Phloretin

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Phloretin
Phloretin.svg
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one
Other names
Dihydronaringenin
Phloretol
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.444 Edit this at Wikidata
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C15H14O5/c16-10-4-1-9(2-5-10)3-6-12(18)15-13(19)7-11(17)8-14(15)20/h1-2,4-5,7-8,16-17,19-20H,3,6H2 ☒N
    Key: VGEREEWJJVICBM-UHFFFAOYSA-N ☒N
  • InChI=1/C15H14O5/c16-10-4-1-9(2-5-10)3-6-12(18)15-13(19)7-11(17)8-14(15)20/h1-2,4-5,7-8,16-17,19-20H,3,6H2
    Key: VGEREEWJJVICBM-UHFFFAOYAB
  • C1=CC(=CC=C1CCC(=O)C2=C(C=C(C=C2O)O)O)O
Properties
C15H14O5
Molar mass 274.272 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Phloretin is a dihydrochalcone, a type of natural phenol. It can be found in apple tree leaves[1] and the Manchurian apricot.[2]

Metabolism[edit]

In rats, ingested phlorizin is converted into phloretin by hydrolytic enzymes in the small intestine.[3][4] Phloretin hydrolase hydrolyses phloretin into phloretic acid and phloroglucinol.

Pharmacological research[edit]

In an animal model, phloretin inhibited active transport of glucose into cells by SGLT1 and SGLT2, though the inhibition is weaker than by its glycoside phlorizin.[5] An important effect of this is the inhibition of glucose absorption by the small intestine[4] and the inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption.[3] Phloretin also inhibits a variety of urea transporters.[6][7] It induces urea loss and diuresis when coupled with high protein diets. Phloretin has been found to inhibit weight gain and improve metabolic homeostasis in mice fed with high-fat diet.[8] Phloretin inhibits aquaporin 9 (AQP9) on mouse hepatocytes.[9]

Glycosides[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Picinelli A.; Dapena E.; Mangas J. J. (1995). "Polyphenolic pattern in apple tree leaves in relation to scab resistance. A preliminary study". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 43 (8): 2273–2278. doi:10.1021/jf00056a057.
  2. ^ "Manchurian Apricot (Prunus armeniaca var. mandshurica)" (PDF). North Dakota State University. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Idris, I.; Donnelly, R. (2009). "Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors: An emerging new class of oral antidiabetic drug". Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 11 (2): 79–88. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00982.x. PMID 19125776.
  4. ^ a b Crespy, V.; Aprikian, O.; Morand, C.; Besson, C.; Manach, C.; Demigné, C.; Rémésy, C. (2001). "Bioavailability of phloretin and phloridzin in rats". The Journal of Nutrition. 131 (12): 3227–3230. doi:10.1093/jn/131.12.3227. PMID 11739871.
  5. ^ Chan, Stephen S.; William D. Lotspeich (1962-12-01). "Comparative effects of phlorizin and phloretin on glucose transport in the cat kidney". American Journal of Physiology. Legacy Content. 203 (6): 975–979. doi:10.1152/ajplegacy.1962.203.6.975. ISSN 0002-9513. PMID 14019989. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
  6. ^ Fenton, Robert A.; Chung-Lin Chou; Gavin S. Stewart; Craig P. Smith; Mark A. Knepper (2004-05-11). "Urinary concentrating defect in mice with selective deletion of phloretin-sensitive urea transporters in the renal collecting duct". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (19): 7469–7474. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.7469F. doi:10.1073/pnas.0401704101. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 409942. PMID 15123796.
  7. ^ Shayakul, Chairat; Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi; Urs V. Berger; Matthias A. Hediger (2001-03-01). "Molecular characterization of a novel urea transporter from kidney inner medullary collecting ducts". American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. 280 (3): F487–F494. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.2001.280.3.f487. ISSN 1931-857X. PMID 11181411. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
  8. ^ Alsanea, Sary; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi (May 2017). "Phloretin Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Improves Metabolic Homeostasis". The AAPS Journal. 19 (3): 797–805. doi:10.1208/s12248-017-0053-0. ISSN 1550-7416. PMID 28197827.
  9. ^ Fenton, Robert A.; Chou, Chung-Lin; Stewart, Gavin S.; Smith, Craig P.; Knepper, Mark A. (2004-05-11). "Urinary concentrating defect in mice with selective deletion of phloretin-sensitive urea transporters in the renal collecting duct". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (19): 7469–7474. Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.7469F. doi:10.1073/pnas.0401704101. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 409942. PMID 15123796.