Phofsit Daibuun

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Phofsit Daibuun (PSDB) (普實臺文) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based on Modern Literal Taiwanese. It is able to use the ASCII character set to indicate the proper variation of pitch without any subsidiary scripts or diacritic symbols.


    Dental Alveolo-palatal Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless unaspiration     p d k ' ([ʔ])
aspiration     ph t q  
voiced unaspiration     b   g  
Affricate voiceless unaspiration z c        
aspiration zh ch        
voiced unaspiration   j        
Fricative voiceless unaspiration s si        
aspiration           h
Nasal voiced unaspiration     m/v n ng/v  
Lateral voiced unaspiration       l    

Nasalized syllables are indicated by "v" preceding the syllable nucleus. Except for b, j, l, which do not precede nasalized vowels, and m and n, which are already nasals.

Normal c ch d g h k p ph q s t z zh ø
Nasalized cv chv dv gv hv kv pv phv qv sv tv zv zhv v
Example 爭(cvy) 星(chvy) 鄭(dve) 硬(gve) 耳(hvi) 件(kvia) 病(pve) 鼻(phvi) 扲(qvii) 漬(svi) 縫(tvi) 濺(zvoa) 青(zhvef) 院(vi)
  Front Central Back
Close i   u
Close-mid e   oi(2)
Mid   oi(1)  
Open-mid     o
Open a    

Regarding the pronunciation of "oi":

Tone spellings[edit]

  • The table below shows the spelling of the basic tone (7) mid tone, and the four sub-tones (1) high, (5) rising, (3) low falling/low, (2) falling/high falling
  • (') indicates a changed tone
  • (**) indicates a tone that does not exist in standard Taiwanese


a (ha)夏 af 阿 aa (gaa)牙 ax (pax)豹 ar (kar)絞
i 異 y 伊 ii 姨 ix 意 ie 椅
u 有 w 污 uu (guu)牛 ux 熨 uo 羽
e 下 ef (qef)溪(qef) ee 的 ex (kex)嫁 ea 矮
o 芋 of 黑 oo 湖 ox (tox)兔 or 挖
oi (goi)餓 oy 渦 ooi 蚵 oix 奧 oir 襖
ng (hng)遠 ngf 秧 ngg 黃 ngx 怏 ngr 阮
m 毋 mf' (mfpooi)姆婆 mm 蕾 mx' (mxsi)不是 mr 姆


ai (dai)代 ay 哀 aai (daai)台 aix 愛 ae 藹
au 後 aw 歐 aau 喉 aux 懊 ao (kao)狗
ia 夜 iaf 埃 iaa 爺 iax 厭 iar 野
iau 耀 iaw 邀 iaau 姚 iaux (tiaux)跳 iao (ciao)鳥
ioi (bioi)廟 ioy 腰 iooi 搖 ioix (kioix)叫 ioir (cioir)少
iu 柚 iw 憂 iuu 油 iux 幼 iuo 友
oa (doa)大 oaf (koaf)歌 oaa (zoaa)蛇 oax (hoax)化 oar (zoar)紙
oai (hoai)壞 oay (koay)乖 oaai (hoaai)懷 oaix (koaix)怪 oae (koae)拐
oe 話 oef 鍋 oee 唯 oex (hoex)貨 oea 挖
ui 位 uy 威 uii 圍 uix 畏 uie 委

Nasal finals[edit]

an (han)限 afn 安 aan 緊 axn 案 arn (karn)簡
ang (bang)網 afng 翁 aang 紅 axng 甕 arng (karng)講
am 頷 afm 醃 aam 涵 axm 暗 arm 洝
eng 用 efng 鷹 eeng 閒 exng 應 erng 泳
iam 艷 iafm 閹 iaam 鹽 iaxm 厭 iarm 掩
iang 恙 iafng 央 iaang 陽 iaxng 泱 iarng 養
ien 沿 iefn 煙 ieen 鉛 iexn 宴 iern 演
in 胤 yn 因 iin 云 ixn 印 irn 引
im (dim)燉 ym 音 iim 淫 ixm 蔭 irm 飲
iong 用 iofng 央 ioong 容 ioxng 擁 iorng 勇
oan 緩 oafn 冤 oaan 完 oaxn 怨 oarn 遠
ong 旺 ofng 汪 oong 王 oxng 罋 orng 往
un 運 wn 溫 uun 勻 uxn 搵 urn 隱
om' 掩'埋 ofm 掩 oom** oxm (doxm)頓 orm' (dorm)頓'頭

Checked syllables[edit]

  • # symbol represents characters used for their meaning, rather than their pronunciation
Labial Dental Velar Open
Low ab 壓 ad 握 ag 渥 aq 鴨
High ap 盒 at (bat)密 ak (bak)目 ah (tah)疊
Low ib 揖 id 壹 ig** iq (tiq)鐵
High ip 佾 it 軼 ik** ih 胰
Low ub** ud 熨 ug** uq (duq)拄
High up** ut (kut)滑 uk** uh (duh)刺
Low eb** ed** eg 億 eq (keq)格
High ep** et** eh 狹
Low ob (lob)#踏 od** og 惡 oq (moq)漏平
High op (lop'lob) ot** ok (dok)獨 oh (moh)膜
Low oib** oid** oig** oiq #慢
High oip** oit** oik** oih 學
iab #掩藏 ied 謁 iag (siag)摔 iaq 扼
iap 葉 iet 搧 iak (diak)彈 iah 頁
oad #轉 iog auq (kauq)輾
oat 悅 iok 育 auh (bauh)貿
iuq (kiuq)縮 iauq (hiauq)剝
iuh' (kiuh)縮 iauh (hiauh)剝
oaq (koaq)割 ioiq #猜 oeq (hoeq)血 uiq (huiq)血
oah 活 ioih 藥 oeh 劃 uih 劃

Rarely used vowels[edit]

Vowel Example
io nio, =nio 讓;svio, =sviu 想
iof diofng 忠;hviof, =hviw香
ioo nioo, =niuu 量,想;hioong affectionate, cruel
iox cioxng 將,從;hioxng 向
ior nior, =niuo 兩;bioir 秒
ioq hioq 嗎 (interrogative)
oaiq voaiq 瘸著走
oaih' vih'voaih'kioix 噫椏叫
mq hmq, =hmr strike down forcefully
mh hmh insidious, silent; hmq'hmh
ngq hngq (expression of agreement)
ngh dngh 當, 擔任;hngh (expression of disapproval)

PSDB examples[edit]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit]

PSDB English
Lienhabkog seakaix jinqoaan soangieen

De id diaau

Sofu ee laang cit zhutsix doixsi zuxiuu ee, jichviar di zungiaam kab qoanli siong itlut pengderng. Langlaang tiensefng doi u lysexng kab liongsym, erngkay aix kafnnar hviadi kaxngqoarn laai hoxsiong duietai.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

PSDB Greetings[edit]

PSDB Translation Remarks
Ciaqpar`boe? Greetings. ("Have you eaten?")
Sitlea! Sorry for my impoliteness! (lit., "Disrespect")
Goar tviaf booi. I don't understand. (lit., "I hear not")
Piexnsor di doyui? Where's the bathroom? (lit., "bathroom is where?")
Loflat! Kafmsia! Thank you
Ho daf `lax! Cheers! (lit., Let it [the cup/glass] be dry [empty]!)
Lie karm korng Engguo? Do you speak English?
Siensvy korng, hagsefng diaxmdiam tviaf. The teacher talks, the students quietly listen. listen
Kin'afjit hit'ee zabor-gyn'ar laai goarn daw qvoax goar. Today that girl came to my house to see me. listen
Kin'axm larn beq qix Suxliim Iaxchi'ar. Tonight, we want to go to Shilin Night Market.

Comparison chart[edit]

IPA a ap at ak ã ɔ ɔk ɔ̃ ə o e i iɛn iəŋ
Pe̍h-ōe-jī a ap at ak ah aⁿ ok oⁿ o o e eⁿ i ian eng
Revised TLPA a ap at ak ah aN oo ok ooN o o e eN i ian ing
TLPA a ap at ak ah ann oo ok oonn o o e enn i ian ing
BP a ap at ak ah na oo ok noo o o e ne i ian ing
MLT a ab/ap ad/at ag/ak aq/ah va o og/ok vo ø ø e ve i ien eng
DT a āp/ap āt/at āk/ak āh/ah ann/aⁿ o ok onn/oⁿ or or e enn/eⁿ i ian/en ing
Taiwanese kana アア アㇷ゚ アッ アㇰ アァ アア オオ オㇰ オオ オオ ヲヲ エエ エエ イイ イェヌ イェン
Extended bopomofo ㄚㆴ ㄚㆵ ㄚㆶ ㄚㆷ ㆦㆶ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄥ
Tâi-lô a ap at ak ah ann oo ok onn o o e enn i ian ing
Example (traditional Chinese)

Example (simplified Chinese)

IPA iək ĩ ai au am ɔm ɔŋ ŋ̍ u ua ue uai uan ɨ (i)ũ
Pe̍h-ōe-jī ek iⁿ ai aiⁿ au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i (i)uⁿ
Revised TLPA ik iN ai aiN au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)uN
TLPA ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)unn
BP ik ni ai nai au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i n(i)u
MLT eg/ek vi ai vai au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i v(i)u
DT ik inn/iⁿ ai ainn/aiⁿ au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i (i)unn/uⁿ
Taiwanese kana イェㇰ イイ アイ アイ アウ アム オム オン ウウ ヲア ヲエ ヲァイ ヲァヌ ウウ ウウ
Extended bopomofo ㄧㆶ ㄨㄚ ㄨㆤ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄢ
Tâi-lô ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)unn
Example (traditional Chinese)

Example (simplified Chinese)

IPA p b m t n l k ɡ h tɕi ʑi tɕʰi ɕi ts dz tsʰ s
Pe̍h-ōe-jī p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h chi ji chhi si ch j chh s
Revised TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
BP b bb p bb d t n lng l g gg k h zi li ci si z l c s
MLT p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h ci ji chi si z j zh s
DT b bh p m d t n nng l g gh k h zi r ci si z r c s
Taiwanese kana パア バア パ̣ア マア タア タ̣ア ナア ヌン ラア カア ガア カ̣ア ハア チイ ジイ チ̣イ シイ ザア サ̣ サア
Extended bopomofo ㄋㆭ
Tâi-lô p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h tsi ji tshi si ts j tsh s
Example (traditional Chinese)

Example (simplified Chinese)

Tone name Yin level
Yin rising
Yin departing
Yin entering
Yang level
Yang rising
Yang departing
Yang entering
High rising
Neutral tone
IPA a˥˧ a˨˩ ap˩
a˧˥ ap˥
Pe̍h-ōe-jī a á à ap
â ā a̍p
TLPA (and Revised TLPA) a1 a2 a3 ap4
a5 a6 a7 ap8
a9 a0
BP ā ǎ à āp
á â áp
af ar ax ab
aa aar a ap
DT a à â āp
ǎ ā ap
á å
Taiwanese kana
(normal vowels)
アア アア アア アㇷ゚
アア アア アㇷ゚
Taiwanese kana
(nasal vowels)
アア アア アア アㇷ゚
アア アア アㇷ゚
Extended bopomofo ㄚˋ ㄚ˪ ㄚㆴ
ㄚˊ ㄚ˫ ㄚㆴ˙
Tâi-lô a á à ah â ǎ ā a̍h --ah
(traditional Chinese)

(simplified Chinese)



External links[edit]