|Phosphotransferase system, phosphocarrier HPr protein|
Phosphocarrier protein HPr, E.Coli
The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major carbohydrate transport system in bacteria. The PTS catalyses the phosphorylation of sugar substrates during their translocation across the cell membrane. The mechanism involves the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) via enzyme I (EI) to enzyme II (EII) of the PTS system, which in turn transfers it to a phosphocarrier protein (HPr). In some bacteria HPr is a domain in a larger protein that includes an EIII(Fru) (IIA) domain and in some cases also an EI domain.
There is a conserved histidine in the N-terminus of HPr, which serves as an acceptor for the phosphoryl group of EI. In the central part of HPr there is a conserved serine which, in Gram-positive bacteria only, is phosphorylated by an ATP-dependent protein kinase, a process which probably plays a regulatory role in sugar transport.
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