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Phoeniciology is a sub-discipline of Archaeology exclusively studying of ancient Phoenicia, occupying modern-day Lebanon and Tunisia, and, to a lesser extent: Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Israel and Spain.

It is difficult to practice because of the scarcity of sites. Some cities, such as Carthage, have been destroyed by rivals. Most, however, have had continued significance up to this time period, and the buildings were just erected over the older ones.