Phishing is a form of social engineering where attackers deceive people into revealing sensitive information or installing malware such as ransomware. Phishing attacks have become increasingly sophisticated and often transparently mirror the site being targeted, allowing the attacker to observe everything while the victim is navigating the site, and transverse any additional security boundaries with the victim. As of 2020, it is the most common type of cybercrime, with the FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Centre reporting more incidents of phishing than any other type of computer crime.
The term "phishing" was first recorded in 1995 in the cracking toolkit AOHell, but may have been used earlier in the hacker magazine 2600. It is a variation of fishing and refers to the use of lures to "fish" for sensitive information.
Measures to prevent or reduce the impact of phishing attacks include legislation, user education, public awareness, and technical security measures. The importance of phishing awareness has increased in both personal and professional settings, with phishing attacks among businesses rising from 72% to 86% from 2017 to 2020.
Phishing attacks, often delivered via email spam, attempt to trick individuals into giving away sensitive information or login credentials. Most attacks are "bulk attacks" that are not targeted and are instead sent in bulk to a wide audience. The goal of the attacker can vary, with common targets including financial institutions, email and cloud productivity providers, and streaming services. The stolen information or access may be used to steal money, install malware, or spear phish others within the target organization. Compromised streaming service accounts may also be sold on darknet markets.
Spear phishing is a targeted phishing attack that uses personalized emails to trick a specific individual or organization into believing they are legitimate. It often utilizes personal information about the target to increase the chances of success. These attacks often target executives or those in financial departments with access to sensitive financial data and services. Accountancy and audit firms are particularly vulnerable to spear phishing due to the value of the information their employees have access to.
A study on spear phishing susceptibility among different age groups found that 43% of 100 young and 58 older users clicked on simulated phishing links in daily emails over 21 days. Older women had the highest susceptibility, while susceptibility in young users declined over the study, but remained stable in older users.
Whaling and CEO fraud
CEO fraud involves sending fake emails from senior executives to trick employees into sending money to an offshore account. It has a low success rate, but can result in organizations losing large sums of money.
Clone phishing is a type of attack where a legitimate email with an attachment or link is copied and modified to contain malicious content. The modified email is then sent from a fake address made to look like it's from the original sender. The attack may appear to be a resend or update of the original email. It often relies on the sender or recipient being previously hacked so the attacker can access the legitimate email.
Voice over IP (VoIP) is used in vishing or voice phishing attacks, where attackers make automated phone calls to large numbers of people, often using text-to-speech synthesizers, claiming fraudulent activity on their accounts. The attackers spoof the calling phone number to appear as if it is coming from a legitimate bank or institution. The victim is then prompted to enter sensitive information or connected to a live person who uses social engineering tactics to obtain information. Vishing takes advantage of the public's lower awareness and trust in voice telephony compared to email phishing.
SMS phishing or smishing is a type of phishing attack that uses text messages from a cell phone or smartphone to deliver a bait message. The victim is usually asked to click a link, call a phone number, or contact an email address provided by the attacker. They may then be asked to provide private information, such as login credentials for other websites. The difficulty in identifying illegitimate links can be compounded on mobile devices due to the limited display of URLs in mobile browsers. Smishing can be just as effective as email phishing, as many smartphones have fast internet connectivity. Smishing messages may also come from unusual phone numbers.
Page hijacking involves redirecting users to malicious websites or exploit kits through the compromise of legitimate web pages, often using cross site scripting. Hackers may insert exploit kits such as MPack into compromised websites to exploit legitimate users visiting the server. Page hijacking can also involve the insertion of malicious inline frames, allowing exploit kits to load. This tactic is often used in conjunction with watering hole attacks on corporate targets.
Calendar phishing involves sending fake calendar invitations with phishing links. These invitations often mimic common event requests and can easily be added to calendars automatically. To protect against this form of fraud, former Google click fraud czar Shuman Ghosemajumder recommends changing calendar settings to not automatically add new invitations.
Phishing attacks often involve creating fake links that appear to be from a legitimate organization. These links may use misspelled URLs or subdomains to deceive the user. In the following example URL,
http://www.yourbank.example.com/, it can appear to the untrained eye as though the URL will take the user to the example section of the yourbank website; actually this URL points to the "yourbank" (i.e. phishing) section of the example website. Another tactic is to make the displayed text for a link appear trustworthy, while the actual link goes to the phisher's site. To check the destination of a link, many email clients and web browsers will show the URL in the status bar when the mouse is hovering over it. However, some phishers may be able to bypass this security measure.
Internationalized domain names (IDNs) can be exploited via IDN spoofing or homograph attacks to allow attackers to create fake websites with visually identical addresses to legitimate ones. These attacks have been used by phishers to disguise malicious URLs using open URL redirectors on trusted websites. Even digital certificates, such as SSL, may not protect against these attacks as phishers can purchase valid certificates and alter content to mimic genuine websites or host phishing sites without SSL.
Phishers have sometimes used images instead of text to make it harder for anti-phishing filters to detect the text commonly used in phishing emails. In response, more sophisticated anti-phishing filters are able to recover hidden text in images using optical character recognition (OCR).
Phishing often uses social engineering techniques to trick users into performing actions such as clicking a link or opening an attachment, or revealing sensitive information. It often involves pretending to be a trusted entity and creating a sense of urgency, like threatening to close or seize a victim's bank or insurance account.
An alternative technique to impersonation-based phishing is the use of fake news articles to trick victims into clicking on a malicious link. These links often lead to fake websites that appear legitimate, but are actually run by attackers who may try to install malware or present fake "virus" notifications to the victim.
The term "phishing" is said to have been coined by the well known spammer and hacker in the mid-90s, Khan C. Smith. The first recorded mention of the term is found in the hacking tool AOHell (according to its creator), which included a function for attempting to steal the passwords or financial details of America Online users.
Early AOL phishing
Phishing on AOL was a technique used by the warez community, who traded in unlicensed software, and black hat hackers to steal credit card information and commit other online crimes. AOL would suspend the accounts of individuals caught using certain keywords in chat rooms related to counterfeiting software or stolen accounts. The term "phishing" originated from the use of the <>< symbol in chat transcripts as a way to disguise references to illegal activity and evade detection by AOL staff. The symbol resembled a fish, and, combined with the popularity of phreaking, led to the term "phishing." AOHell, a program released in 1995, allowed hackers to impersonate AOL staff and send instant messages to victims asking them to reveal their passwords by claiming to need to "verify your account" or "confirm billing information".
AOHell was a custom-written program used for phishing and warezing on AOL. In an effort to combat phishing, AOL added a warning to all instant messages stating that they would never ask for passwords or billing information. However, users with both AOL and non-AOL internet accounts (such as those from an ISP) could still phish AOL members without consequences. In 1995, AOL implemented measures to prevent the use of fake credit card numbers to open accounts, leading to an increase in phishing for legitimate accounts. AOL deactivated accounts involved in phishing, and eventually the warez scene on AOL was shut down, causing most phishers to leave the service.
- It is estimated that between May 2004 and May 2005, approximately 1.2 million computer users in the United States suffered losses caused by phishing, totaling approximately US$929 million. United States businesses lose an estimated US$2 billion per year as their clients become victims.
- Phishing is recognized as a fully organized part of the black market. Specializations emerged on a global scale that provided phishing software for payment (thereby outsourcing risk), which were assembled and implemented into phishing campaigns by organized gangs.
- Almost half of phishing thefts in 2006 were committed by groups operating through the Russian Business Network based in St. Petersburg.
- Banks dispute with customers over phishing losses. The stance adopted by the UK banking body APACS is that "customers must also take sensible precautions ... so that they are not vulnerable to the criminal." Similarly, when the first spate of phishing attacks hit the Irish Republic's banking sector in September 2006, the Bank of Ireland initially refused to cover losses suffered by its customers, although losses to the tune of €113,000 were made good.
- Phishers are targeting the customers of banks and online payment services. Emails, supposedly from the Internal Revenue Service, have been used to glean sensitive data from U.S. taxpayers. While the first such examples were sent indiscriminately in the expectation that some would be received by customers of a given bank or service, recent research has shown that phishers may in principle be able to determine which banks potential victims use, and target bogus emails accordingly.
- Social networking sites are a prime target of phishing, since the personal details in such sites can be used in identity theft; in late 2006 a computer worm took over pages on MySpace and altered links to direct surfers to websites designed to steal login details.
- 3.6 million adults lost US$3.2 billion in the 12 months ending in August 2007. Microsoft claims these estimates are grossly exaggerated and puts the annual phishing loss in the US at US$60 million.
- Attackers who broke into TD Ameritrade's database and took 6.3 million email addresses (though they were not able to obtain social security numbers, account numbers, names, addresses, dates of birth, phone numbers and trading activity) also wanted the account usernames and passwords, so they launched a follow-up spear phishing attack.
- The RapidShare file sharing site has been targeted by phishing to obtain a premium account, which removes speed caps on downloads, auto-removal of uploads, waits on downloads, and cool down times between uploads.
- Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin facilitate the sale of malicious software, making transactions secure and anonymous.
- In January 2009, a phishing attack resulted in unauthorized wire transfers of US$1.9 million through Experi-Metal's online banking accounts.
- In the third quarter of 2009, the Anti-Phishing Working Group reported receiving 115,370 phishing email reports from consumers with US and China hosting more than 25% of the phishing pages each.
- In March 2011, Internal RSA staff were successfully phished, leading to the master keys for all RSA SecureID security tokens being stolen, then subsequently used to break into US defense suppliers.
- Chinese phishing campaigns targeted Gmail accounts of highly ranked officials of the United States and South Korean governments and militaries, as well as Chinese political activists.
- According to Ghosh, there were "445,004 attacks in 2012 as compared to 258,461 in 2011 and 187,203 in 2010”.
- In August 2013, advertising service Outbrain suffered a spear-phishing attack and SEA placed redirects into the websites of The Washington Post, Time, and CNN.
- In October 2013, emails purporting to be from American Express were sent to an unknown number of recipients.
- In November 2013, 110 million customer and credit card records were stolen from Target customers, through a phished subcontractor account. CEO and IT security staff subsequently fired.
- By December 2013, Cryptolocker ransomware had infected 250,000 computers. According to Dell SecureWorks, 0.4% or more of those infected likely agreed to the ransom demand.
- In January 2014, the Seculert Research Lab identified a new targeted attack that used Xtreme RAT. This attack used spear phishing emails to target Israeli organizations and deploy the piece of advanced malware. Fifteen machines were compromised including ones belonging to the Civil Administration of Judea and Samaria.
- In August 2014, the iCloud leaks of celebrity photos was found to be based on phishing e-mails sent to the victims that looked like they came from Apple or Google, warning the victims that their accounts might be compromised and asking for their account details.
- In November 2014, phishing attacks on ICANN gained administrative access to the Centralized Zone Data System; also gained was data about users in the system - and access to ICANN's public Governmental Advisory Committee wiki, blog, and whois information portal.
- Charles H. Eccleston pleaded guilty in an attempted spear-phishing when he attempted to infect computers of 80 Department of Energy employees.
- Eliot Higgins and other journalists associated with Bellingcat, a group researching the shootdown of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 over Ukraine, were targeted by numerous spear phishing emails.
- In August 2015, Cozy Bear was linked to a spear-phishing cyber-attack against the Pentagon email system causing the shut down of the entire Joint Staff unclassified email system and Internet access during the investigation.
- In August 2015, Fancy Bear used a zero-day exploit of Java, in a spear phishing attack spoofing the Electronic Frontier Foundation and launching attacks on the White House and NATO.
- In February, Austrian aerospace firm FACC AG was defrauded of 42 million euros ($47 million) through a BEC attack - and subsequently fired both the CFO and CEO.
- Fancy Bear carried out spear phishing attacks on email addresses associated with the Democratic National Committee in the first quarter of 2016.
- The Wichita Eagle reported "KU employees fall victim to phishing scam, lose paychecks" 
- Fancy Bear is suspected to be behind a spear phishing attack in August 2016 on members of the Bundestag and multiple political parties such as Linken-faction leader Sahra Wagenknecht, Junge Union and the CDU of Saarland.
- In August 2016, the World Anti-Doping Agency reported the receipt of phishing emails sent to users of its database claiming to be official WADA, but consistent with the Russian hacking group Fancy Bear. According to WADA, some of the data the hackers released had been forged.
- Within hours of the 2016 U.S. election results, Russian hackers sent emails from spoofed Harvard University email addresses, using techniques similar to phishing to publish fake news targeted at ordinary American voters.
- In 2017, 76% of organizations experienced phishing attacks. Nearly half of information security professionals surveyed said that the rate of attacks increased from 2016.
- In the first half of 2017 businesses and residents of Qatar were hit with more than 93,570 phishing events in a three-month span.
- A phishing email to Google and Facebook users successfully induced employees into wiring money – to the extent of US$100 million – to overseas bank accounts under the control of a hacker. He has since been arrested by the US Department of Justice.
- In August 2017, customers of Amazon faced the Amazon Prime Day phishing attack, when hackers sent out seemingly legitimate deals to customers of Amazon. When Amazon's customers attempted to make purchases using the "deals", the transaction would not be completed, prompting the retailer's customers to input data that could be compromised and stolen.
- Between May 30, 2019 and October 6, 2019 an unauthorized individual gained access to employee email accounts at Golden Entertainment, a Las Vegas, Nevada slot machine operator using an email phishing attack. The attacker had access to one particular email with an attachment containing the Social Security Numbers, Passport numbers, government IDs, and various personal data of multiple company employees and vendors. It is unclear whether this information was exposed. The company notified all affected individuals as a precaution, offering them complimentary Credit report monitoring. Subsequently, a class action lawsuit against the company was approved in the United States District Court for the District of Nevada on December 17, 2020.
- From 2015-2019, Unatrac Holding Ltd. was subjected to an ongoing spear phishing attack, costing about $11 million US dollars. Obinwanne Okeke and conspirators first acquired the company CFO's email credentials. Then, they sent fake invoices and wire transfer requests to the company's financial department. Okeke perpetrated cyberfraud against many other businesses and individuals, successfully capturing email and other sensitive login credentials. On February 16, 2021, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
- On July 15, 2020, Twitter suffered a breach that combined elements of Social engineering (security) and phishing. A 17-year old hacker and accomplices setup a fake website resembling Twitter's internal VPN provider used by remote working employees. Individuals posing as helpdesk staff called multiple Twitter employees, directing them to submit their credentials to the fake VPN website.  Using the details supplied by the unknowing employees, they were then able to seize control of several high-profile user accounts, including Barack Obama, Elon Musk, Joe Biden and Apple Inc.'s company account. The hackers sent messages to Twitter followers soliciting Bitcoin promising double the transaction value in return, collecting 12.86 BTC (about $117,000 at the time).
"APWG Phishing Attack Trends Reports". Retrieved May 5, 2019.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2021)
There are anti-phishing websites which publish exact messages that have been recently circulating the internet, such as FraudWatch International and Millersmiles. Such sites often provide specific details about the particular messages.
As recently as 2007, the adoption of anti-phishing strategies by businesses needing to protect personal and financial information was low. Now there are several different techniques to combat phishing, including legislation and technology created specifically to protect against phishing. These techniques include steps that can be taken by individuals, as well as by organizations. Phone, web site, and email phishing can now be reported to authorities, as described below.
Effective phishing education, including conceptual knowledge and feedback, is an important part of any organization's anti-phishing strategy. While there is limited data on the effectiveness of education in reducing susceptibility to phishing, much information on the threat is available online.
Simulated phishing campaigns, in which organizations test their employees' training by sending fake phishing emails, are commonly used to assess their effectiveness. One example is a study by the National Library of Medicine, in which an organization received 858,200 emails during a 1-month testing period, with 139,400 (16%) being marketing and 18,871 (2%) being identified as potential threats. These campaigns are often used in the healthcare industry, as healthcare data is a valuable target for hackers. These campaigns are just one of the ways that organizations are working to combat phishing.
To avoid phishing attempts, people can modify their browsing habits and be cautious of emails claiming to be from a company asking to "verify" an account. It's best to contact the company directly or manually type in their website address rather than clicking on any hyperlinks in suspicious emails.
Nearly all legitimate e-mail messages from companies to their customers contain an item of information that is not readily available to phishers. Some companies, for example PayPal, always address their customers by their username in emails, so if an email addresses the recipient in a generic fashion ("Dear PayPal customer") it is likely to be an attempt at phishing. Furthermore, PayPal offers various methods to determine spoof emails and advises users to forward suspicious emails to their spoof@PayPal.com domain to investigate and warn other customers. However it is unsafe to assume that the presence of personal information alone guarantees that a message is legitimate, and some studies have shown that the presence of personal information does not significantly affect the success rate of phishing attacks; which suggests that most people do not pay attention to such details.
Emails from banks and credit card companies often include partial account numbers, but research has shown that people tend to not differentiate between the first and last digits. This is an issue because the first few digits are often the same for all clients of a financial institution.
Google posted a video demonstrating how to identify and protect yourself from Phishing scams.
A wide range of technical approaches are available to prevent phishing attacks reaching users or to prevent them from successfully capturing sensitive information.
Filtering out phishing mail
Specialized spam filters can reduce the number of phishing emails that reach their addressees' inboxes. These filters use a number of techniques including machine learning and natural language processing approaches to classify phishing emails, and reject email with forged addresses.
Browsers alerting users to fraudulent websites
Another popular approach to fighting phishing is to maintain a list of known phishing sites and to check websites against the list. One such service is the Safe Browsing service. Web browsers such as Google Chrome, Internet Explorer 7, Mozilla Firefox 2.0, Safari 3.2, and Opera all contain this type of anti-phishing measure. Firefox 2 used Google anti-phishing software. Opera 9.1 uses live blacklists from Phishtank, cyscon and GeoTrust, as well as live whitelists from GeoTrust. Some implementations of this approach send the visited URLs to a central service to be checked, which has raised concerns about privacy. According to a report by Mozilla in late 2006, Firefox 2 was found to be more effective than Internet Explorer 7 at detecting fraudulent sites in a study by an independent software testing company.
An approach introduced in mid-2006 involves switching to a special DNS service that filters out known phishing domains: this will work with any browser, and is similar in principle to using a hosts file to block web adverts.
To mitigate the problem of phishing sites impersonating a victim site by embedding its images (such as logos), several site owners have altered the images to send a message to the visitor that a site may be fraudulent. The image may be moved to a new filename and the original permanently replaced, or a server can detect that the image was not requested as part of normal browsing, and instead send a warning image.
Augmenting password logins
The Bank of America website is one of several that asks users to select a personal image (marketed as SiteKey) and displays this user-selected image with any forms that request a password. Users of the bank's online services are instructed to enter a password only when they see the image they selected. However, several studies suggest that few users refrain from entering their passwords when images are absent. In addition, this feature (like other forms of two-factor authentication) is susceptible to other attacks, such as those suffered by Scandinavian bank Nordea in late 2005, and Citibank in 2006.
A similar system, in which an automatically generated "Identity Cue" consisting of a colored word within a colored box is displayed to each website user, is in use at other financial institutions.
Security skins are a related technique that involves overlaying a user-selected image onto the login form as a visual cue that the form is legitimate. Unlike the website-based image schemes, however, the image itself is shared only between the user and the browser, and not between the user and the website. The scheme also relies on a mutual authentication protocol, which makes it less vulnerable to attacks that affect user-only authentication schemes.
Still another technique relies on a dynamic grid of images that is different for each login attempt. The user must identify the pictures that fit their pre-chosen categories (such as dogs, cars and flowers). Only after they have correctly identified the pictures that fit their categories are they allowed to enter their alphanumeric password to complete the login. Unlike the static images used on the Bank of America website, a dynamic image-based authentication method creates a one-time passcode for the login, requires active participation from the user, and is very difficult for a phishing website to correctly replicate because it would need to display a different grid of randomly generated images that includes the user's secret categories.
Monitoring and takedown
Several companies offer banks and other organizations likely to suffer from phishing scams round-the-clock services to monitor, analyze and assist in shutting down phishing websites. Automated detection of phishing content is still below accepted levels for direct action, with content-based analysis reaching between 80% and 90% of success so most of the tools include manual steps to certify the detection and authorize the response. Individuals can contribute by reporting phishing to both volunteer and industry groups, such as cyscon or PhishTank. Phishing web pages and emails can be reported to Google.
Transaction verification and signing
Solutions have also emerged using the mobile phone (smartphone) as a second channel for verification and authorization of banking transactions.
Organizations can implement two factor or multi-factor authentication (MFA), which requires a user to use at least 2 factors when logging in. (For example, a user must both present a smart card and a password). This mitigates some risk, in the event of a successful phishing attack, the stolen password on its own cannot be reused to further breach the protected system. However, there are several attack methods which can defeat many of the typical systems. MFA schemes such as WebAuthn address this issue by design.
Email content redaction
Organizations that prioritize security over convenience can require users of its computers to use an email client that redacts URLs from email messages, thus making it impossible for the reader of the email to click on a link, or even copy a URL. While this may result in an inconvenience, it does almost eliminate email phishing attacks.
Limitations of technical responses
An article in Forbes in August 2014 argues that the reason phishing problems persist even after a decade of anti-phishing technologies being sold is that phishing is "a technological medium to exploit human weaknesses" and that technology cannot fully compensate for human weaknesses.
On January 26, 2004, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission filed the first lawsuit against a Californian teenager suspected of phishing by creating a webpage mimicking America Online and stealing credit card information. Other countries have followed this lead by tracing and arresting phishers. A phishing kingpin, Valdir Paulo de Almeida, was arrested in Brazil for leading one of the largest phishing crime rings, which in two years stole between US$18 million and US$37 million. UK authorities jailed two men in June 2005 for their role in a phishing scam, in a case connected to the U.S. Secret Service Operation Firewall, which targeted notorious "carder" websites. In 2006, Japanese police arrested eight people for creating fake Yahoo Japan websites, netting themselves ¥100 million (US$870,000) and the FBI detained a gang of sixteen in the U.S. and Europe in Operation Cardkeeper.
Senator Patrick Leahy introduced the Anti-Phishing Act of 2005 to Congress in the United States on March 1, 2005. This bill aimed to impose fines of up to $250,000 and prison sentences of up to five years on criminals who used fake websites and emails to defraud consumers. In the UK, the Fraud Act 2006 introduced a general offense of fraud punishable by up to ten years in prison and prohibited the development or possession of phishing kits with the intention of committing fraud.
Companies have also joined the effort to crack down on phishing. On March 31, 2005, Microsoft filed 117 federal lawsuits in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington. The lawsuits accuse "John Doe" defendants of obtaining passwords and confidential information. March 2005 also saw a partnership between Microsoft and the Australian government teaching law enforcement officials how to combat various cyber crimes, including phishing. Microsoft announced a planned further 100 lawsuits outside the U.S. in March 2006, followed by the commencement, as of November 2006, of 129 lawsuits mixing criminal and civil actions. AOL reinforced its efforts against phishing in early 2006 with three lawsuits seeking a total of US$18 million under the 2005 amendments to the Virginia Computer Crimes Act, and Earthlink has joined in by helping to identify six men subsequently charged with phishing fraud in Connecticut.
In January 2007, Jeffrey Brett Goodin of California became the first defendant convicted by a jury under the provisions of the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003. He was found guilty of sending thousands of emails to America Online (AOL) users, while posing as AOL's billing department, which prompted customers to submit personal and credit card information. Facing a possible 101 years in prison for the CAN-SPAM violation and ten other counts including wire fraud, the unauthorized use of credit cards, and the misuse of AOL's trademark, he was sentenced to serve 70 months. Goodin had been in custody since failing to appear for an earlier court hearing and began serving his prison term immediately.
- Anti-phishing software
- Brandjacking – Assuming the online identity of another entity
- In-session phishing – Type of phishing attack
- Internet fraud – Type of fraud or deception which makes use of the Internet to defraud victims
- Link farm
- List of cognitive biases – Systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, many abusable by phishing
- Penetration test – Method of evaluating computer and network security by simulating a cyber attack
- SiteKey – Web-based authentication service
- Trojan Horse
- Typosquatting – Form of cybersquatting which relies on mistakes when inputting a website address
- Jansson, K.; von Solms, R. (2011-11-09). "Phishing for phishing awareness". Behaviour & Information Technology. 32 (6): 584–593. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2011.632650. ISSN 0144-929X. S2CID 5472217.
- Ramzan, Zulfikar (2010). "Phishing attacks and countermeasures". In Stamp, Mark; Stavroulakis, Peter (eds.). Handbook of Information and Communication Security. Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-04117-4.
- "Internet Crime Report 2020" (PDF). FBI Internet Crime Complaint Centre. U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- Ollmann, Gunter. "The Phishing Guide: Understanding and Preventing Phishing Attacks". Technical Info. Archived from the original on 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2006-07-10.
- Wright, A; Aaron, S; Bates, DW (October 2016). "The Big Phish: Cyberattacks Against U.S. Healthcare Systems". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 31 (10): 1115–8. doi:10.1007/s11606-016-3741-z. PMC 5023604. PMID 27177913.
- Stonebraker, Steve (January 2022). "AOL Underground". aolunderground.com (Podcast). Anchor.fm.
- Mitchell, Anthony (July 12, 2005). "A Leet Primer". TechNewsWorld. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
- "Phishing". Language Log, September 22, 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
- Jøsang, Audun; et al. (2007). "Security Usability Principles for Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Assessment". Proceedings of the Annual Computer Security Applications Conference 2007 (ACSAC'07). Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
- Lin, Tian; Capecci, Daniel E.; Ellis, Donovan M.; Rocha, Harold A.; Dommaraju, Sandeep; Oliveira, Daniela S.; Ebner, Natalie C. (September 2019). "Susceptibility to Spear-Phishing Emails: Effects of Internet User Demographics and Email Content". ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 26 (5): 32. doi:10.1145/3336141. ISSN 1073-0516. PMC 7274040. PMID 32508486.
- "2019 Data Breach Investigations Report" (PDF). PhishingBox. Verizon Communications. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- Furnell, Steven; Millet, Kieran; Papadaki, Maria (July 2019). "Fifteen years of phishing: can technology save us?". Computer Fraud & Security. 2019 (7): 11–16. doi:10.1016/S1361-3723(19)30074-0. S2CID 199578115. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- Waddell, Kaveh (11 February 2016). "The Black Market for Netflix Accounts". The Atlantic. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- "Spear phishing". Windows IT Pro Center. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- Stephenson, Debbie (2013-05-30). "Spear Phishing: Who's Getting Caught?". Firmex. Archived from the original on 2014-08-11. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- "NSA/GCHQ Hacking Gets Personal: Belgian Cryptographer Targeted". Info Security magazine. 3 February 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- Leyden, John (4 April 2011). "RSA explains how attackers breached its systems". The Register. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- Winterford, Brett (7 April 2011). "Epsilon breach used four-month-old attack". itnews.com.au. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- O'Leary, Daniel E. (2019). "What Phishing E-mails Reveal: An Exploratory Analysis of Phishing Attempts Using Text Analyzes". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3427436. ISSN 1556-5068. S2CID 239250225. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
- "Threat Group-4127 Targets Google Accounts". secureworks.com. Archived from the original on 2019-08-11. Retrieved 2017-10-12.
- Nakashima, Ellen; Harris, Shane (July 13, 2018). "How the Russians hacked the DNC and passed its emails to WikiLeaks". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on March 21, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
- Alkhalil, Z (2021). "Phishing attacks: A recent comprehensive study and a new anatomy". Frontiers in Computer Science. 3. doi:10.3389/fcomp.2021.563060.
- "Fake subpoenas harpoon 2,100 corporate fat cats". The Register. Archived from the original on March 13, 2011. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
- "What Is 'Whaling'? Is Whaling Like 'Spear Phishing'?". About Tech. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
- Junger, Marianne; Wang, Victoria; Schlömer, Marleen (December 2020). "Fraud against businesses both online and offline: crime scripts, business characteristics, efforts, and benefits". Crime Science. 9 (1): 13. doi:10.1186/s40163-020-00119-4.
- "Action Fraud warning after serious rise in CEO fraud". Action Fraud. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
- "Invoice scams affecting New Zealand businesses". NZCERT. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- Parker, Tamsyn (18 August 2018). "House invoice scam leaves couple $53k out of pocket". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- Griffin, Slade E.; Rackley, Casey C. (2008). "Vishing". Proceedings of the 5th Annual Conference on Information Security Curriculum Development - InfoSecCD '08: 33. doi:10.1145/1456625.1456635. ISBN 9781605583334.
- Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Ruishan; Yang, Xiaohui; Jiang, Xuxian; Wijesekera, Duminda (2008). "Voice pharming attack and the trust of VoIP". Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Netowrks - SecureComm '08: 1. doi:10.1145/1460877.1460908. ISBN 9781605582412. S2CID 7874236.
- "Phishing, Smishing, and Vishing: What's the Difference?" (PDF). belvoircreditunion.org. August 1, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-01.
- Vishing and smishing: The rise of social engineering fraud Archived 2021-03-21 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, Marie Keyworth, 2016-01-01
- Steinmetz, Kevin F.; Holt, Thomas J. (2022-08-05). "Falling for Social Engineering: A Qualitative Analysis of Social Engineering Policy Recommendations". Social Science Computer Review: 089443932211175. doi:10.1177/08944393221117501. ISSN 0894-4393. S2CID 251420893.
- "SMS phishing article at ConsumerAffairs.com". 8 November 2006. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
- Mishra, Sandhya; Soni, Devpriya (August 2019). "SMS Phishing and Mitigation Approaches". 2019 Twelfth International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3). IEEE: 1–5. doi:10.1109/ic3.2019.8844920. ISBN 978-1-7281-3591-5. S2CID 202700726.
- "What is Smishing?". Symantec Corporation. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
- Newman, Lily Hay. "Tricky Scam Plants Phishing Links in Your Google Calendar". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2021-11-11.
- By (2019-08-27). "Scammers are targeting your calendar—here's how to stop them". Popular Science. Retrieved 2021-11-11.
- "Get smart on Phishing! Learn to read links!". Archived from the original on December 17, 2016. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
Hovering links to see their true location may be a useless security tip in the near future if phishers get smart about their mode of operation and follow the example of a crook who recently managed to bypass this browser built-in security feature.
- Johanson, Eric. "The State of Homograph Attacks Rev1.1". The Shmoo Group. Archived from the original on August 23, 2005. Retrieved August 11, 2005.
- Evgeniy Gabrilovich & Alex Gontmakher (February 2002). "The Homograph Attack" (PDF). Communications of the ACM. 45 (2): 128. doi:10.1145/503124.503156. S2CID 73840. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-11-04. Retrieved 2019-09-15.
- Leyden, John (August 15, 2006). "Barclays scripting SNAFU exploited by phishers". The Register. Archived from the original on June 13, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- Levine, Jason. "Goin' phishing with eBay". Q Daily News. Archived from the original on March 26, 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
- Leyden, John (December 12, 2007). "Cybercrooks lurk in shadows of big-name websites". The Register. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- "Black Hat DC 2009". May 15, 2011. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
- Mutton, Paul. "Fraudsters seek to make phishing sites undetectable by content filters". Netcraft. Archived from the original on February 24, 2011.
- "The use of Optical Character Recognition OCR software in spam filtering". PowerShow. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- Cui, Xinyue; Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Zhang, Kan (2020). "Effects of Recipient Information and Urgency Cues on Phishing Detection". HCI International 2020 - Posters. Communications in Computer and Information Science. 1226: 520–525. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-50732-9_67. ISBN 978-3-030-50731-2. S2CID 220523895.
- Williams, Emma J; Joinson, Adam N (2020-01-01). "Developing a measure of information seeking about phishing". Journal of Cybersecurity. 6 (1). doi:10.1093/cybsec/tyaa001. ISSN 2057-2085.
- Lin, Tian; Capecci, Daniel E.; Ellis, Donovan M.; Rocha, Harold A.; Dommaraju, Sandeep; Oliveira, Daniela S.; Ebner, Natalie C. (September 2019). "Susceptibility to Spear-Phishing Emails: Effects of Internet User Demographics and Email Content". ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 26 (5). doi:10.1145/3336141. ISSN 1073-0516. PMC 7274040. PMID 32508486.
- Tomlinson, Kerry (27 January 2017). "Fake news can poison your computer as well as your mind". archersecuritygroup.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- Felix, Jerry & Hauck, Chris (September 1987). "System Security: A Hacker's Perspective". 1987 Interex Proceedings. 8: 6.
- "EarthLink wins $25 million lawsuit against junk e-mailer". Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
- Langberg, Mike (September 8, 1995). "AOL Acts to Thwart Hackers". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Rekouche, Koceilah (2011). "Early Phishing". arXiv:1106.4692 [cs.CR].
- Stutz, Michael (January 29, 1998). "AOL: A Cracker's Momma!". Wired News. Archived from the original on December 14, 2005.
- "Phishing | History of Phishing". phishing.org. Archived from the original on 2018-09-09. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- "Phishing". Word Spy. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
- "History of AOL Warez". Archived from the original on April 6, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
- "GP4.3 – Growth and Fraud — Case #3 – Phishing". Financial Cryptography. December 30, 2005. Archived from the original on January 22, 2019. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
- Sangani, Kris (September 2003). "The Battle Against Identity Theft". The Banker. 70 (9): 53–54.
- Kerstein, Paul (July 19, 2005). "How Can We Stop Phishing and Pharming Scams?". CSO. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008.
- "In 2005, Organized Crime Will Back Phishers". IT Management. December 23, 2004. Archived from the original on December 31, 2010.
- Abad, Christopher (September 2005). "The economy of phishing: A survey of the operations of the phishing market". First Monday. Archived from the original on 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
- "UK phishing fraud losses double". Finextra. March 7, 2006. Archived from the original on January 19, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
- Richardson, Tim (May 3, 2005). "Brits fall prey to phishing". The Register. Archived from the original on June 10, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- Krebs, Brian (October 13, 2007). "Shadowy Russian Firm Seen as Conduit for Cybercrime". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 11, 2019. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- Miller, Rich. "Bank, Customers Spar Over Phishing Losses". Netcraft. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
- "Latest News". Archived from the original on October 7, 2008.
- "Bank of Ireland agrees to phishing refunds". vnunet.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2008.
- "Suspicious e-Mails and Identity Theft". Internal Revenue Service. Archived from the original on February 21, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2006.
- "Phishing for Clues". Indiana University Bloomington. September 15, 2005. Archived from the original on July 31, 2009. Retrieved September 15, 2005.
- Kirk, Jeremy (June 2, 2006). "Phishing Scam Takes Aim at MySpace.com". IDG Network. Archived from the original on June 16, 2006.
- "Malicious Website / Malicious Code: MySpace XSS QuickTime Worm". Websense Security Labs. Archived from the original on December 5, 2006. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
- McCall, Tom (December 17, 2007). "Gartner Survey Shows Phishing Attacks Escalated in 2007; More than $3 Billion Lost to These Attacks". Gartner. Archived from the original on November 18, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
- "A Profitless Endeavor: Phishing as Tragedy of the Commons" (PDF). Microsoft. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- "Torrent of spam likely to hit 6.3 million TD Ameritrade hack victims". Archived from the original on August 21, 2008.
- "1-Click Hosting at RapidTec — Warning of Phishing!". Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
- APWG. "Phishing Activity Trends Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "APWG Phishing Attack Trends Reports". Archived from the original on March 21, 2021. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- "Anatomy of an RSA attack". RSA.com. RSA FraudAction Research Labs. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Drew, Christopher; Markoff, John (May 27, 2011). "Data Breach at Security Firm Linked to Attack on Lockheed". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 9, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Keizer, Greg (2011-08-13). "Suspected Chinese spear-phishing attacks continue to hit Gmail users". Computerworld. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Ewing, Philip (2011-08-22). "Report: Chinese TV doc reveals cyber-mischief". Dod Buzz. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Syrian hackers Use Outbrain to Target The Washington Post, Time, and CNN" Archived 2013-10-19 at the Wayback Machine, Philip Bump, The Atlantic Wire, 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Paul, Andrew. "Phishing Emails: The Unacceptable Failures of American Express". Email Answers. Archived from the original on October 9, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- O'Connell, Liz. "Report: Email phishing scam led to Target breach". BringMeTheNews.com. Archived from the original on September 15, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Ausick, Paul. "Target CEO Sack". Archived from the original on September 15, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Kelion, Leo (December 24, 2013). "Cryptolocker ransomware has 'infected about 250,000 PCs'". BBC. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
- "Israeli defence computer hacked via tainted email -cyber firm". Reuters. 2014-01-26. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2017-07-01.
- לוי, רויטרס ואליאור (27 January 2014). "האקרים השתלטו על מחשבים ביטחוניים". Ynet. Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
- "Hackers break into Israeli defence computers, says security company". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09.
- "Israel defence computers hit by hack attack". BBC News. 2014-01-27. Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2018-06-22.
- "Israeli Defense Computer Hit in Cyber Attack: Data Expert | SecurityWeek.Com". securityweek.com. Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- "Israel to Ease Cyber-Security Export Curbs, Premier Says". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2014-03-04. Retrieved 2017-03-11.
- Halpern, Micah D. "Cyber Break-in @ IDF". HuffPost. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
- Prosecutors find that ‘Fappening’ celebrity nudes leak was not Apple’s fault Archived 2017-08-18 at the Wayback Machine March 15, 2016, Techcrunch
- "ICANN Targeted in Spear Phishing Attack | Enhanced Security Measures Implemented". icann.org. Archived from the original on 2019-08-07. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
- "Eccleston Indictment". November 1, 2013. Archived from the original on January 26, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
- "Former U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Employee Pleads Guilty to Attempted Spear-Phishing Cyber-Attack on Department of Energy Computers". 2016-02-02. Archived from the original on 2019-08-08. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
- Nakashima, Ellen (28 September 2016). "Russian hackers harassed journalists who were investigating Malaysia Airlines plane crash". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- ThreatConnect (2016-09-28). "ThreatConnect reviews activity targeting Bellingcat, a key contributor in the MH17 investigation". ThreatConnect. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Kube, Courtney (7 August 2015). "Russia hacks Pentagon computers: NBC, citing sources". Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- Starr, Barbara (7 August 2015). "Official: Russia suspected in Joint Chiefs email server intrusion". Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- Doctorow, Cory (August 28, 2015). "Spear phishers with suspected ties to Russian government spoof fake EFF domain, attack White House". Boing Boing. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- Quintin, Cooper (August 27, 2015). "New Spear Phishing Campaign Pretends to be EFF". EFF. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
- "Austria's FACC, hit by cyber fraud, fires CEO". Reuters. 26 May 2016. Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Sanger, David E.; Corasaniti, Nick (14 June 2016). "D.N.C. Says Russian Hackers Penetrated Its Files, Including Dossier on Donald Trump". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Economist, Staff of (24 September 2016). "Bear on bear". Economist. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- "KU employees fall victim to phishing scam, lose paychecks". Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
- "Hackers lurking, parliamentarians told". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Pinkert, Georg Heil; Berlin, Nicolas Richter (2016-09-20). "Hackerangriff auf deutsche Parteien". Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Holland, Martin. "Angeblich versuchter Hackerangriff auf Bundestag und Parteien". Heise. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Hemicker, Lorenz; Alto, Palo. "Wir haben Fingerabdrücke". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Frankfurter Allgemeine. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- Hyacinth Mascarenhas (August 23, 2016). "Russian hackers 'Fancy Bear' likely breached Olympic drug-testing agency and DNC, experts say". International Business Times. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- "What we know about Fancy Bears hack team". BBC News. 2016-09-15. Archived from the original on 2019-03-22. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
- Gallagher, Sean (6 October 2016). "Researchers find fake data in Olympic anti-doping, Guccifer 2.0 Clinton dumps". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "Russian Hackers Launch Targeted Cyberattacks Hours After Trump's Win". 2016-11-10. Archived from the original on 2017-01-27. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
- European Parliament Committee on Foreign Affairs (23 November 2016), "MEPs sound alarm on anti-EU propaganda from Russia and Islamist terrorist groups" (PDF), European Parliament, archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2019, retrieved 26 November 2016
- Lewis Sanders IV (11 October 2016), 'Divide Europe': European lawmakers warn of Russian propaganda, Deutsche Welle, archived from the original on 25 March 2019, retrieved 24 November 2016
- "Qatar faced 93,570 phishing attacks in first quarter of 2017". Gulf Times (in Arabic). 2017-05-12. Archived from the original on 2018-08-04. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
- "Facebook and Google Were Victims of $100M Payment Scam". Fortune. Archived from the original on 2019-08-08. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
- "Amazon Prime Day phishing scam spreading now!". The Kim Komando Show. Archived from the original on 2019-05-27. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
- "Cryptocurrency Hackers Are Stealing from EOS's $4 Billion ICO Using This Sneaky Scam". Jen Wieczner. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
- "Golden Entertainment phishing attack exposes gamblers' data". verdict.co.uk. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
- "How Phishing Impacts the Online Gambling Industry". sportsbetting3.com. 9 November 2021. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
- "Miranda et al v. Golden Entertainment (NV), Inc" (PDF). justia.com. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
- "Nigerian Man Sentenced 10 Years for $11 million Phishing Scam". cyberscoop.com. 17 February 2021. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
- "Nigerian National Sentenced to Prison for $11 Million Global Fraud Scheme". justice.gov. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
- "Twitter Investigation Report - Department of Financial Services". www.dfs.ny.gov. 2020-10-14. Retrieved 2020-10-11.
- "Three Individuals Charged For Alleged Roles In Twitter Hack". justice.gov. Retrieved 2022-03-23.
- "Millersmiles Home Page". Oxford Information Services. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- "FraudWatch International Home Page". FraudWatch International. Archived from the original on June 16, 2019. Retrieved January 3, 2010.
- Baker, Emiley; Wade Baker; John Tedesco (2007). "Organizations Respond to Phishing: Exploring the Public Relations Tackle Box". Communication Research Reports. 24 (4): 327. doi:10.1080/08824090701624239. S2CID 144245673.
- Arachchilage, Nalin; Love, Steve; Scott, Michael (June 1, 2012). "Designing a Mobile Game to Teach Conceptual Knowledge of Avoiding 'Phishing Attacks'". International Journal for E-Learning Security. 2 (1): 127–132. doi:10.20533/ijels.2046.4568.2012.0016.
- Ponnurangam Kumaraguru; Yong Woo Rhee; Alessandro Acquisti; Lorrie Cranor; Jason Hong; Elizabeth Nunge (November 2006). "Protecting People from Phishing: The Design and Evaluation of an Embedded Training Email System" (PDF). Technical Report CMU-CyLab-06-017, CyLab, Carnegie Mellon University. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 30, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
- Perrault, Evan K. (2017-03-23). "Using an Interactive Online Quiz to Recalibrate College Students' Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions About Phishing". Journal of Educational Computing Research. 55 (8): 1154–1167. doi:10.1177/0735633117699232. S2CID 64269078.
- Jampen, Daniel; Gür, Gürkan; Sutter, Thomas; Tellenbach, Bernhard (December 2020). "Don't click: towards an effective anti-phishing training. A comparative literature review". Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences. 10 (1): 33. doi:10.1186/s13673-020-00237-7. ISSN 2192-1962. S2CID 221084452.
- Priestman, Ward; Anstis, Tony; Sebire, Isabel G; Sridharan, Shankar; Sebire, Neil J (2019-09-04). "Phishing in healthcare organisations: threats, mitigation and approaches". BMJ Health & Care Informatics. 26 (1): e100031. doi:10.1136/bmjhci-2019-100031. ISSN 2632-1009. PMC 7062337. PMID 31488498.
- Hendric, William. "Steps to avoid phishing". Archived from the original on March 21, 2021. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- "Anti-Phishing Tips You Should Not Follow". HexView. Archived from the original on March 20, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2006.
- "Protect Yourself from Fraudulent Emails". PayPal. Archived from the original on April 6, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2006.
- Zeltser, Lenny (March 17, 2006). "Phishing Messages May Include Highly-Personalized Information". The SANS Institute. Archived from the original on December 2, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
- Markus Jakobsson & Jacob Ratkiewicz. "Designing Ethical Phishing Experiments". WWW '06. Archived from the original on January 31, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- Markus Jakobsson; Alex Tsow; Ankur Shah; Eli Blevis; Youn-kyung Lim. "What Instills Trust? A Qualitative Study of Phishing" (PDF). informatics.indiana.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2007.
- "APWG Phishing Attack Trends Reports". APWG. Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
- Google (June 25, 2017). "Stay Safe from Phishing and Scams". Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2020 – via YouTube.
|last=has generic name (help)
- Olivo, Cleber K.; Santin, Altair O.; Oliveira, Luiz S. (July 2011). "Obtaining the Threat Model for E-mail Phishing". Applied Soft Computing. 13 (12): 4841–4848. doi:10.1016/j.asoc.2011.06.016.
- Madhusudhanan Chandrasekaran; Krishnan Narayanan; Shambhu Upadhyaya (March 2006). "Phishing E-mail Detection Based on Structural Properties" (PDF). NYS Cyber Security Symposium. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008.
- Ian Fette; Norman Sadeh; Anthony Tomasic (June 2006). "Learning to Detect Phishing Emails" (PDF). Carnegie Mellon University Technical Report CMU-ISRI-06-112. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-06-19. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- "Landing another blow against email phishing (Google Online Security Blog)". Archived from the original on June 6, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- "Google Safe Browsing". Archived from the original on 2017-09-01. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
- "Safe Browsing (Google Online Security Blog)". Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
- Franco, Rob. "Better Website Identification and Extended Validation Certificates in IE7 and Other Browsers". IEBlog. Archived from the original on January 25, 2010. Retrieved Feb 10, 2020.
- "Bon Echo Anti-Phishing". Mozilla. Archived from the original on September 24, 2006. Retrieved June 2, 2006.
- "Safari 3.2 finally gains phishing protection". Ars Technica. November 13, 2008. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- "Gone Phishing: Evaluating Anti-Phishing Tools for Windows". 3Sharp. September 27, 2006. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2006.
- "Two Things That Bother Me About Google's New Firefox Extension". Nitesh Dhanjani on O'Reilly ONLamp. Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2007.
- "Firefox 2 Phishing Protection Effectiveness Testing". Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
- Higgins, Kelly Jackson. "DNS Gets Anti-Phishing Hook". Dark Reading. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2006.
- Krebs, Brian (August 31, 2006). "Using Images to Fight Phishing". Security Fix. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006.
- Seltzer, Larry (August 2, 2004). "Spotting Phish and Phighting Back". eWeek. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
- Bank of America. "How Bank of America SiteKey Works For Online Banking Security". Archived from the original on June 20, 2009. Retrieved January 23, 2007.
- Brubaker, Bill (July 14, 2005). "Bank of America Personalizes Cyber-Security". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 8, 2019. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- Stone, Brad (February 5, 2007). "Study Finds Web Antifraud Measure Ineffective". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 11, 2019. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
- Stuart Schechter; Rachna Dhamija; Andy Ozment; Ian Fischer (May 2007). "The Emperor's New Security Indicators: An evaluation of website authentication and the effect of role playing on usability studies" (PDF). IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, May 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
- "Phishers target Nordea's one-time password system". Finextra. October 12, 2005. Archived from the original on December 18, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2005.
- Krebs, Brian (July 10, 2006). "Citibank Phish Spoofs 2-Factor Authentication". Security Fix. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006.
- Graham Titterington. "More doom on phishing". Ovum Research, April 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
- Schneier, Bruce. "Security Skins". Schneier on Security. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- Rachna Dhamija; J.D. Tygar (July 2005). "The Battle Against Phishing: Dynamic Security Skins" (PDF). Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS) 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
- "Dynamic, Mutual Authentication Technology for Anti-Phishing". Confidenttechnologies.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2021. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "Anti-Phishing Working Group: Vendor Solutions". Anti-Phishing Working Group. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2006.
- Xiang, Guang; Hong, Jason; Rose, Carolyn P.; Cranor, Lorrie (2011-09-01). "CANTINA+: A Feature-Rich Machine Learning Framework for Detecting Phishing Web Sites". ACM Transactions on Information and System Security. 14 (2): 21:1–21:28. doi:10.1145/2019599.2019606. ISSN 1094-9224. S2CID 6246617. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
- Leite, Cristoffer; Gondim, Joao J. C.; Barreto, Priscila Solis; Alchieri, Eduardo A. (2019). "Waste Flooding: A Phishing Retaliation Tool". 2019 IEEE 18th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). Cambridge, MA, USA: IEEE: 1–8. doi:10.1109/NCA.2019.8935018. ISBN 978-1-7281-2522-0. S2CID 209457656. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
- McMillan, Robert (March 28, 2006). "New sites let users find and report phishing". LinuxWorld. Archived from the original on January 19, 2009.
- Schneier, Bruce (October 5, 2006). "PhishTank". Schneier on Security. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2007.
- "Report a Phishing Page". Archived from the original on 2016-10-19. Retrieved 2019-09-13.
- How to report phishing scams to Google Archived 2013-04-14 at archive.today Consumer Scams.org
- Using the smartphone to verify and sign online banking transactions Archived 2017-08-23 at the Wayback Machine, SafeSigner.
- Kan, Michael (7 March 2019). "Google: Phishing Attacks That Can Beat Two-Factor Are on the Rise". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- Joseph Steinberg (August 25, 2014). "Why You Are at Risk of Phishing Attacks". Forbes. Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2014.
- Legon, Jeordan (January 26, 2004). "Phishing scams reel in your identity". CNN. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2006.
- Leyden, John (March 21, 2005). "Brazilian cops net 'phishing kingpin'". The Register. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2005.
- Roberts, Paul (June 27, 2005). "UK Phishers Caught, Packed Away". eWEEK. Archived from the original on July 5, 2019. Retrieved September 3, 2005.
- "Nineteen Individuals Indicted in Internet 'Carding' Conspiracy". justice.gov. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "8 held over suspected phishing fraud". Yomiuri Shimbun. May 31, 2006.
- "Phishing gang arrested in USA and Eastern Europe after FBI investigation". Archived from the original on April 6, 2011. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
- "Phishers Would Face 5 Years Under New Bill". InformationWeek. March 2, 2005. Archived from the original on February 19, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2005.
- "Fraud Act 2006". Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
- "Prison terms for phishing fraudsters". The Register. November 14, 2006. Archived from the original on June 21, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- "Microsoft Partners with Australian Law Enforcement Agencies to Combat Cyber Crime". Microsoft. Archived from the original on November 3, 2005. Retrieved August 24, 2005.
- Espiner, Tom (March 20, 2006). "Microsoft launches legal assault on phishers". ZDNet. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
- Leyden, John (November 23, 2006). "MS reels in a few stray phish". The Register. Archived from the original on June 10, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- "A History of Leadership – 2006". Archived from the original on May 22, 2007.
- "AOL Takes Fight Against Identity Theft To Court, Files Lawsuits Against Three Major Phishing Gangs". Archived from the original on January 31, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2006.
- "HB 2471 Computer Crimes Act; changes in provisions, penalty". Retrieved March 8, 2006.
- Brulliard, Karin (April 10, 2005). "Va. Lawmakers Aim to Hook Cyberscammers". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 11, 2019. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- "Earthlink evidence helps slam the door on phisher site spam ring". Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved December 14, 2006.
- Prince, Brian (January 18, 2007). "Man Found Guilty of Targeting AOL Customers in Phishing Scam". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- Leyden, John (January 17, 2007). "AOL phishing fraudster found guilty". The Register. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- Leyden, John (June 13, 2007). "AOL phisher nets six years' imprisonment". The Register. Archived from the original on June 11, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- Gaudin, Sharon (June 12, 2007). "California Man Gets 6-Year Sentence For Phishing". InformationWeek. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2007.
- Anti-Phishing Working Group
- Center for Identity Management and Information Protection – Utica College
- Plugging the "phishing" hole: legislation versus technology Archived 2005-12-28 at the Wayback Machine – Duke Law & Technology Review
- Example of a Phishing Attempt with Screenshots and Explanations – StrategicRevenue.com
- A Profitless Endeavor: Phishing as Tragedy of the Commons – Microsoft Corporation
- Database for information on phishing sites reported by the public – PhishTank
- The Impact of Incentives on Notice and Take-down − Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge (PDF, 344 kB)