Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor

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A phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor (PI3K inhibitor) is a class of medical drug that functions by inhibiting one or more of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzymes, which are part of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, an important signalling pathway for many cellular functions such as growth control, metabolism and translation initiation. Within this pathway there are many components, inhibition of which may result in tumor suppression.[1] These anti-cancer drugs are examples of targeted therapy.[2][3]

There are a number of different classes and isoforms of PI3Ks.[4] Class 1 PI3Ks have a catalytic subunit known as p110, with four types (isoforms) – p110 alpha, p110 beta, p110 gamma and p110 delta.[5] The inhibitors being studied inhibit one or more isoforms of the class I PI3Ks.[6][7]

They are being actively investigated for treatment of various cancers.[8][9] [10]

They are also being considered for inflammatory respiratory disease.[4][6]

Effects of inhibiting different isoforms[edit]

Inhibiting different p110 isoforms can have different effects.[11] e.g. PTEN-negative tumors may be more sensitive to p110β inhibitors.[11]

Notable examples[edit]


  • Idelalisib (PI3K Delta inhibitor) FDA approved July 2014 for leukemia and two types of lymphoma.[12]
  • Copanlisib (Inhibitor of PI3K, predominantly against PI3K-α and PI3K-δ) FDA approved in September 2017 for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) who have received at least two prior systemic therapies.[13]
  • Duvelisib (First approved oral dual inhibitor of PI3K-delta and PI3K-gamma) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Duvelisib by the name of COPIKTRA™ on September 24, 2018. COPIKTRA™ is the first approved dual inhibitor of PI3K-delta and PI3K-gamma. COPIKTRA is approved for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) after at least two prior therapies.[14]

Clinical development[edit]

Late stage[edit]

In phase III clinical trials:

In/starting phase II clinical trials:

Early stage[edit]

With phase I results announced :

In early stage clinical trials[10]


See also[edit]


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  4. ^ a b Ito, K; Caramori, G; Adcock, IM (2007). "Therapeutic potential of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors in inflammatory respiratory disease". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 321 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.111674. PMID 17021257.
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  63. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01033721 at
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  65. ^ A Safety Study of Oral ZSTK474 in Patients With Cancer
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Further reading[edit]

  • Williams, Roger; Berndt, Alex; Miller, Simon; Hon, Wai-Ching; Zhang, Xuxiao (2009). "Form and flexibility in phosphoinositide 3-kinases". Biochemical Society Transactions. 37 (Pt 4): 615–626. doi:10.1042/BST0370615. PMID 19614567.

External links[edit]