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This page is about the genus of grasses. Phleum is also the name of a Roman site now in Velsen, Netherlands.
Timothee (Phleum pratense subsp. pratense).jpg
Phleum pratense
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Phleum
Type species
Phleum pratense

Phleum (timothy) is a genus of annual and perennial plants in the grass family.[4] The genus is native to Europe, Asia and north Africa, with one species (P. alpinum) also in North and South America.[5]

They are tufted grasses growing to 20-150 cm tall, with cylindrical, spike-like panicles containing many densely packed spikelets.[6]

  1. Phleum alpinum – subarctic and mountainous areas in Eurasia, the Americas, South Georgia, etc.
  2. Phleum arenarium – western + southern Europe; Mediterranean
  3. Phleum bertolonii - Europe, Middle East
  4. Phleum boissieri - southwest Asia
  5. Phleum × brueggeri - France, Switzerland
  6. Phleum crypsoides - Sardinia, Greece, Cyprus
  7. Phleum echinatum - Italy, Greece, Balkans, Crimea
  8. Phleum exaratum - from Italy to Uzbekistan
  9. Phleum gibbum - Turkey
  10. Phleum himalaicum - Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir
  11. Phleum hirsutum - central Europe, Balkans, Ukraine, Caucasus
  12. Phleum iranicum - Iran
  13. Phleum montanum - from Balkans to Iran
  14. Phleum paniculatum - from Spain to Japan
  15. Phleum phleoides – from Portugal + Morocco to eastern Siberia
  16. Phleum pratense – Timothy – from Portugal + Morocco to central Asia; naturalized in East Asia, the Americas, etc.
  17. Phleum subulatum - from Portugal to Pakistan
  18. Phleum × viniklarii - Dalmatia
formerly included[3]

numerous species now considered better suited to other genera: Aegilops Alopecurus Beckmannia Crypsis Cynodon Cynosurus Digitaria Elytrophorus Ischaemum Mnesithea Muhlenbergia Pennisetum Pentameris Phalaris Polypogon Polytrias Sesleria Tribolium

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Several species are important for cattle feed and as hay for horses and other domestic animals.[10]