a series of meetings between Roxas, Grace Poe and Francis Escudero from prior to Aquino's state visit to Canada in May, until days before his final State of the Nation Address in July, including a July dinner with all three of them at the Bahay Pangarap, Aquino's official residence at the Malacañang Palace complex. While Roxas was seen as Aquino's choice to succeed him, another question was who would be Roxas' running mate, as Poe had earlier said that she'd rather run with Escudero as her running mate.[114]

On July 31, 2015, at an event dubbed as "A Gathering of Friends", Roxas formally accepted the Liberal Party's nomination after he was officially endorsed by President Benigno Aquino III in the presence of their political allies at the Club Filipino, San Juan, where Roxas had announced his decision to withdraw from the 2010 presidential election and give way to Aquino's presidential bid. Aquino also announced his candidacy there on September 9, 2009.[29] On the same day, Roxas formally launched his campaign website.

For vice president[edit]

Alan Peter Cayetano[edit]

In a March 2013 interview with the ABS-CBN News Channel, Senator Alan Peter Cayetano (Nacionalista Party), said that "I want to be president of this country."[115] In September 2015, after several surveys saw him trailing in the presidential race, said that he is withdrawing from the presidential election, and would instead focus for the vice presidency, preferably as the running mate of either Mar Roxas or Rodrigo Duterte.

A few days later in a Davao City meeting, Cayetano announced that he will seek candidacy for running as Vice President. Cayetano, who he is the member of Nacionalista Party, did not mention his presidential running-mate as the Nacionalistas will meet in a few days, for their decision.[116] On October 1, Duterte said that if he would ever run for president, he would prefer Cayetano to be his running mate.[117] Days later, Duterte declined the offer to be Cayetano and Bongbong Marcos' offers to be their presidential running mate.[118] However, during a phone interview with the Philippine Daily Inquirer in November 2015, Cayetano confirmed Duterte as his running mate if ever the latter confirms his candidacy for presidency.[119]

Francis Escudero[edit]

Senator Francis Escudero (independent) said in in a March 2012 Rappler interview that "Let me be honest, candid, yet factual about it. I would be very interested in seeking a higher office in 2016 for the simple reason that I’m halfway through my last term."[120] By May 2015, Grace Poe told reporters that she would not run against Escudero.[121]

On September 17 at the Club Filipino in San Juan, Escudero announced his vice presidential bid, becoming Poe's running mate.[32]

Gringo Honasan[edit]

Senator Gringo Honasan (United Nationalist Alliance) denied that he was going to be Jejomar Binay's running mate in September 2015.[122] By the next month, however, he said that his team-up with Binay was possible.[123] On October 12, 2015, Honasan announced that he will be running with Binay as the latter's vice president.[36]

Bongbong Marcos[edit]

Asked on a November 2012 interview at DZBB on his plans to run in 2016, Senator Bongbong Marcos (Nacionalista Party) said "Never say never."[124] By March 2015, in another interview, this time at DZMM, he said that he "will thoroughly study everything."[125] In August 2015, after reports surfaced of him being Jejomar Binay's running mate, Marcos clarified on an interview at the ABS-CBN News Channel that he is still undecided on what position to run for, but he would certainly not be defending his Senate seat.[126] On October 5, 2015, Senator Bongbong Marcos announced his candidacy for Vice President of the Philippines in the 2016 election, and would support the candidacy of Rodrigo Duterte if he ever does run.[35] Days later, Duterte declined Cayetano's and Marcos' offers to be their presidential running mate.

Leni Robredo[edit]

In August 2015, Representative Leni Robredo, from Camarines Sur's third district (Liberal Party), said that talk of plans of her running in 2016 is "too soon", and that she'd only run if she's "indispensable".[127]

After the initial objections of her daughters, Robredo decided to run for Vice President, accepting the offers of President Aquino and Mar Roxas.[128] She officially announced her candidacy for the office on October 5, 2015, at the Club Filipino.[34]

Antonio Trillanes[edit]

In the news program Bandila's May 30, 2014 segment where a guest is asked to answer only "yes" or "no," Senator Antonio Trillanes IV (Nacionalista Party) was asked if he would run for vice president in 2016 and responded by saying "Let’s just say yes, I will run. As for what position, I will abide by the Nacionalista Party."[129]

By August 2015, Trillanes bared his plans of running as an independent vice presidential candidate, saying that the Nacionalistas would not endorse a candidate if more than one of them ran for the vice presidency. Trillanes' own group, Magdalo, his backing his vice presidential bid.[130]

Recently, in a general assembly of MAGDALO coalition members, Trillanes, announced he will run for vice president as an Independent, but it will support the presidential bid of Senator Grace Poe.[131][132]

Presidential tickets[edit]

Under the Constitution of the Philippines, the President and Vice President are elected separately.

Presidential candidate Vice Presidential candidate
Jejomar Binay (UNA) Gringo Honasan (UNA)
Miriam Defensor Santiago (PRP) Bongbong Marcos (Independent)
Rodrigo Duterte (PDP–Laban) Alan Peter Cayetano (Independent)
Grace Poe (Independent) Francis Escudero (Independent)
Mar Roxas (Liberal) Leni Robredo (Liberal)
none Antonio Trillanes (Independent)
  • Cayetano, Marcos and Trillanes are all members of the Nacionalista Party, but failed to get that party's nomination; instead, all of them are running as independents.
  • Trillanes is supporting Poe's presidential campaign, although he is not her running mate.

Opinion polling[edit]

Opinion polling in Philippines is conducted by Social Weather Stations (SWS), Pulse Asia and other pollsters.[133]

Some opinion polls after the filing of candidacies was finished on October 16, 2015 are included below. The frontrunner is in bold. Those which are within the margin of error are in italics.

For president[edit]

2016 Philippine presidential election polling.svg
Poll source Date(s) conducted Sample
Margin of

Others Undecided
MBCDZRH[133] November 27, 2015 7,436 ±1.14% 18.63 6.22 30.25 25.14 14.92 0.31 0 1.92
Manila Standard[134] December 4–12, 2015 1,500 ±2.6% 23 3 19 28 22 1 0 4
SWS[135] December 12–14, 2015 1,200 ±3% 26 4 20 26 22 0 0.24 1
SWS[136] January 8–10, 2016 1,200 ±3% 31 3 20 24 21 0.1 0
Pulse Asia[137] January 24–28, 2016 1,800 ±3% 23 4 20 30 20 0 0.1 3
Manila Standard[138] December 4–12, 2015 3,000 ±1.8% 22 2 20 29 22 1 4

For vice president[edit]

Opinion polling in the vice presidential election, using polynomial regression.
Poll source Date(s) conducted Sample
Margin of
Others Undecided
MBCDZRH[133] November 27, 2015 7,436 ±1.14% 18.25 28.49 6.11 24.62 12.53 7.75 2.25
SWS[135] December 12–14, 2015 1,200 ±3% 17 30 8 19 19 5 1.44 1
SWS[136] January 8–10, 2016 1,200 ±3% 14 28 8 25 17 3 3.3 2
Pulse Asia[137] January 24–28, 2016 1,800 ±3% 14 33 5 23 18 4 3

Election results[edit]

Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines

The president and vice president are elected separately; a voter may split one's ticket. Congress, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, shall canvass results from all provinces, independent cities that have their own legislative districts, diplomatic posts, and local absentee voters. The winners shall be inaugurated on June 30, 2016.

For president[edit]

The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the presidency. In case when two or more candidates have the highest number of votes, one of them shall be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately.

In case a president has not been determined by June 30, the vice president-elect shall act as president until a president has been determined. If both positions have not yet been determined, the President of the Senate, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives if the former is unable to do so, shall act as president. Congress shall enact a law on who acts as president if neither of officials already stated are unable to do so.

e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Jejomar Binay United Nationalist Alliance
Miriam Defensor Santiago People's Reform Party
Rodrigo Duterte Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan (Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power)
Grace Poe Independent
Mar Roxas Liberal Party
Valid votes
Inalid votes
Votes cast
Registered voters

For vice president[edit]

The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the vice presidency. In case when two or more candidates have the highest number of votes, one of them shall be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately.

e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine vice presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Alan Peter Cayetano Independent
Francis Escudero Independent
Gringo Honasan United Nationalist Alliance
Bongbong Marcos Independent
Leni Robredo Liberal Party
Antonio Trillanes Independent
Valid votes
Inalid votes
Votes cast
Registered voters

Unofficial results[edit]

Prior to the canvassing by Congress, other groups such as the media and non-governmental organizations may issue their own separate tallies.


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External links[edit]