Phimai Historical Park
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|Phimai historical park
Prasart Phi Mai
|Proper name||Prasat Hin Phi Mai|
|Architectural styles||Khmer architecture|
|History and governance|
|Date built||11th-12th Century CE|
The temple marks one end of the Ancient Khmer Highway from Angkor. As the enclosed area of 1020x580m is comparable with that of Angkor Wat, Phimai must have been an important city in the Khmer empire. Most buildings are from the late 11th to the late 12th century, built in the Baphuon, Bayon and Angkor Wat style. However, even though the Khmer at that time were Hindu, the temple was built as a Buddhist temple, as Buddhism in the Khorat area dated back to the 7th century. Inscriptions name the site Vimayapura (which means city of Vimaya), which developed into the Thai name Phimai.
The first inventory of the ruins was done in 1901 by the French geographer Etienne Aymonier. They were put under governmental protection by announcement in the Government Gazette, Volume 53, section 34, from September 27, 1936. Most of the restorations were done from 1964 to 1969 as a joint Thai-French project. The historical park, now managed by the Fine Arts Department, was officially opened by Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn on April 12, 1989.
In the aftermath of the fall of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1767, attempts were made to set up five separate states, with Prince Teppipit, a son of king Boromakot, attempting to establish Phimai as one, holding sway over eastern provinces including Nakhon Ratchasima. The weakest of the five, Prince Teppipit was the first defeated and was executed in 1768. Phimai had also been an important town at the time of the Khmer. The temple Prasat Hin Phimai, located in the center of the town, was one of the major Khmer temples in ancient Thailand, connected with Angkor by an ancient Khmer Highway, and oriented so as to face Angkor as its cardinal direction. The site is now protected as the Phimai Historical Park.
Phimai has recently been the base of operations for the excavation of Ban Non Wat.
Because of its location deep in the northeastern part of Thailand, which was once a territory of the Khmer (modern day Cambodia), Phimai’s architecture and cultural decorations are heavily influenced by Khmer culture. Art and architecture shown on the temple itself shows great evidence of the ancient Khmer civilization. Similar in its look and design to Angkor, it also has the same function for worshiping the gods in the Hindu religion.
Despite the fact that Phimai was built in a similar fashion to Angkor and other Khmer Buddhist temples, the religious origin of some structures located within Phimai’s walls are still being debated. Evidence of Dvaravati influence, for instance the sculpture of "the Wheel of Law" or the statue of Buddha, shows that Phimai was an important Buddhist spiritual location. Although a large quantity of Buddhist artwork has been uncovered in Phimai, evidence such as the large pots that were embedded in some corners of the structure suggest that spiritual practices other than Buddhism were practiced in Phimai. In other words, Phimai has been an important religious landmark for Animists, Buddhists, and Hindus.
There is little evidence concerning the origins of Phimai or the Khmer civilization in Thailand. The earliest engraved records of the Khmer date from the 6th century AD in the northeast of Thailand. For example, stone Sanskrit inscriptions were found along with statues and engraved images of Hindu deities, such as the image of Shiva’s bull Nandin. The king during that time, Mahendravarman, ordered his men to obliterate the engraved inscription. Modern scholars debate about the possibility that evidence may have been lost.
Phimai, along with other Khmer-influenced temples in Thailand, were built mainly under the cause of the "Deveraja cult," or "the King that resembles a god." Jayavarman II was the most mentioned "devaraja." The Devaraja cult developed the belief of worshiping Shiva and the principle that the king was an avatar of Shiva. Under this principle, Khmer rulers built temples to glorify the reign of the king along with the spread of Hinduism.
The 10th century was the time of the reign of king Rajendravarman II (944-968 AD), which was also a time when Khmer control was spreading into what is now northeastern Thai territory. Consequently, temples in Thailand with the Kleang and Baphuon styles remain as evidence of this Khmer heritage. These structures shared the same signature of having three brick towers on a single platform, for instance the Prasat Prang Ku in Si Saket province and Ban Phuluang in Surin province.
Each individual building has its own special features or functions. For example, Prang Brahmadat was built of laterite blocks that form a square. Or Prang Hin Daeng which translates to "Red Stone Tower" which is also a square but was made of red sandstone. Or the main sanctuary built of white sandstone that is almost 32 meters long. The southern lintel has a statue of Buddha meditating with "seven hoods of naga Muchalinda." Adjacent to this is a collection of statues of devils and animals depicted from the Tantric Mahayana Buddhist scripture.
Today Phimai is a well-known tourist attraction, especially among people interested in history and archaeology. Located in the middle of Phimai is a small rectangular gallery surrounding the courtyard, which has been newly rebuilt. Within the gallery there is a pre-Angkorean Buddhist inscription that tells the story of prince Siddhartha Gautama and his journey to becoming Buddha, along with other classic Buddhist stories. The prang symbolize that the area is a sacred space.
Within Phimai’s wall
When tourists enter the area of Phimai from the old town on the south, they have to cross a river about one kilometer to the south and enter an ancient laterite landing stage which archaeologists believe stood for the bathing place for the heroine in local myths. The north gate is the city main gate, also known as the "Pratu Chai," which has recently been reconstructed by the Royal Fine Arts Department. Its size is enormous; it is said that the size is big enough for a royal elephant to enter. The Royal Fine Arts Department also built an inner gallery which shows ancient Buddhist inscriptions and small sculptures as well as pieces of wrecked architecture. The rest of Phimai remains the same only with a little restoration by the Royal Arts Department.
Having a lot in common with Angkor Wat, Phimai is an example of classical Khmer architecture. Ancient Khmer architects were best known for their superior use of sandstone over the traditional bricks and laterite architectures. Sandstone is used on the visible outer layer. Laterite on the other hand was used for the inner wall and other hidden parts. All the structures are huge sandstone blocks. There are many lotus-shaped roofs representing Mount Meru (Hinduism's holy mountain).
Khmer temples in general, as well as Phimai in this case, were intended to resemble the universe. The main building resembles the peak of Mount Meru at the center of the universe. The surrounding walls resemble the water and encircling mountains. The Khmer did not develop the technique of true vault architecture during their time, results in large areas at Phimai that could not be roofed over. They instead developed the use of multiple chapels separated by open-air spaces.
The Khmer learned how to use bricks, sandstone, and laterite effectively. They were the three principal structural materials. Builders generally cut the lintel at 45 degrees to produce a triangular wedge.
In 1998, the Origins of Angkor Project (OAP), a joint project of the Royal Thai Fine Arts Department, Anthropology Department, and the University of Otago, New Zealand, began excavations to investigate the underlying sequence. Temple construction during the Angkorian period involved the deliberate deposition of layers of fill, which can clearly be seen in the stratigraphy of the site. 
The Naga Bridge, leading to the southern outer gopura
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Phimai, its Cultural Route and the Associated Temples of Phanomroong and Muangtam". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Talbot, Sarah; Chutima, Janthed (Fall 2001). "Northeast Thailand before Angkor: Evidence from an Archaeological Excavation at the Prasat Hin Phimai" (Journal). Asian Perspectives 40.2. Project MUSE. pp. 179–194. doi:10.1353/asi.2001.0027. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
Abstract: Northeast Thailand (Isan) was incorporated into the polity of Angkor around the end of the first millennium AD. Well before this time, local communities in the Phimai region had adopted important activities such as the use of inscriptions and the construction of religious architecture in permanent materials. In 1998, the Origins of Angkor Project undertook an archaeological excavation at the most important Khmer temple in Thailand, the Prasat Hin Phimai. The excavation recovered late prehistoric ceramics and remains of an early brick structure, probably religious in nature, which had been re-used as part of the foundation of the sandstone Angkorian temple.
- "Northeast Thailand before Angkor: evidence from an archaeological excavation at the Prasat Hin Phimai" (Web). Introduction. HighBeam Research. September 22, 2001. Retrieved September 21, 2011.
- Michael Freeman - A guide to Khmer temples in Thailand and Laos, ISBN 0-8348-0450-6
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