Phoenix (son of Amyntor)

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Phoenix
King of the Dolopes
Member of the Calydonian Boar Hunters and the Myrmidons
Briseis Phoinix Louvre G152.jpg
Briseis and Phoenix, red-figure kylix, c. 490 BC, Louvre
AbodeDolopia or home of the Myrmidons in Phthia
Personal information
ParentsAmyntor and Cleobule
SiblingsAstydamia

In Greek mythology, Phoenix (Ancient Greek: Φοῖνιξ Phoinix, gen. Φοίνικος Phoinikos), son of Amyntor and Cleobule, is one of the Myrmidons led by Achilles in the Trojan War. Phoenix's warfaring identity is a charioteer.

Mythology[edit]

Of Phoenix's life before the Trojan War, it is related that he seduced his father's concubine Phthia at the instigation of his mother. Having heard about this, Amyntor punished his son by cursing him with infertility[1]. In a later version of the story, Phoenix was falsely accused by his stepmother and was blinded by his father[2]. Phoenix then fled to Peleus, who in turn took him to Chiron; the latter restored Phoenix's sight, whereupon Peleus made Phoenix king of the Dolopes.[3][4] He participated in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar.[5][6]

In Homer's Iliad,[7] Phoenix, along with Odysseus and Ajax, urges Achilles to re-enter battle. He gives the most passionate and emotional speech of the three, as evidenced by his crying.[8] Phoenix deeply cares about Achilles, whom he had helped raise as a child:

So you, Achilles- great godlike Achilles I made you my son, I tried, so someday you might fight disaster off my back. But now, Achilles, beat down your mounting fury! It's wrong to have such an iron, ruthless heart.[9]

It is possible that his speech was a later addition to the epic, as Achilles continually uses a special dual verb form in speaking with his guests, rather than a more appropriate plural form.[10] However, it has been suggested that Achilles speaks only to Phoenix and Ajax, ignoring Odysseus, to whose guile he bears a considerable dislike.[11]

I hate like the gates of Hades the man who says one thing and holds another in his heart.[12]

Phoenix also makes a cameo in Virgil's Aeneid. As Aeneas is searching his fallen Troy for his wife Creusa, he glimpses Phoenix and Odysseus guarding their loot in Priam's palace.[13]

Phoenix was said to have died on his way back from Troy because of old age and to have been buried by Neoptolemus[14] either in Eion, Macedonia,[15] or in Trachis, Thessaly.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Homer Iliad
  2. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus. Bibliotheca, 3.13.8
  3. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 13. 8
  4. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 421
  5. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 173
  6. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, 8. 307
  7. ^ Homer Iliad, 9. 220 ff
  8. ^ Homer Iliad. 9. 434 ff
  9. ^ Homer Iliad. 9. 492 – 497
  10. ^ But several scholars believe the speech to be integral; e.g., see S. C. R. Swain, "A Note on Iliad 9.524-99," Classical Quarterly 38 (1988), 271–76.
  11. ^ Lambrou, I. (2015). Homer and the Epic Cycle: Dialogue and challenge (Ph.D. Thesis). Retrieved from http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1462583/2/Lambrou%20Thesis.pdf
  12. ^ Homer Iliad 9. 314
  13. ^ Virgil Aeneid, 2. 763–764
  14. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca Epitome of Book 4, 6. 12
  15. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 417
  16. ^ Strabo, Geography, 9. 4. 14

External links[edit]