In chemistry, a phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups (−OH) in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds. The "bond" involves this linkage C−O−PO−2O−C. Discussion of phosphodiesters is dominated by their prevalence in DNA and RNA, but phosphodiesters occur in other biomolecules, e.g. acyl carrier proteins.
Phosphodiester bonds make up the backbones of DNA and RNA. The phosphate is attached to the 5' carbon. The 3' carbon of one sugar is bonded to the 5' phosphate of the adjacent sugar. Specifically, the phosphodiester bond links the 3' carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 5' carbon atom of another (hence the name, 3', 5' phosphodiester linkage). These saccharide groups are derived from deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA. Phosphodiesters are negatively charged at pH 7. Repulsion between these negative charges influences the conformation of the polynucleic acids. The negative charge attracts histones, metal cations such as magnesium, and polyamines.
In order for the phosphodiester bond to be formed and the nucleotides to be joined, the tri-phosphate or di-phosphate forms of the nucleotide building blocks are broken apart to give off energy required to drive the enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
The phosphodiester linkage between two ribonucleotides can be broken by alkaline hydrolysis, whereas the linkage between two deoxyribonucleotides is more stable under these conditions. The relative ease of RNA hydrolysis is an effect of the presence of the 2' hydroxyl group.
An enzyme that plays an important role in the repair of oxidative DNA damage is the 3'-phosphodiesterase.
- Phosphodiesterase inhibitor
- DNA replication, DNA, ATP
- Teichoic acid, DNase I
- Nick (DNA)
- "Phosphodiester bond". School of BioMedical Sciences Wiki.
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