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Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Phlebovirus
Type species
Rift Valley fever virus

Adria virus
Alenquer virus
Ambe virus
Arbia virus
Arboledas virus
Armero virus
Arumowot virus
Belterra virus
Bhanja virus
Bujaru virus
Candiru virus
Chagres virus
Changuinola virus
Chilibre virus
Durania virus
Essaouira virus
Forecariah virus
Frijoles virus
Gabek Forest virus
Gordil virus
Granada virus
Heartland virus
Henan Fever virus
Ixcanal virus
Kala Iris virus
Kismayo virus
Joa virus
Karimabad virus
Lone Star virus
Mariquita virus
Massilia virus
Naples virus
Odrenisrou virus
Pacui virus
Palma virus
Punta Toro virus
Rift Valley fever virus
Rio Grande virus
Salehebad virus
Salobo virus
Soldado virus
Saint Floris virus
Sandfly fever Naples virus
Sandfly fever Sicilian virus
SFTS virus
Toscana virus
Tunis virus
Uukuniemi virus

Phlebovirus is one of five genera of the family Bunyaviridae. The Phlebovirus genus currently comprises over 70 antigenically distinct serotypes, only a few of which have been studied. 68 of the known serotypes are divided into two groups: the Phlebotomus fever viruses (the sandfly group, transmitted by Phlebotominae sandflies) comprises 55 members and the Uukuniemi group (transmitted by ticks) comprises the remaining 13 members.


Phleboviruses are viruses with a negative-sense RNA genome consisting of three segments. The small segment (S) codes for the viral N protein and a non structural protein, NSs via an ambisense coding strategy. The medium-sized segment (M) codes for a precursor of the viral glycoproteins and non-structural components. The product of the largest segment (L) is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[1]


According to the ICTV,[2] the genus Phlebovirus consists of nine species: Bujaru virus, Candiru virus, Chilibre virus, Frijoles virus, Punta Toro virus, Rift valley fever virus (the type species), Salehad virus, Sandfly fever Naples virus and Uukuniemi virus.

As of 2015, within the phlebovirus there are three genetic groups of tick-borne phleboviruses : the SFTS group, the Bhanja group, and the Uukuniemi group.[3]

Clinical Significance[edit]

The following twelve viruses have been linked to disease in humans: Alenquer virus,[4] Bhanja virus,[5] Candiru virus,[6] Chagres virus, Naples virus, Punta Toro virus, Rift Valley fever, Sicilian virus, Toscana virus, Uukuniemi virus, Heartland virus[7] (the first tick-borne phlebovirus known to cause disease in the Western Hemisphere, discovered in 2009), and the Sandfly Turkey virus (discovered in China in 2011).[8] They cause symptoms ranging from short self-limiting fevers, such as pappataci fever, to encephalitis and fatal haemorrhagic fever.


There are ten recognised serocomplexes

Aguacate serocomplex[edit]

  • Aguacate virus
  • Armero virus
  • Durania virus
  • Ixcanal virus

Bhanja virus serocomplex[edit]

  • Bhanja virus (BHAV)
  • Forecariah (FORV)
  • Heartland virus (HRTV)
  • Kismayo (KISV)
  • Lone Star virus (LSV)
  • Palma (PALV)
  • Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (SFTSV)

Candiru serocomplex[edit]

  • Candiru virus

Frijoles serocomplex[edit]

  • Frijoles virus

Icoaraci serocomplex[edit]

  • Icoaraci virus

Salehabad serocomplex[edit]

  • Adana virus
  • Adria virus
  • Alcube virus
  • Arbia virus
  • Salehabad virus

Sandfly fever serocomplex[edit]

The sandfly serocomplex is divided into two groups: Naples and Sicilian

Sandfly fever Naples group
  • Granada virus
  • Massila virus
  • Punique virus
  • Sandfly fever Naples virus
  • Toscana virus
Sandfly fever Sicilian group
  • Belterra virus
  • Chagres virus
  • Corfu virus
  • Rift Valley fever virus
  • Sandfly fever Cyprus virus
  • Sandfly fever Sicilian virus
  • Sandfly fever Turkey virus

Simbu serocomplex[edit]

  • Pintupo viruses
  • Simbu virus
  • Utive virus
  • Utinga virus

Punta Toro serocomplex[edit]

  • Punta Toro virus

Uukuniemi serocomplex[edit]

  • Catch-me-cave virus
  • Grand Arbaud virus
  • Henan Fever virus[9]
  • Heartland virus
  • Komandory virus
  • Malsoor virus
  • Manawa virus
  • Rukutama virus
  • Murre virus group
    • Murre virus
    • RML-105-105355 virus
    • Sunday Canyon virus
  • Precarious Point virus
  • Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus
  • Uukuniemi virus group
    • Uukuniemi virus
    • EgAn 1825-61 virus
    • Fin V707 virus
    • Chize virus
    • Zaliv Terpenia virus

Unclassified viruses[edit]

  • Bradypus-4 virus


  1. ^ Modrow, Susanne; Falke, Dietrich; Truyen, Uwe; Schätzl, Hermann. Molecular Virology. Springer. p. 460. ISBN 978-3-642-20718-1. 
  2. ^ ICTV. "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses 2012". Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Matsuno, K; Weisend, C; Kajihara, M; Matysiak, C; Williamson, BN; Simuunza, M; Mweene, AS; Takada, A; Tesh, RB; Ebihara, H (Jan 2015). "Comprehensive molecular detection of tick-borne phleboviruses leads to the retrospective identification of taxonomically unassigned bunyaviruses and the discovery of a novel member of the genus phlebovirus". J Virol. 89 (1): 594–604. doi:10.1128/JVI.02704-14. PMC 4301164Freely accessible. PMID 25339769. 
  4. ^ TRAVASSOS DA ROSA, AMELIA; TESH, ROBERT; PINHEIRO, FRANCISCO; TRAVASSOS DA ROSA, JORGE; PETERSON!, NORMAN (1983). "Characterization of eight new phlebotomus fever serogroup arboviruses (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from the Amazon region of Brazil.". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 32 (5): 1164–71. 
  5. ^ Vesenjak-Hirjan J, Calisher CH, Beus I. Marton E. First natural clinical human Bhanja virus infection, p 297–301. 1980. In Vesenjak-Hirjan J, Porterfield JS, Arslanagí, c E (ed), Arboviruses in the Mediterranean countries: 6th FEMS Symposium. Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany.
  6. ^ Palacios, Gustavo; Tesh, Robert; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Savji, Nazir; Sze, Wilson; Jain, Komal; Serge, Robert; Guzman, Hilda; Guevara, Carolina; Nunes, Marcio; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim; Kochel, Tadeusz; Hutchinson, Stephen; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Lipkin, Ian (2011). "Characterization of the Candiru antigenic complex (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus), a highly diverse and reassorting group of viruses affecting humans in tropical America.". JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. 85 (8): 3811–20. doi:10.1128/JVI.02275-10. PMC 3126144Freely accessible. PMID 21289119. 
  7. ^ Savage, HM; Godsey, MS; Lambert, A; Panella, NA; Burkhalter, KL; Harmon, JR; Lash, RR; Ashley, DC; Nicholson, WL (2013). "First detection of heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from field collected arthropods". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89: 445–52. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0209. PMC 3771279Freely accessible. PMID 23878186. 
  8. ^ Yu, X. J.; Liang, M. F.; Zhang, S. Y.; Liu, Y.; Li, J. D.; Sun, Y. L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Q. F.; Popov, V. L.; Li, C.; Qu, J.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Hai, R.; Wu, W.; Wang, Q.; Zhan, F. X.; Wang, X. J.; Kan, B.; Wang, S. W.; Wan, K. L.; Jing, H. Q.; Lu, J. X.; Yin, W. W.; Zhou, H.; Guan, X. H.; Liu, J. F.; Bi, Z. Q.; Liu, G. H.; Ren, J. (2011). "Fever with Thrombocytopenia Associated with a Novel Bunyavirus in China". New England Journal of Medicine. 364 (16): 1523–1532. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1010095. PMC 3113718Freely accessible. PMID 21410387. 
  9. ^ Xu, B.; Liu, L.; Huang, X.; Ma, H.; Zhang, Y.; Du, Y.; Wang, P.; Tang, X.; Wang, H.; Kang, K.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, G.; Wu, W.; Yang, Y.; Chen, H.; Mu, F.; Chen, W. (2011). Palacios, Gustavo, ed. "Metagenomic Analysis of Fever, Thrombocytopenia and Leukopenia Syndrome (FTLS) in Henan Province, China: Discovery of a New Bunyavirus". PLoS Pathogens. 7 (11): e1002369. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002369. PMC 3219706Freely accessible. PMID 22114553. 

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