Silver tetradrachm of king Philoxenus.
Obv: Helmetted, diademed and draped bust of Philoxenus. Greek legend BASILEOS ANIKETOU PHILOXENOU "Of the Invincible King Philoxenus"
Rev: King on prancing horse in military dress. Kharoshti legend MAHARAJASA APADIHATASA PHILASINASA "Undefeatable King Philoxenus".
Philoxenus Anicetus (Greek: Φιλόξενος ὁ Ἀνίκητος; epithet means "the Invincible") was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the region spanning the Paropamisade to Punjab. Philoxenus seems to have been quite an important king who might briefly have ruled most of the Indo-Greek territory. Bopearachchi dates Philoxenus to c. 100–95 BCE and R. C. Senior to c. 125–110 BCE.
Historians have not yet connected Philoxenus with any dynasty, but he could have been the father of the princess Kalliope, who was married to the king Hermaeus.
Coins of Philoxenos
Philoxenus struck several series of bilingual Indian silver coins, with a reverse of a mounted king, a type previously used as obverse by Antimachus II sixty years earlier and as reverse on rare types of Nicias. Whether the horseman was a dynastic emblem or a portrait of the king as a cavalleryman is unclear. Several Saka kings used similar horsemen on their coinage.
His drachms were square, another feature that was rare among Indo-Greeks but standard for Sakas, and this indicates that Philoxenus had connections with the nomads that had conquered Bactria.
Philoxenus also minted some Attic-type tetradrachms (with Greek legend only), meant for circulation in Bactria.
One overstrike is known, of Epander over Philoxenus.
Philoxenus coin in the Indian square standard. Japan Currency Museum.
|Indo-Greek Kings and their territories
Based on Bopearachchi (1991)
||Arachosia||Gandhara||Western Punjab||Eastern Punjab|
|200–190 BCE||Demetrius I|
|185–170 BCE||Antimachus I|
|180–160 BCE||Apollodotus I|
|175–170 BCE||Demetrius II|
|160–155 BCE||Antimachus II|
|155–130 BCE||Menander I|
|130–120 BCE||Zoilos I||Agathokleia|
|120–110 BCE||Lysias||Strato I|
|110–100 BCE||Antialcidas||Heliokles II|
|100 BCE||Polyxenos||Demetrius III|
|90–85 BCE||Nicias||Menander II||Artemidoros|
|Yuezhi tribes||Maues (Indo-Scythian)|
|75–70 BCE||Telephos||Apollodotus II|
|55–35 BCE||Azes I (Indo-Scythian)||Zoilos II|
|25 BCE – 10 CE||Strato II and III|
- Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
- Seleucid Empire
- Indo-Parthian Kingdom
- Kushan Empire
- The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press.
(In the Paropamisade, Arachosia and Gandhara)
Demetrius III or Polyxenios
(Paropamisade, Arachosia, Gandhara and Punjab)
(In the Paropamisade)
(In Arachosia and Gandhara)
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