Sansoen Phra Barami
Sheet music of Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami in postcard, early 20th century.
Royal anthem of Thailand
National anthem of Siam
|Lyrics||Narisara Nuwattiwong and King Vajiravudh, 1913|
|Music||Pyotr Shchurovsky, 1888|
Thai Royal Anthem (Instrumental)
The first song that used as royal anthem and de facto national anthem of Siam/Thailand was appeared in the reign of King Mongkut of Rattanakosin Kingdom. In 1851, two former British military officers named Captain Impey and Lieutenant Thomas George Knox served with the Siamese Army. They trained the troops of King Mongkut and the Second King Pinklao with British military tradition. So, they adopted the anthem God Save the Queen as honor music for the king of Siam. Phraya Srisunthonwohan (Noi Āchāryānkura) wrote Thai lyrics for this anthem later and named it as "Chom Rat Chong Charoen" which means "long live the great king".
In 1871, King Chulalongkorn visited British Singapore and Batavia (Jakarta) of Dutch East Indies. It appeared that Siam used the same anthem with the Great Britain who ruled over Singapore at that time. It was necessary that Siam must have a new unique tune for using as the royal anthem and de facto national anthem. A group of Siamese traditional musicians had selected a Thai song named "Bulan Loi Luean" ("The Floating Moon On the Sky") which was the royal composition of King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) for use as the new anthem. King Chulalongkorn later ordered Mr.Heutsen, a Dutch bandmaster who served in the Royal Siamese Army, to arrange the song in western style for performing by the military band. According to a research of Sugree Charoensuk, an associate professor from Mahidol University, the melody of this anthem may be the same tune with another anthem named "Sansoen Sua Pa" which was used as the anthem of the Wild Tiger Corps since 1911.
History about the royal anthem of Siam after 1871 are ambiguous and rarely to find evidences. An evidence of music composition of the royal anthem of Siam appeared again in 1888 when a sheet music of Siamese national anthem, arranged by the Russian composer Pyotr Schurovsky, was printed in Russia. The main melody of the song in that sheet music is the same tune of "Sansoen Phra Barami" in present time. According to a research of Sugree Charoensook, Pyotr Shchurovsky was the composer of the music of Sansoen Phra Barami , to serve as Siam's national anthem. Prince Narisara Nuvadtivong later composed various lyrics of Sansoen Phra Barami for using in the Royal Siamese Army, in all Siamese school and in Siamese traditional music bands. Prince Abhakara Kiartivongse also composed a version of lyrics for used in the Royal Siamese Navy. In 1913, King Vajiravudh decided to relinquish all lyrics of Sansoen Phra Barami that mentioned before and revised it to current version only.
Sansoen Phra Barami was the de facto national anthem of Siam from 1888 until 1932, when it was replaced by Phleng Chat. It still use as the royal anthem of Thailand today.
In 1940, Thai Government under the administration of Prime Minister Plaek Phibunsongkhram issued the 8th Thai cultural mandate. This mandate said about lyrics of Sansoen Phra Barami which were shorten and replaced the word "Siam" with the word "Thai" (see below). After the end of World War II, these lyrics were quietly abandoned due its unpopularity, and reverted to the version that revised by King Vajiravudh in 1913 again.
The sound recording of Sansoen Phra Barami was recorded for the first time ever on the Edison wax cylinder by Carl Stumpf, an ethnomusicologist from the University of Berlin. In that recording, the anthem was performed Boosra Mahin Theater Group, a Siamese theater group visiting Berlin in 1900.
Usage of the anthem
The royal anthem is performed during state occasions, as well as when a high-ranking member of the royal family is present for a function. In addition, the royal anthem is still played before the beginning of each film in movie theatres, as well as before the commencement of the first act in plays, musicals, concerts, and most other live performances of music or theatre in Thailand. The anthem is also played at the sign-on and closedown of television and radio programming; for example, in 2008, Channel 7 aired a video with pictures of King Bhumibol Adulyadej from his birth to his 80th anniversaries in 2007. Radio Thailand also broadcast the sign-off with the anthem at 24:00 every night.
In 2019, the Royal Thai Government Gazette has published the Royal Office Regulation on Performing Honors Music of B.E. 2562. This regulation is detailed about using the royal anthem and other honors music for the king and members of the Thai royal family in several occasions. According to this regulation, The royal anthem Sansoen Phra Barami should be performed for the folllowing:-
- The King of Thailand
- Queen Sirikit the Queen Mother
- The Queen of Thailand
- Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, the Princess Royal
- Heirs-apparent to the throne
- Royal remains
- Some Thai Royal Standards when hoisted or shown:-
- Royal Standard of Thailand
- Standard of Queen Sirikit the Queen Mother
- Standard of the Queen of Thailand
- Standard for Senior members of the Royal Family (Standard of the Princess Mother)
- Standard of Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, the Princess Royal
- Standard of the Crown Prince of Thailand
This is the current lyrics of "Sansoen Phra Barami" which was revised by King Vajiravudh in 1913.
|Thai lyrics||Thai transliteration (RTGS)||IPA transcription|
|ข้าวรพุทธเจ้า||Kha Wora Phuttha Chao||[kʰâ: wɔ:.ráʔ pʰút.tʰáʔ t͡ɕâːw]|
|เอามโนและศิระกราน||Ao Mano Lae Sira Kran||[ʔaw má.noː lɛ́ʔ sì.ráʔ kraːn]|
|นบพระภูมิบาล บุญดิเรก||Nop Phra Phumi Ban Bunya Direk||[nóp pʰráʔ pʰuː.míʔ baːn bun.jáʔ dì.rèːk]|
|เอกบรมจักริน||Ek Boromma Chakkrin||[ʔèːk bɔ:.rom.máʔ t͡ɕàk.krin]|
|พระสยามินทร์||Phra Sayamin||[pʰráʔ sà.jǎ:.min]|
|พระยศยิ่งยง||Phra Yotsa Ying Yong||[pʰráʔ jót.sàʔ jîŋ joŋ]|
|เย็นศิระเพราะพระบริบาล||Yen Sira Phro Phra Bori Ban||[jen sì.ráʔ pʰrɔ́ʔ pʰráʔ bɔ:.ríʔ baːn]|
|ผลพระคุณ ธ รักษา||Phon Phra Khun Tha Raksa||[pʰǒn pʰráʔ kʰun tʰáʔ rák.sǎː]|
|ปวงประชาเป็นสุขศานต์||Puang Pracha Pen Sukkha San||[pu:aŋ prà.t͡ɕaː pen sùk.kʰà sǎːn]|
|ขอบันดาล||Kho Bandan||[kʰɔ̌: ban.daːn]|
|ธ ประสงค์ใด||Tha Prasong Dai||[tʰáʔ prà.sǒŋ daj]|
|จงสฤษดิ์ดัง||Chong Sarit Dang||[t͡ɕoŋ sà.rìt daŋ]|
|หวังวรหฤทัย||Wang Wara Haruethai||[wǎŋ wá.ráʔ hà.rɯ́.tʰaj]|
|ดุจถวายชัย ชโย||Dut Cha Thawai Chai Chayo||[dùt.t͡ɕàʔ tʰà.wǎːj t͡ɕʰaj t͡ɕʰá.jo:]|
- We, servants of His great Majesty,
- prostrate our heart and head,
- to pay respect to the ruler, whose merits are boundless,
- our glorious sovereign,
- the greatest of Siam,
- with great and lasting honor,
- (We are) secure and peaceful because of your royal rule,
- the result of royal protection
- (are) people in happiness and in peace,
- May it be that
- whatever you will,
- be done
- according to the hopes of your great heart
- as we wish (you) victory, hurrah!
Lyrics during World War II
|Thai lyrics||Thai transliteration (RTGS)||English translation|
|ข้าวรพุทธเจ้า||Kha Wora Phuttha Chao||We, servants of His great Majesty,|
|เอามโนและศิระกราน||Ao Mano Lae Sira Kran||prostrate our heart and head,|
|นบพระภูมิบาล||Nop Phra Phumi Ban||to pay respect to the ruler,|
|บรมกษัตริย์ไทย||Borom Kasat Thai||the Great King of Thailand,|
|ขอบันดาล||Kho Bandan||May it be that|
|ธ ประสงค์ใด||Tha Prasong Dai||whatever you will,|
|จงสิทธิดั่ง||Chong Sit Dang||be done|
|หวังวรหฤทัย||Wang Wora Haruethai||according to the hopes of your great heart|
|ดุจถวายชัย ชโย||Dut Cha Thawai Chai Chayo||as we wish (you) victory, hurrah!|
- Charoensook, Sugree (2016-11-07). "128 ปี เพลงสรรเสริญพระบารมี : สรรเสริญพระบารมีพระมหากษัตริย์ทุกพระองค์ โดยสุกรี เจริญสุข". Matichon Online. Retrieved 2019-10-12.
- Charoensook, Sugree (2017-07-16). "อาศรม มิวสิก เส้นทางเพลงสรรเสริญพระบารมี โดย:สุกรี เจริญสุข". Matichon Online. Retrieved 2019-10-12.
- Nicholas Grossman; Dominic Faulder, eds. (2011). King Bhumibol Adulyadej – A Life's Work: Thailand's Monarchy in Perspective. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. p. 359. ISBN 978-981-4260-56-5.
- "ระเบียบส่วนราชการในพระองค์ ว่าด้วยการบรรเลงดุริยางค์ในการพระราชพิธีหรือพิธีการ พ.ศ. ๒๕๖๒" (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai). 136 (117d): 13. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
|Thai Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sansoen Phra Barami.|
- Recordings of Thai honors music from The Thai Government Public Relations Department
- Sign off video of PRD's Television of Thailand (Present NBT Television)
- t-h-a-i-l-a-n-d.org - A website dedicated to Thai national culture and the Royal Anthem (Thai language)