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Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Ellioviricetes
Order: Bunyavirales
Family: Phenuiviridae
Genus: Phlebovirus
Type species
Rift Valley fever phlebovirus

Phlebovirus is one of four genera of the family Phenuiviridae in the order Bunyavirales. The genus currently comprises 10 species.[1] It derives its name from Phlebotominae, the vectors of member species Sandfly fever Naples phlebovirus, which is said to be ultimately from the Greek phlebos, meaning "vein".[2] The proper word for "vein" in ancient Greek is however phleps (φλέψ).[3]


Phleboviruses are viruses with a negative-sense RNA genome consisting of three segments. The small segment (S) codes for the viral N protein and a non structural protein, NSs via an ambisense coding strategy. The medium-sized segment (M) codes for a precursor of the viral glycoproteins and non-structural components. The product of the largest segment (L) is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[4]


According to the ICTV,[5] the genus Phlebovirus consists of ten species: Bujaru virus, Candiru virus, Chilibre virus, Frijoles virus, Punta Toro virus, Rift valley fever virus, Salehad virus, Sandfly fever Naples virus, SFTS phlebovirus and Uukuniemi virus.

As of 2015, within the phlebovirus there are three genetic groups of tick-borne phleboviruses : the SFTS group, the Bhanja group, and the Uukuniemi group.[6] A fourth group has been described.[7]

Clinical significance[edit]

The following twelve viruses have been linked to disease in humans: Alenquer virus,[8] Bhanja virus,[9] Candiru virus,[10] Chagres virus, Naples virus, Punta Toro virus, Rift Valley fever, Sicilian virus, Toscana virus, Uukuniemi virus, Heartland virus[11] (the first tick-borne phlebovirus known to cause disease in the Western Hemisphere, discovered in 2009), and the Sandfly Turkey virus (discovered in China in 2011).[12] They cause symptoms ranging from short self-limiting fevers, such as pappataci fever, to encephalitis and fatal haemorrhagic fever.


There are several recognized serocomplexes

Bhanja serocomplex[edit]

Candiru serocomplex[edit]

Frijoles serocomplex[edit]

Salehabad serocomplex[edit]

Sandfly fever serocomplex[edit]

The sandfly serocomplex is divided into two groups: Naples and Sicilian

Sandfly fever Naples group
Sandfly fever Sicilian group

Punta Toro serocomplex[edit]

Uukuniemi serocomplex[edit]

Kaisodi virus complex[edit]

Other viruses[edit]


  1. ^ "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)". Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  2. ^ "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 31 January 2019. Phlebo: refers to phlebotomine vectors of sandfly fever group viruses; Greek phlebos, “vein”.
  3. ^ Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. Revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. With the assistance of Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  4. ^ Modrow, Susanne; Falke, Dietrich; Truyen, Uwe; Schätzl, Hermann. Molecular Virology. Springer. p. 460. ISBN 978-3-642-20718-1.
  5. ^ 1
  6. ^ Matsuno, K; Weisend, C; Kajihara, M; Matysiak, C; Williamson, BN; Simuunza, M; Mweene, AS; Takada, A; Tesh, RB; Ebihara, H (January 2015). "Comprehensive molecular detection of tick-borne phleboviruses leads to the retrospective identification of taxonomically unassigned bunyaviruses and the discovery of a novel member of the genus phlebovirus". J Virol. 89 (1): 594–604. doi:10.1128/JVI.02704-14. PMC 4301164. PMID 25339769.
  7. ^ Matsuno K, Weisend C, Kajihara M, Matysiak C, Williamson BN, Simuunza M, Mweene AS, Takada A, Tesh RB, Ebihara H (2015) Comprehensive molecular detection of tick-borne phleboviruses leads to the retrospective identification of taxonomically unassigned bunyaviruses and the discovery of a novel member of the genus phlebovirus. J Virol 89(1):594-604. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02704-14
  8. ^ Travassos da Rosa AP, Tesh RB, Pinheiro FP, Travassos da Rosa JF, Peterson NE (1983). "Characterization of eight new phlebotomus fever serogroup arboviruses (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from the Amazon region of Brazil". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32 (5): 1164–71. PMID 6312820.
  9. ^ Vesenjak-Hirjan J, Calisher CH, Beus I. Marton E. First natural clinical human Bhanja virus infection, p 297–301. 1980. In Vesenjak-Hirjan J, Porterfield JS, Arslanagí, c E (ed), Arboviruses in the Mediterranean countries: 6th FEMS Symposium. Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany.
  10. ^ Palacios, Gustavo; Tesh, Robert; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Jain, Komal; Serge, Robert; Guzman, Hilda; Guevara, Carolina; Nunes, Marcio; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim; Kochel, Tadeusz; Hutchinson, Stephen; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Lipkin, Ian (2011). "Characterization of the Candiru antigenic complex (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus), a highly diverse and reassorting group of viruses affecting humans in tropical America". Journal of Virology. 85 (8): 3811–20. doi:10.1128/JVI.02275-10. PMC 3126144. PMID 21289119.
  11. ^ Savage, HM; Godsey, MS; Lambert, A; Panella, NA; Burkhalter, KL; Harmon, JR; Lash, RR; Ashley, DC; Nicholson, WL (2013). "First detection of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89 (3): 445–52. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0209. PMC 3771279. PMID 23878186.
  12. ^ Yu, X. J.; Liang, M. F.; Zhang, S. Y.; Liu, Y.; Li, J. D.; Sun, Y. L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q. F.; Popov, V. L.; Li, C.; Qu, J.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Hai, R.; Wu, W.; Wang, Q.; Zhan, F. X.; Wang, X. J.; Kan, B.; Wang, S. W.; Wan, K. L.; Jing, H. Q.; Lu, J. X.; Yin, W. W.; Zhou, H.; Guan, X. H.; Liu, J. F.; Bi, Z. Q.; Liu, G. H.; Ren, J. (2011). "Fever with Thrombocytopenia Associated with a Novel Bunyavirus in China". New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (16): 1523–1532. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1010095. PMC 3113718. PMID 21410387.
  13. ^ Xu, B.; Liu, L.; Huang, X.; Ma, H.; Zhang, Y.; Du, Y.; Wang, P.; Tang, X.; Wang, H.; Kang, K.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, G.; Wu, W.; Yang, Y.; Chen, H.; Mu, F.; Chen, W. (2011). Palacios, Gustavo (ed.). "Metagenomic Analysis of Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: Discovery of a New Bunyavirus". PLoS Pathogens. 7 (11): e1002369. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002369. PMC 3219706. PMID 22114553.

External links[edit]