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Philmont Scout Ranch

Coordinates: 36°27′15″N 104°57′21″W / 36.45417°N 104.95583°W / 36.45417; -104.95583
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Philmont Scout Ranch
Black Bull, symbol of Philmont
OwnerBoy Scouts of America
LocationCimarron, New Mexico
Philmont Scout Ranch is located in the United States
Philmont Scout Ranch
Philmont Scout Ranch is located in New Mexico
Philmont Scout Ranch
CountryUnited States
Coordinates36°27′15″N 104°57′21″W / 36.45417°N 104.95583°W / 36.45417; -104.95583
FounderWaite Phillips
Attendance35,054 campers (2013)[1]
 Scouting portal

Philmont Scout Ranch is a ranch located in Colfax County, New Mexico, United States, near the village of Cimarron; it covers 140,177 acres (56,728 ha) of wilderness in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains on the east side of the Cimarron Range of the Rocky Mountains. Donated by oil baron Waite Phillips, the ranch is owned and operated by the Boy Scouts of America. It is a National High Adventure Base where crews of Scouts and Venturers take part in backpacking treks and other outdoor activities. By land area, it is one of the largest youth camps in the world. During the 2019 season, between June 8 and August 22, an estimated 24,000 Scouts and adult leaders backpacked through the Ranch's extensive backcountry. That same year 1,302 staff were responsible for the Ranch's summer operations.[2]

Philmont is also home to the Philmont Training Center, the National Scouting Museum and the Seton Memorial Library. The Training Center is the primary location for BSA's national volunteer training programs. Philmont is a working ranch, maintaining small herds of cattle, horses, burros, and bison.

The only documented Tyrannosaurus rex track in the world was discovered within the camp's boundaries in 1993 in North Ponil Canyon by the Anasazi Trail Camp. It was formally identified in 1994.[3]

There are three other high adventure camps that the BSA owns and maintains: the Northern Tier National High Adventure Bases in Minnesota, as well as Manitoba and Ontario in Canada; Florida National High Adventure Sea Base in the Florida Keys; and Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in southern West Virginia.

Location and geography[edit]

Mount Baldy, from the peak of Mount Phillips
Philmont Scout Ranch elevation map

Philmont is located in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of New Mexico. The closest village is Cimarron, New Mexico. The address of the ranch is usually given as 17 Deer Run Rd., Cimarron, New Mexico, 87714. It is also about 20 miles (32 km) west-northwest of Springer, New Mexico, and 35 miles (56 km) southwest of Raton, New Mexico. Philmont is about 12 miles (19 km) across (east to west) at its widest point, and about 30 miles (48 km) long (north to south). There are no mountains to the south or east of Philmont. The interior of the ranch is mountainous but a small part of the eastern area is prairie.[4]

Philmont's lowest point is the southeast corner at 6,500 feet (2,000 m) and its highest point is the peak of Baldy Mountain, located on the ranch's northwest boundary, at 12,441 feet (3,792 m).[4][5] Aside from Baldy, the ranch contains a number of prominent peaks. The South Country is home to a series of six difficult peaks, namely Mount Phillips, Comanche Peak, Big Red, Bear Mountain, Black Mountain, and Schaefers Peak, as well as Trail Peak, which is popular for its nearness to Beaubien, and the wreckage of the crash of a B-24 bomber in 1942 near its summit. Of the ranch's various peaks with trail access, Black Mountain is widely considered the most difficult, followed closely by Baldy and Big Red.

The most recognizable landmark is the Tooth of Time at 9,003 feet (2,744 m), a dacite monolith protruding 500 feet (150 m) vertically from an east-west ridge. Tooth of Time Ridge, and the latitude line on which it sits, marks the boundary between the central and southern sections of Philmont. The boundary between the central and northern sections is around U.S. Route 64, which runs just south of the narrowest part of the 'I'-shape, which is only a few miles across. Other prominent landmarks on the ranch include Grizzly Tooth, Window Rock, Deer Lake Mesa, Wilson Mesa and Urraca Mesa.


Native Americans of the Jicarilla Apache tribe and Ute tribe once inhabited Philmont. A few Native American archaeological sites exist in the northern section nearby the 'Indian Writings' camp, and various camps seek to preserve Philmont's Native American heritage.

On April 22, 1942, a B-24 Liberator crashed into the side of Trail Peak. Some of the wreckage still remains, including a wing and propeller, and because of its location, it is the world's most visited airplane crash site.[6]

Private ownership[edit]

The Tooth of Time, an icon of Philmont Scout Ranch

The Santa Fe Trail crossed the plains just southwest of Philmont in the mid-1800s. The Tooth of Time owes its name to this trail; travelers knew that once they passed it, they had only one week to go until they reached Santa Fe, New Mexico. Philmont's strategic location along the trail spurred some interest in it. In 1841, Carlos Beaubien and Guadalupe Miranda obtained a large land grant from the Mexican government, including the present ranch. Soon the grant passed on to Beaubien's son-in-law Lucien Maxwell, who played an important role in developing and settling it. Maxwell sold the ranch to the Maxwell Land Grant and Railroad Company, which gave up and handed it on to a Dutch development company, which decided to parcel it out to ranchers.

One of the most prominent ranchers was Jesus Gil Abreu, who ran the Abreu Rayado Ranch from the 1870s till his death in 1901. Operating from the Rayado Settlement, he raised cattle, goats, and sheep and grew crops. The family owned this property until 1911, when they sold most of it off. One of the sons remained on the ranch near the site of Abreu, a present staffed camp, and his homestead was preserved for years. Eventually, the adobe structure was abandoned, and it collapsed. The foundation of this building now serves as the foundation for the Abreu cantina. The house was reconstructed in 1998 about 100 feet (30 m) uphill.

The history of mining at Philmont dates back to the years immediately after the Civil War. U.S. soldiers were stationed in the West after the war, as the U.S. Army was driving out the Native Americans. At Fort Union, some stationed soldiers traded with Native Americans for float copper. In 1866, the soldiers went up Baldy Mountain in search of this copper, but instead found gold. They could not stay to mine the gold due to the approaching winter, but by the time they returned in the spring, the area was overrun with prospectors.[7] Scores of gold mines were excavated and operated into the early 20th century on what was once the Baldy Mining District, now modern day Philmont. Today, the Contention Mine, located at Cyphers Mine, and the Aztec Mine, located above French Henry, are open to guided tours.

Wealthy oil magnate and wilderness enthusiast Waite Phillips amassed a large part of the old land grant in the 1920s, totaling over 300,000 acres (1,200 km2). Phillips built a large residence in the lowlands of Philmont. He turned the ranch into a private game reserve for himself and friends, and built a number of hunting lodges and day-use camps. He chose not to provide electricity at the remote camps. A few of these original camps, including Fish Camp and the Hunting Lodge, have been preserved, complete with wood-burning stoves, oil lamps, and unique design features indicative of Phillips's often eccentric taste.

Donated to Boy Scouts[edit]

Phillips sometimes allowed others, including a few Boy Scout troops, to visit his ranch. He was so impressed with the Scouts that in 1938, during the Great Depression, he donated 35,857 acres (145.11 km2) of his land to the Boy Scouts of America. His only condition was that the property be used "for the benefit of the members of the Boy Scout organization".[4] He donated a second, larger section of land later in the 1930s, requiring only that this section pay its fair share of taxes on any portion devoted to competitive commercial operations.[4]

In 1941, Phillips added more Philmont property, including the Villa Philmonte, bringing the total to 127,395 acres (515.55 km2). Contrary to popular belief, Phillips did not donate his entire ranch to the Boy Scouts, but only that portion of the property that provided the most recreational value. The total donation comprised about 40% of the ranch. To help fund maintenance of Philmont, he also donated the Philtower office building in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In 1963, vice-president of the National Council Norton Clapp contributed funds to purchase another 10,098 acres (40.87 km2) of land within the Maxwell Land Grant, consisting of the Baldy Mountain mining area. In 2015, the Boy Scouts of America purchased 2,684 acres (10.86 km2) that was once operated as a camp called Cimarroncita Ranch.

In 1989, the Boy Scouts obtained a renewable special use permit to the Valle Vidal Unit of the Carson National Forest from the United States Forest Service. This allowed Scouts to hike and camp in the area. Philmont operates three staffed camps—Whiteman Vega, Seally Canyon, and Ring Place—and two trail camps in that area. Those camps serve around 3,000 Scouts each summer. In return, each camper is asked to contribute three hours of conservation work in the Valle on projects approved by the Forest Service.

Rich Cabins, a historical farming cabin on Ted Turner's Vermejo Park Ranch, is operated as a staff camp.

2019 mortgage[edit]

Philmont was mortgaged in March 2019, in order to support the BSA financially while it settling sex abuse cases. An oversight committee member claimed that this was in violation of the 1938 donation that gave the organization the land, but the BSA disagreed.[8]

Camp name[edit]

The camp was initially named the "Philturn Rockymountain Scoutcamp".[4][9]

Early organization[edit]

In its early days, Philmont had a half dozen "base camps" constructed at strategic locations. Visiting Scouts lived at one of these camps for a week and could take day hikes to surrounding locations. To visit a different area, the Scouts packed their gear onto burros and hiked to another base camp. Today, the program is based on backpacking, and Scouts carry all their gear, living in tents while on expedition.[10]

Programs and activities[edit]

Entrance sign at Philmont


The standard and most popular Philmont program is the backpacking trek. A typical Philmont trek lasts 12 days and covers anywhere from 56 miles (90 km) to 106 miles (171 km).[11]

Conservation Department[edit]

There are six divisions of the Conservation Department in the summer, each led by an Associate Director of Conservation - Work Crew, Forestry Crew, Conservationists, GIS, Environmental Education (ROCS, Trail Crew Trek), and Order of the Arrow Trail Crew. Work Crews are staff groups who are responsible for maintaining and creating campsites and trails. Trail Crews and other staff known as Advanced Teams are the first Conservation staffers to begin hiking and clearing the trails, one month prior to the first participants' arrival. Conservationists live in staff camps or spike camps and lead conservation projects for treks passing through their camp. The GIS staff map trails, campsites, and other features of the Philmont Backcountry. In recognition of the 100th anniversary of the BSA, Northrop Grumman donated high-resolution geospatial data of the ranch to Philmont. GIS and the Conservation Department use the data to create enhanced maps and improve conservation efforts throughout the ranch. The Division of Forestry's priority is forest fuels reduction. Using chainsaws, a masticator, a skidder, and a portable sawmill, these crews create defensible space around staff camps and strategic shaded fuel breaks to reduce the risk of catastrophic wildfire and improve the health and productivity of Philmont's forests while utilizing the wood in construction projects around the Ranch. Slash from the thinning projects is piled and burned and a prescribed fire program is being developed to maintain desired forest condition. The Forestry crews work year-round, and each staff member receives detailed training in chainsaw operations, as well as an overview of forest management and fire ecology.[12]

Roving Outdoor Conservation School[edit]

The Roving Outdoor Conservation School (ROCS), started in 2000, is a twenty-one day trek program that is open to males and females between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one. ROCS is an educational backpacking experience rooted in conservation and environmental science education. Throughout the trek participants have lessons rooted in environmental science, visits from guest speakers, and the opportunity to work on conservation projects with the Philmont Conservation Department and the U.S. Forest Service in the Valle Vidal Unit of the Carson National Forest. While on the trail participants learn about ecology, botany, dendrology, geology, hydrology, forestry, soil science, fire ecology, environmental policy, leave no trace principles, environmental ethics, conservation techniques, and wildlife, range, and land management practices. Participants tackle conservation projects ranging from trailbuilding to meadow encroachment to timber stand improvement to erosion control to streambed restoration. Participants are exposed to the land management challenges facing the West, as well as the rest of America. The program focuses on empowering participants so that they may transfer what they learn on the trail to their lives back home.[13]

Ranger Department[edit]

A Ranger helping Scouts on their first day at Philmont
Service Academy Rangers undergoing training

The Ranger Department was founded in 1957 by Clarence E. Dunn, Jack Rhea and Dr. Ray Loomis, the former of which served as chief ranger for 14 years. Rangers are responsible for ensuring that all participants know all required skills and procedures needed for backcountry treks, and for coaching the youth leadership to help them develop their skills and confidence and have a successful trek.[14] They hike along with crews on the 12-day treks for the first two days on the trail, during which time they teach and observe the crew. They are also responsible for Search and rescue on Philmont property and in surrounding areas. The Ranger Department also includes Mountain Trek Rangers who lead the week-long Mountain Treks that originate in the Philmont Training Center.

Ranger Trainers, experienced staff who have finished one or more seasons as a Ranger, train and supervise Rangers. Each trainer oversees from 8-10 Rangers in a Ranger Training Crew and are expected to lead two backpacking crews per summer. In the summer of 2013 there were roughly 240 people in the Ranger Department, organized into 25 training crews. Upper ranger leadership consists of coordinators for the Rayado, Mountain Trek, Service Academy, and scheduling programs, four Associate Chief Rangers, and the Chief Ranger. During the summer of 2007, the Philmont Staff Association coordinated a 50th Anniversary Ranger Reunion at the ranch. Over 300 former Rangers attended this event.

Ranch Hands[edit]

A program in which young men and women can earn a discounted eight-day Cavalcade trek at Philmont by participating in an eight-day work session. Participants work with the Horse Department staff taking care of Philmont's 250 head of horses and 80 head of burros. Participants help by hauling hay and feed, saddling horses, helping keep the horses shod, and assisting on Philmont trail rides. The work can be strenuous and requires top physical and mental conditioning. After the eight-day work session, the Ranch Hands crew gathers together and embarks on an eight-day Cavalcade under the leadership of a Horseman and Wrangler.[15]

National Advanced Youth Leadership Experience[edit]

National Advanced Youth Leadership Experience (NAYLE) is a high-intensity Boy Scout leadership course taught at Philmont Scout Ranch. It is based on backcountry high adventure skills and began in the summer of 2006 replacing the previous National Junior Leader Instructor Course. The course is available to Boy Scouts and Venturers aged 14 through 20 who have completed their local council National Youth Leadership Training (NYLT) course and is held during six one-week sessions.[16] Based at Philmont's Rayado Ridge Leadership Camp and taught at various locations across Philmont Scout Ranch, the program hones youth leadership skills through ethical decision making and participation in Philmont Ranger backcountry training.

Historic programs[edit]


The Philbreak program ran from 2003 to 2009, and returned in 2019. It was an "alternative spring break" program started in 2003 to help restore Philmont Scout Ranch after devastating forest fires. From 2004 to 2007, the participants worked on the Urraca Trail, which is intended as a day hike for those attending the Philmont Training Center. Participants in the seven-day program were expected to work eight- or nine-hour days in all types of conditions. The program took place during three separate weeks during March. Participants also had an opportunity to take a ski break at Angel Fire. In 2008, the design of the program switched to mirror that of Philmont's Kanik. Participants spent three days and two nights in Philmont's backcountry as well as provided service on the final day. The program ended in 2010. In 2019, after the Ute Park Fire in 2018, Philbreak returned with four week-long sessions in March to help with fire mitigation.[17]

Philmont facilities[edit]


Base camp's "Tent City" where departing and returning treks are staged

Philmont operates from one large base camp, including Camping Headquarters, the National Scouting Museum, the Philmont Training Center and Villa Philmonte, fire response facilities, cattle headquarters, and an administration area.[18] During the 2012 season there were 34 staffed camps and 77 unstaffed or "trail camps". Only some trail camps have a potable water source. Camps without water are referred to as "dry camps". Most of Philmont's camps are about 2 miles (3.2 km) apart. Old camps are closed or relocated and new camps are opened every few years. Some camp sites are closed due to changing safety protocols. For example, camps were once located on top of Urraca Mesa and in the Baldy Saddle but these are unlikely to reopen because the locations are at risk for lightning strikes.[citation needed]

Philmont traditions[edit]

Philmont Hymn[edit]

The "Philmont Hymn" is the ranch's official song and was written by John Benton Westfall (1928-May 9, 2009) in 1947 when he was 19. Westfall was the lone staffer at Visto Grande (then called Cimarron Bench Camp) at the time. Westfall, who at the time was a student at Pittsburg State University wrote the song on a trip home to Kansas on a train from Philmont influenced by the "click-click, click-click" of the tracks. He later became a professional Scouter in Iowa, Kansas, and Oklahoma and worked as a salesman for Phillips Petroleum.[19]

Silver on the sage,
Starlit skies above,
Aspen-covered hills,
Country that I love.

Philmont, here's to thee,
Scouting paradise,
Out in God's country,

Wind in whispering pines,
Eagle soaring high,
Purple mountains rise,
Against an azure sky.

Philmont, here's to thee,
Scouting paradise,
Out in God's country,

Philmont Grace[edit]

The "Philmont Grace" (also known as the Worth Ranch Grace or simply the Wilderness Grace) is a prayer recited before meals at many Boy Scout camps and events around the U.S. It was originally written in 1929 by A. J. Fulkerson, Camp Director at Worth Ranch Scout Camp in Palo Pinto County, Texas.[20]

The version of the grace, as it is used at Philmont, is:

For food, for raiment,
For life, for opportunity,
For friendship and fellowship,
We thank Thee, O Lord. Amen.

Natural disasters[edit]

1960 tornado[edit]

On June 25, 1960, a Fujita scale F0 tornado swept through Philmont's base camp area, downing about 300 tents located on a flat near Ranch Headquarters and depositing camping gear over Tooth of Time Ridge. Four 1960 National Jamboree troops from New Mexico—Troops 78, 79, 80 and 82—had gathered at Philmont for a shakedown camp. Three other New Mexico troops had gone to Camp Zia for their shakedown. The troops each had 32 boys, two Assistant Scoutmasters and one Scoutmaster. Troops were camping in wall tents which they had decorated before going to the Jamboree. Each wall tent had a wooden frame with a thick wooden roof pole for support. The boys were learning how to cook over charcoal fires and the fires had just been started for the evening meal. The twister arrived without warning. As the wind suddenly increased, boys ran to secure the tents, but to no avail. The winds swept up tents, fires, men and boys, rolling nearby automobiles and leveling the camp. Injuries included broken bones, blunt force injuries from flying debris—including shattered roof poles—and burns from charcoal fires and equipment ignited by the fires. The twister also leveled a nearly completed cinder block chapel. After the passage of the storm, gear and equipment could be seen in the funnel cloud as it left the area. Camping equipment was found as far as 14 miles away from the campsite and was recovered by ranch hands. Boys were housed for the night in other facilities, and the next day boys passed among piles of recovered equipment to reclaim what they could.[21] Although there were no fatalities, 33 Boy Scouts and a Scout leader received injuries.[22]

1965 flash flood[edit]

On June 17, 1965, a large flash flood occurred at Philmont. Heavy rain throughout the area caused waters in Rayado Canyon and the Cimarron River to rise to extreme levels;[23] up to 12.42 feet at the highest.[24] After June 17, water levels gradually decreased over the course of several days.[25] The impacts of the flood included the destruction of several campsites[23] and the loss of many old photographs and documents kept at Philmont,[26] however no injuries or deaths resulted from the flood.[27] The flood occurred during an El Niño year.[28]

Ponil Complex Fire[edit]

The Ponil Complex Fire started on June 2, 2002 and burned until June 17. The burn zone covered 92,000 acres (370 km2) total; 28,000 acres (110 km2) of Philmont, 4,000 acres (16 km2) of the Elliott Barker Wildlife Area, 25,000 acres (100 km2) of the Valle Vidal, 20,000 acres (81 km2) of the WS Ranch and 15,000 acres (61 km2) of the UU Bar Ranch. One third of the burn zone was totally burned while another third was only lightly to moderately burned. About one third of the burn zone escaped relatively unharmed, due to being sections of valleys that the fire jumped over or being not as dried out and likely to burn because of nearby water.[29]

The burn zone is currently revegetating, some areas of which were reseeded while others began recovering naturally.

2015 flash flood[edit]

Staff members clear a trail after the 2015 flash flood

On the morning of June 27, 2015, heavy rain occurred in a great portion of Philmont, causing a flash flood. The flood also affected some other nearby areas in Colfax County that morning, including highways and small towns around Philmont. One youth Scout, Alden Brock, who was situated in a campsite within the staff camp Indian Writings, drowned while being swept away by the flood and died. Brock's death received nationwide attention, especially from the Scouting community.[30]

Ute Park Fire[edit]

On May 31, 2018, a wildfire started one mile east of the community Ute Park, New Mexico. The cause remains under investigation. By the morning of June 1, the Ute Park Fire had almost doubled in size to 8,000 acres (32 km2), burning entirely on private land, including Philmont Scout Ranch.[31] Twelve structures at Philmont, all unoccupied and non-residential, were reported as burned.[31] All backcountry treks at Philmont Scout Ranch for the entire 2018 summer season were cancelled,[32] though PTC courses—including the National Advanced Youth Leadership Experience—remained in session.[33] The fire burned a total of 26,000 acres at Philmont, damaging 200 campsites.[34]

Cooks Peak Fire[edit]

On April 17, 2022, a wildfire started 10 miles south of the Kit Carson Museum at Rayado. Heavily impacted areas of the fire include northern Mora County and southern Colfax County. The cause still remains under investigation. Zastrow Cabin, which was located in Philmont's south country, was destroyed. Philmont staff along with wildland firefighter personnel have wrapped the Fish camp Cabin, as well as other buildings within the south country.[35] The fire was largely contained before the season began, allowing crews to proceed with their treks as normal.

Notable former staff[edit]

Astronaut training[edit]

Astronaut Training at Philmont in June 1964

NASA and the USGS used the site to geologically train the Apollo Astronauts in June 1964. In the words of Phinney, the site was "...probably more like lunar geology." Training included recognizing "both igneous and sedimentary rocks, orientation with geologic maps, measuring and describing stratigraphic sections, strike and dip measurements, recording of field notes ... and geophysical traverses that included taking measurements with magnetometers, gravimeters and seismometers in an attempt to determine subsurface structure." Astronauts who would use this training on the Moon included Apollo 11's Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 12's Pete Conrad and Alan Bean, Apollo 15's David Scott, and Apollo 17's Gene Cernan. Notable geologist instructors included G.D. Robinson.[41]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2013 BSA Year in Review". Boy Scouts of America. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  2. ^ Cordeiro, Mark (August 14, 2019). "Philmont by the numbers". Philmont Scout Ranch. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
  3. ^ "Online guide to the continental Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton basin". September 28, 2011. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e Murphy, Lawrence R (1976). Philmont, A History of New Mexico's Cimarron Country. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0438-9.
  5. ^ Rohrbacher, Rock (1997). Philmanac, A Trekkers Guide to the Philmont Backcountry. Lima, Ohio: CSS. ISBN 0-7880-1469-2. LCCN 99219198.
  6. ^ Cass, William F. (1996). The last flight of Liberator 41-1133: the lives, times, training & loss of the bomber crew which crashed on Trail Peak at Philmont Scout Ranch. United States: Winds Aloft Press. ISBN 978-0-9702972-0-4.
  7. ^ Murphy, Lawrence R. (1965). Boom and bust on Baldy Mountain, New Mexico, 1864-1942 (Thesis). pp. 8–14.
  8. ^ Crary, David (November 22, 2019). "Boy Scouts mortgage vast Philmont ranch in New Mexico as collateral". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  9. ^ "About Philmont". Philmont Scout Ranch. Boy Scouts of America. Archived from the original on October 24, 2006. Retrieved August 31, 2006.
  10. ^ Doiron, Mark; Wood, Alex. "Philmont Scout Ranch". summitpost.org.
  11. ^ "Itineraries At Glance". Retrieved August 7, 2014.
  12. ^ Olesak, John F. (Summer 2011). "The Boy Scouts of America Earn a Complete Geospatial Picture of Its Philmont Ranch". Retrieved August 16, 2012.
  13. ^ Wendell, Bryan (May 8, 2015). "Tell your Scouts about ROCS and TCT, two of Philmont's best-kept secrets". Aaron on Scouting. Scouting Magazine.
  14. ^ "Organize Your Crew". Archived from the original on August 1, 2008. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
  15. ^ "Ranch Hands". philmontscoutranch.org. Retrieved June 20, 2023.
  16. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved November 9, 2012.
  17. ^ "Philbreak". philmontscoutranch.org. Retrieved June 20, 2023.
  18. ^ "Home". Philmont Scout Ranch.
  19. ^ Fasching, Douglas (May 10, 2009). "In Memory: John Westfall".
  20. ^ Normand, Pete (1980). Palo Pinto Campfires. Fort Worth, TX: Split Rock Press. pp. 107–108.
  21. ^ J. K. Byrne, Junior Assistant Scoutmaster Troop 79; information taken from 1960 Jamboree Bulletins #7 and #8, F. A. Dunn Jamboree Chairman, and Troop 79 Roster dated April 5, 1960 R. H. Carlson Scoutmaster Troop 79
  22. ^ (1) "4. Philmont Scout Ranch". Top 10 Deadliest/Injurious Tornadoes Since 1950 (New Mexico). Albuquerque, New Mexico: United States Department of Commerce: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: National Weather Service. Archived from the original on December 2, 2019. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
    (2) MacDonald, Randall M.; Lamm, Gene; MacDonald, Sarah E. (2012). Chapter 8: Philmont. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 120. ISBN 9780738595276. LCCN 2011943058. OCLC 769988255. Retrieved December 2, 2019 – via Google Books. Cimmaron and Philmont have withstood their share of severe weather. A fierce tornado struck base camp on June 25, 1960, leveling camper tent city and a chapel, before depositing camping gear over the Tooth of Time Ridge. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  23. ^ a b "The flood of '15: Philmont comes together" (PDF). PhilNews. July 24, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  24. ^ "CIMARRON RIVER (NM) ABOVE CIMARRON". National Weather Service. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  25. ^ Cimarrón and Philmont. Arcadia Publishing. 2012. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-7385-9527-6.
  26. ^ McNair, Ben (July 14, 2011). ""Philmont" Filmmaker Back at Ranch" (PDF). PhilNews. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
  27. ^ Spears, Mit (September 1965). Boys' Life: Scouting Death Valley. Boy Scouts of America. p. 4.
  28. ^ Null, Jan (January 4, 2016). "El Niño and La Niña Years and Intensities". Golden Gate Weather Service. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  29. ^ "Middle Ponil Complex Fire, New Mexico". earthobservatory.nasa.gov. June 6, 2002. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  30. ^ Chacón, Daniel (September 26, 2015). "Details of deadly flash flood that killed Boy Scout raise questions of oversight". Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  31. ^ a b "Fire Information". Philmont Scout Ranch. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  33. ^ "2018 Conferences". www.philmontscoutranch.org. Retrieved September 10, 2018.
  34. ^ Leggette, Shellye (August 27, 2019). "Record breaking camper numbers at Philmont Scout Ranch one year after Ute Park Fire". KOAT Action News. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  35. ^ "Cooks Peak Fire Updates". Philmont Scout Ranch. Retrieved April 29, 2022.[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "NESA President Steve Fossett: A Tribute" Archived October 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine National Eagle Scout Association, Eagletter Winter 2008
  37. ^ High Country – Philmont Staff Association – October 2007
  38. ^ "U.S. Department of Defense". U.S. Department of Defense.
  39. ^ "R.W. Hampton Named 2018 Recipient of Philmont Staff Association's Distinguished Staff Alumni Award". PrZen.
  40. ^ "General David Goldfein". PhilStaff.
  41. ^ Phinney, William (2015). Science Training History of the Apollo Astronauts. NASA SP -2015-626. pp. 58, 186, 220.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]