Photograph (Ringo Starr song)
UK picture sleeve
|Single by Ringo Starr|
|from the album Ringo|
|B-side||"Down and Out"|
|Released||24 September 1973|
|Genre||Rock, pop, glam rock|
|Writer(s)||Richard Starkey, George Harrison|
|Ringo Starr singles chronology|
"Photograph" is a song by English musician Ringo Starr that was released as the lead single from his 1973 album Ringo. Starr co-wrote the song with George Harrison, his former bandmate from the Beatles. Although the two of them collaborated on other compositions, it is the only song officially credited to the pair. A signature tune for Starr as a solo artist, "Photograph" became an international hit, topping singles charts in the United States, Canada and Australia, and receiving gold disc certification for US sales of 1 million. Music critics have similarly received the song favourably; Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic considers it to be "among the very best post-Beatles songs by any of the Fab Four".
The lyrics are a reflection on lost love, whereby a photograph is the only reminder of the protagonists' shared past. Starr and Harrison began writing the song in the South of France in 1971, during a period when Starr was focused on developing his acting career. They first recorded "Photograph" late the following year, along with the single's B-side, "Down and Out", during sessions for Harrison's Living in the Material World album (1973). The officially released version was recorded in Los Angeles with producer Richard Perry, and it incorporates aspects of Phil Spector's Wall of Sound through the presence of multiple drums and acoustic guitars, as well as an orchestra and a choir. Aside from Starr and Harrison, the musicians on the recording include Nicky Hopkins, Bobby Keys, Jim Keltner, and Spector's musical arranger, Jack Nitzsche. Starr made a promotional film for the single, shot at his and wife Maureen Starkey's home, Tittenhurst Park.
"Photograph" has appeared on Starr's compilation albums Blast from Your Past (1975) and Photograph: The Very Best of Ringo Starr (2007), and live versions have featured on releases recorded with his All-Starr Band and with the Roundheads. In November 2002, a year after Harrison's death, Starr sang "Photograph" at the Concert for George – a performance that was an emotional highpoint of the event. Engelbert Humperdinck, Camper Van Beethoven, Cilla Black and Adam Sandler are among the artists who have covered the song.
- 1 Background and composition
- 2 Recording
- 3 Release
- 4 Reception
- 5 Re-releases and live versions
- 6 Cover versions and references
- 7 Personnel
- 8 Chart performance and sales certifications
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 External links
Background and composition
Ex-Beatles Ringo Starr and George Harrison began writing "Photograph" on a luxury yacht in the South of France in May 1971. Starr had hired the yacht, the SS Marala, for the duration of the Cannes Film Festival, after attending Mick Jagger's wedding in St Tropez with his wife, Maureen Starkey. The Starkeys[nb 1] were then joined in France by Harrison and the latter's wife, Pattie Boyd, for the Monaco Grand Prix. This period coincided with Starr's first success as a solo artist, with the Harrison-produced single "It Don't Come Easy", although he would continue to focus on his career as a film actor, beginning with a role in Blindman (1971).[nb 2]
Another guest on the Marala was Cilla Black, singer and a friend to the Beatles since the 1960s, who recalls Starr and Harrison playing "Photograph" during an evening get-together, with "everyone on board" contributing ideas for the lyrics. As with Starr's two singles over 1971–72, "It Don't Come Easy" and "Back Off Boogaloo", Harrison helped write the melody, although "Photograph" would mark the first time that he was credited as a co-writer with Starr. In her autobiography, Step Inside Love, Black says she had hoped to record the song for a single later in 1971, only to be told by Starr: "No, it's too bloody good for you. I'm having it myself."
The lyric to "Photograph" is centred around lost love, with the singer having only a single picture by which to remember his absent lover. The eponymous photograph reminds him of their former happiness together, while also enforcing the reality that "you're not coming back any more". Author Ian Inglis comments on the familiar subject matter in the conventions of pop songwriting, but identifies an "unusual" aspect in the lyrics' "absence of any hope that love might be rekindled". Starr expresses resignation at what the future holds, in the lines "Now you're expecting me to live without you / But that's not something that I'm looking forward to".
Musically, the song is in the key of E, with what Inglis terms an "easy melody" that allows for Starr's limitations as a singer. Harrison's "distinctive composing style" is particularly evident, according to authors Roy Carr and Tony Tyler, and Starr would later say of Harrison's role in their collaborations over this period: "I only know three chords and he'd stick four more in, and they'd all think I was a genius."
Starr continued to pursue his film career until the end of 1972, while also participating in musical projects such as Harrison's Concert for Bangladesh.[nb 3] Late that year, Starr and Harrison recorded an early version of "Photograph" during the sessions for Harrison's Living in the Material World album (1973). With Harrison producing, this recording took place at either Apple Studio in central London, or Harrison's home studio, FPSHOT, in Oxfordshire.
Starr re-recorded the song in March 1973, while working at Sunset Sound Recorders in Los Angeles on Ringo, his first solo album in the rock or contemporary pop style.[nb 4] He later described Ringo as an "accidental album", since it only came about because he was attending the Grammy Awards in Nashville, where The Concert for Bangladesh won the Grammy for Best Album of 1972. Keen to find another activity to justify the flight to the US, Starr arranged to record with American producer Richard Perry during the visit.
The recording engineer on "Photograph" was Bill Schnee, and author Simon Leng suggests that Harrison helped "hew" the production. Along with Starr (on drums) and Harrison (12-string acoustic guitar), the other musicians included Nicky Hopkins (piano), Klaus Voormann (bass) and Jim Keltner (drums), all of whom had participated in the sessions for Material World. In addition, Vini Poncia, Starr's new songwriting partner, and session musician Jimmy Calvert played acoustic rhythm guitar on the Los Angeles recording.
Overdubs on the basic tracks recorded for Ringo took place from April to July 1973. On "Photograph", the additional instrumentation included a saxophone solo by Bobby Keys and percussion played by one of Harrison's Apple Records signings, brothers Lon and Derrek Van Eaton. Harrison added harmony and backing vocals, supporting Starr's lead vocal part.
Jack Nitzsche, Phil Spector's musical arranger for much of the 1960s, provided the song's string and choral arrangements, which were overdubbed at Burbank Studios on 29 June. Aside from Nitzsche's contributions, the recording incorporates aspects of Spector's Wall of Sound production through the use of multiple rhythm guitars and drums, and prominent percussion such as castanets. Leng draws parallels between the "resonant arrangement" on "Photograph" and the production that Harrison adopted for Ravi Shankar's song "I Am Missing You", an April 1973 recording that also featured Starr.
"Down and Out"
With "Photograph" selected as the album's lead single, Starr chose "Down and Out", a song written by him alone, for the B-side. Starr recorded the song in England, backed by Harrison, pianist Gary Wright and Voormann. The Harrison-produced session most likely took place in 1972, according to authors Chip Madinger and Mark Easter, during the same period as Starr and Harrison's first attempt at recording "Photograph".[nb 5]
A twelve-bar blues with what Starr biographer Alan Clayson describes as "perfunctory" lyrics, the recording features solos from Harrison, on slide guitar, and Wright. Perry subsequently added a horn section, resulting in him being credited as co-producer on the track. Carr and Tyler dismiss "Down and Out" with the description: "a very mundane throwaway tune only saved from extinction by the professional arrangement and by Harrison's distinctive slide-guitar solo".
Apple Records released "Photograph", backed by "Down and Out", on 24 September 1973 in America, and on 19 October in Britain.[nb 6] Starr made a promotional film for "Photograph", in which he mimed to the song while walking through the grounds of Tittenhurst Park, the Berkshire estate that he had recently purchased from former bandmate John Lennon. To circumvent the BBC's ban on lip-synching, Starr placed his hand over his mouth for part of the song, thereby making it impossible to tell whether he was singing or merely miming.[nb 7] The single's picture sleeve consisted of a photo by Barry Feinstein that showed Starr's head poking through a large star made of silver foil. The same image, which author Bruce Spizer terms "the Ringo starfish", appeared on the single's face labels and on those of the Ringo album.
The album's release followed in November 1973, with "Photograph" appearing as the third track, preceding another Harrison contribution, "Sunshine Life for Me (Sail Away Raymond)". Opposite the printed lyrics for "Photograph" inside the album booklet, a lithograph by Voormann depicted a framed picture on a shelf or desktop, in which Starr looks dejectedly at a framed picture of a woman. In his personal life at this point, the album's arrival coincided with the failure of Starr's marriage, partly as a result of Harrison and Maureen conducting an affair. While the friendship between the two former bandmates soon recovered, Starr and Harrison would not officially write another song together after "Photograph".
Noting the context in which Starr's song of "beautiful sadness" was released in the United States, Clayson describes "Photograph" as having been a popular request on radio playlists "for a nation still awaiting the return of many of its sons from Vietnam, following the January cease-fire". Rodriguez comments on the precipitous timing of the single, which "capitaliz[ed] on the year's nostalgia craze", while news of Starr recording with each of his former bandmates during the Ringo sessions provided further impetus. In late November, the single topped America's Billboard Hot 100 for one week, Starr's first number 1 hit on that chart as a solo artist and Harrison's third there as a composer since the Beatles' break-up in 1970. "Photograph" was also number 1 in Canada and Australia, while in Britain it peaked at number 8. In Rodriguez's words, the single "did a good job of setting the table" for Ringo, which also enjoyed considerable commercial success. On 28 December 1973, "Photograph" was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America, signifying US sales of 1 million – Starr's second such award, after "It Don't Come Easy".
On release, Ben Gerson of Rolling Stone highlighted "Photograph" as one of the album's "three most wonderful songs", along with the Lennon-composed "I'm the Greatest" and the Harrison–Mal Evans collaboration "You and Me (Babe)". Gerson noted how the song's intro provided an effective "pull on the listener" and wrote that, while the lyrics had a sorrowful quality, "the effect is warming". Billboard's album reviewer praised Perry's "stunning production" on "the best Ringo album ever", adding: "We all know already that 'Photograph' has got to be a No. 1 single this month, right?"
Although less impressed with Ringo, Alan Betrock wrote in Phonograph Record: "It's also clear when you reach 'Photograph' that Side One is the undisputed champ of the album. Jack Nitzsche has thrown in a lot of his past influences here, including the Famous School of Phil Spector castanets, lesson No. 2." Betrock concluded of the song: "'Photograph' is one of those rare pop records that grows stronger with each play, and will be covered and revived for years to come (I'll lay you 50-1 it appears on the next Andy Williams album)."
Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic considers "Photograph" a "gorgeous collaboration" between Starr and Harrison, a track that "ranks ... among the very best post-Beatles songs by any of the Fab Four". Robert Rodriguez describes it as "an elegantly produced ballad" and Starr's "signature tune as a solo artist". Rodriguez continues: "The ersatz Wall of Sound somehow managed not to swamp the lead vocal and Harrison harmony, while embodying the best qualities of the Beatles' singles: hummable and familiar, yet fresh and enduring." In his 1977 book The Beatles Forever, Nicholas Schaffner wrote of how the song's "grand, sweeping arrangement" was reminiscent of Harrison's "own recent cosmic productions". Author Elliot Huntley similarly acknowledges the extent of Harrison's influence on this and other tracks on Ringo while rueing that "Photograph" marks the only formal co-composition by the two ex-Beatles. Huntley describes the song as the album's "stand-out track" and "by a country mile, the commercial high-point" for Starr as a songwriter. Former Mojo editor Mat Snow recognises it as "perhaps the single best song of [Starr's] career" and the "emotional heart" of the album.
Re-releases and live versions
The song provided the title to Starr's 2007 career-spanning compilation Photograph: The Very Best of Ringo Starr, having earlier appeared on Blast from Your Past (1975), a greatest-hits collection covering his years on Apple Records. For the 1991 CD reissue of Ringo, the album was expanded through the inclusion of three bonus tracks, the last of which was the long-unavailable "Down and Out". In 2009, "Photograph" was featured in the Judd Apatow-directed film Funny People and appeared on the accompanying soundtrack album.
Following his return to touring in July 1989 – the first tour for Starr since the Beatles quit performing live in 1966 – he has played "Photograph" regularly with the various incarnations of his All-Starr Band. Eschewing his drum kit for the role of lead singer, Starr often closed his shows with the song (before returning for an encore) during tours he made between 1989 and 2000. A live version appeared on the album and video Ringo Starr and His All-Starr Band (1990); recorded at the Greek Theatre, Los Angeles, on 3 September 1989, it features the original All-Starr line-up of Starr, Billy Preston, Jim Keltner, Rick Danko, Levon Helm, Dr. John, Joe Walsh, Nils Lofgren and Clarence Clemons.
Starr also included the song in his performances on the television shows VH1 Storytellers, in May 1998, and PBS's Soundstage, in August 2005. Featuring backing from the Roundheads – a band led by his latter-day producer Mark Hudson – these recordings were issued on Starr's releases VH1 Storytellers (1998) and Ringo Starr: Live at Soundstage (2007), respectively. Further versions with his All-Starr Band have appeared on the albums King Biscuit Flower Hour Presents Ringo & His New All-Starr Band (2002), Ringo Starr & His All Starr Band Live 2006 (2008) and Live at the Greek Theatre 2008 (2010), the latter with Gary Wright among the revised line-up.
Performance at the Concert for George
On 29 November 2002, Starr performed "Photograph" at the Concert for George, held at London's Royal Albert Hall to mark the first anniversary of Harrison's death. According to the Concert for George website: "Ringo Starr caught everyone with a tear in their eye with a rendition of 'Photograph', a composition he wrote with George, which seemed to sum up how everyone felt."
Starr's appearance came towards the end of the concert, and Inglis writes that his arrival was "given an extra poignancy by his choice of song". In his preamble to the audience, Starr stated, "I loved George, George loved me", before mentioning that "Photograph" had taken on a new meaning with the passing of Harrison. This performance – with a large band that included Jeff Lynne, Eric Clapton, Dhani Harrison, Preston, Keltner and saxophonist Jim Horn – was issued on the Concert for George album (2003) and appears in David Leland's documentary film of the event. In a July 2003 interview, Starr discussed his recently released tribute song to Harrison, "Never Without You", while acknowledging that he remained closest to Harrison out of all the former Beatles following the band's break-up.
Performance at the 2014 Grammy Awards
Starr sang "Photograph" at the 56th Annual Grammy Awards, during which he and Paul McCartney, as the two surviving ex-Beatles, were honoured with the Recording Academy's Lifetime Achievement Award. The event took place at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on 26 January 2014. Rolling Stone reported on Starr's performance of the song: "Backed by a massive full band, he bounced around the stage while old black-and-white photographs showed on a big screen behind him." The accompanying images were taken from Starr's recently published book; also titled Photograph, it consists of photos from his personal collection, dating back to the 1950s and '60s.
Cover versions and references
Engelbert Humperdinck and the Ray Conniff Singers each released recordings of the song in 1974. The following year, London-based recording engineer David Hentschel covered "Photograph", along with all the other tracks on Ringo, for his album Sta*rtling Music. The latter, an experimental work featuring Hentschel on ARP synthesizer, was one of the first releases on Starr's short-lived record label, Ring O' Records.
A cover version of the song by American alt rock band Camper Van Beethoven appeared on their 1993 rarities compilation Camper Vantiquities. Canadian band Sloan made mention of "Photograph" in their 1996 single "The Lines You Amend", the lyrics of which refer to a song "... about photographs / Sung by Ringo Starr / Especially in the chorus part / You always said, 'Now don't you start'."
Cilla Black eventually recorded "Photograph", for her 2003 album Beginnings: Greatest Hits & New Songs – a version that "she jumps into head first at her most soulful", according to music critic Bruce Eder. While Starr's original recording appeared on the soundtrack to Funny People, a cover by the film's leading actor, Adam Sandler, is available as an iTunes bonus track with the album.
- Ringo Starr – vocals, drums
- George Harrison – 12-string acoustic guitar, backing vocals
- Bobby Keys – tenor saxophone
- Nicky Hopkins – piano
- Vini Poncia – acoustic guitar, backing vocals
- Jimmy Calvert – acoustic guitar
- Klaus Voormann – bass
- Jim Keltner – drums
- Lon Van Eaton – percussion
- Derrek Van Eaton – percussion
- Jack Nitzsche – orchestral and choral arrangements
Chart performance and sales certifications
Weekly singles charts
- Starr's real name is Richard Starkey.
- Some sources claim that "Photograph" originated in Almeria, Spain, where Starr was filming Blindman, yet his role in that film was only confirmed at the end of the Cannes Film Festival. According to entries in Keith Badman's book The Beatles Diary Volume 2, Starr joined the production in Rome on 17 June before carrying out location filming in Almeria through July.
- Starr and Harrison both contributed to 1972 albums by Bobby Keys, Harry Nilsson and Lon & Derrek Van Eaton, in addition to participating in a session for a proposed Cilla Black single in August 1972. Author Alan Clayson refers to Harrison and Starr as "the Tweedledum and Tweedledee of such occasions", due to their many sessions together during the early 1970s.
- Starr's previous solo albums, Sentimental Journey and Beaucoups of Blues (both 1970), had been forays focusing on pre-rock era standards and country music, respectively.
- Alternatively, the line-up of Starr, Harrison, Wright and Voormann was the same as that on "Back Off Boogaloo", recorded at Apple in September 1971.
- The catalog numbers were Apple 1865 and Apple R 5992 in the US and the UK, respectively.
- The BBC aired the clip once on the music show Top of the Pops, which was the only screening it received anywhere in the world.
- NME, 21 March 2015, p. 73: "['It Don't Cone Easy', 'Back Off Boogaloo' and 'Photograph'] were superior slabs of glam rock."
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Ringo Starr Photograph: The Very Best of Ringo Starr". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Clayson, p. 216.
- Badman, p. 35.
- Romanowski & George-Warren, p. 946.
- Clayson, pp. 216, 227.
- Woffinden, pp. 45, 47.
- Ingham, p. 139.
- Woffinden, p. 37.
- Rodriguez, p. 42.
- Madinger & Easter, p. 503.
- Spizer, p. 306.
- Badman, p. 36.
- Badman, pp. 36–37.
- Spizer, pp. 293, 297, 303.
- Woffinden, p. 77.
- Schaffner, p. 161.
- Rodriguez, pp. 28, 32, 261.
- Clayson, pp. 216, 393.
- Clayson, p. 244.
- Huntley, p. 97.
- Inglis, p. 55.
- "Photograph" (sheet music for Piano, Vocal & Guitar) (1973). London: Music Sales Limited.
- Carr & Tyler, p. 107.
- Rodriguez, p. 261.
- Ingham, pp. 139–40.
- Clayson, pp. 220, 240.
- Clayson, p. 240.
- Castleman & Podrazik, pp. 115, 116.
- Madinger & Easter, p. 440.
- Rodriguez, pp. 35, 261.
- Spizer, pp. 254, 306.
- Leng, pp. 124–25.
- Badman, pp. 91, 92.
- Spizer, pp. 305, 306.
- Doggett, p. 207.
- Schaffner, pp. 129, 140.
- Woffinden, pp. 36–37.
- Rodriguez, p. 139.
- Madinger & Easter, p. 501.
- Leng, p. 138.
- Castleman & Podrazik, pp. 211–12.
- Rodriguez, p. 260.
- Clayson, pp. 244–45.
- Spizer, pp. 306–07.
- Clayson, p. 241.
- Spizer, pp. 306, 344.
- Leng, p. 139.
- Williams, pp. 66–67.
- Brown, pp. 120–21, 122.
- Rodriguez, pp. 143, 261.
- Spizer, p. 307.
- Leng, pp. 138, 139.
- Lavezzoli, p. 195.
- Spizer, p. 303.
- Madinger & Easter, p. 507.
- Castleman & Podrazik, p. 209.
- Rodriguez, p. 32.
- Badman, p. 47.
- Castleman & Podrazik, p. 127.
- Harry, pp. 182, 183.
- Badman, p. 108.
- Doggett, pp. 204–05.
- Spizer, p. 302.
- Badman, p. 111.
- Castelman & Podrazik, p. 128.
- Spizer, pp. 309, 311.
- Doggett, pp. 208–09.
- Clayson, p. 248.
- Rodriguez, p. 157.
- Castleman & Podrazik, p. 354.
- Rodriguez, pp. 35, 157.
- Leng, pp. 141–42.
- Huntley, p. 98.
- Badman, p. 113.
- "Gold & Platinum Database Search: 'Starr'". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Spizer, pp. 293, 303.
- Castleman & Podrazik, p. 332.
- Gerson, Ben (20 December 1973). "Ringo Starr Ringo". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Tiegel, Eliot (reviews ed.) (3 November 1973). "Top Album Picks: Pop". Billboard. p. 56. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Betrock, Alan (December 1973). "Ringo Starr: Ringo". Phonograph Record. Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).
- Rodriguez, pp. 143, 157.
- Rodriguez, p. 143.
- Huntley, pp. 97, 98.
- Snow, p. 47.
- Schaffner, pp. 182, 209.
- Madinger & Easter, pp. 507, 645.
- Ruhlmann, William. "Ringo Starr Ringo". AllMusic. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "News 02 Jul 2009". Concord Music Group. 2 July 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Raper, Dan (26 August 2009). "Various Artists: Music from the Motion Picture Funny People". PopMatters. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Badman, p. 426.
- Sandall, Robert (January 1991). "Ringo Starr". Q. Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).
- Clayson, pp. 350, 353.
- Madinger & Easter, pp. 651–65.
- Madinger & Easter, pp. 532–33.
- Badman, p. 428.
- Clayson, pp. 348–49.
- Harry, p. 186.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Ringo Starr Live at Soundstage". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Madinger & Easter, pp. 559–60.
- Album credits, Ringo Starr & His All Starr Band Live 2006 CD (2008). Koch Records. Producer: Ringo Starr.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Ringo Starr & His All Starr Band Live at the Greek Theatre 2008". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Inglis, pp. 124, 126.
- Doggett, p. 332.
- "The Event". concertforgeorge.com. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- Inglis, p. 126.
- Leng, p. 310.
- Inglis, pp. 125, 155.
- Holden, Stephen (3 October 2003). "Film in Review: 'Concert for George'". New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Ruhlmann, William. "Various Artists Concert for George (Video)". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Ruttenberg, Jay (24 July 2003). "R-I-N-G-O". Time Out New York. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo (26 January 2014). "Ringo Starr and His All-Star Band Perform at the Grammys". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- James, Lauren (27 January 2014). "Beatles Mania Sweeps Grammys As Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr Reunite To Perform". Contactmusic. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Gibsone, Harriet (27 January 2014). "Grammys 2014: Sir Paul McCartney joined on stage by Ringo Starr". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Staff writer (26 January 2014). "Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr Share Grammy Stage for Rare Performance". rollingstone.com. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- Crowder, Courtney (5 July 2013). "Review: 'Photograph' by Ringo Starr". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Cover versions of Photograph by Ringo Starr". secondhandsongs.com. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- Clayson, p. 271.
- Woffinden, Bob (12 April 1975). "Ringo Starr: Everyone One of Us Has All We Need ...". NME. Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).
- Clayson, pp. 271–72.
- Woffinden, p. 78.
- Sullivan, Denise. "Camper Van Beethoven Camper Vantiquities". AllMusic. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Hoskyns, Barney (6 March 1997). "Sloan One Chord to Another". Rolling Stone. p. 72.
- Eder, Bruce. "Cilla Black Beginnings". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "iTunes Preview: 'Funny People (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) [Bonus Track Version]'". itunes.apple.com. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Go-Set Australian charts – 16 February 1974". poparchives.com.au. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart 1970–1992. Australian Chart Book, St Ives, NSW. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Ringo Starr – Photograph". ultratop.be. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "RPM 100 Singles, 1 December 1973". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
- "Ringo Starr – Photograph". dutchcharts.nl. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Search by Artist > Ringo Starr", irishcharts.ie (retrieved 23 March 2016).
- "Ringo Starr Chart Trajectories on the Oricon Singles (1968–2005)". Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "NZ Listener chart statistics for Ringo Starr (search by artist)". Flavour of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- "Ringo Starr – Photograph". norwegiancharts.com. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Ringo Starr – Photograph". hitparade.ch. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Ringo Starr". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Ringo Starr: Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- CASH BOX Top 100 Singles – Week ending NOVEMBER 24, 1973 at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 November 1973). Cash Box magazine. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- "RPM's Top 100 of 1973". Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- "The Cash Box Year-End Charts: 1974". Cashbox Archives. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- "American single certifications – Ringo Starr – Photograph". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
- Badman, Keith (2001). The Beatles Diary Volume 2: After the Break-Up 1970–2001. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-8307-6.
- Brown, Mick (2008). Tearing Down the Wall of Sound: The Rise and Fall of Phil Spector. New York, NY: Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4000-7661-1.
- Carr, Roy; Tyler, Tony (1978). The Beatles: An Illustrated Record. London: Trewin Copplestone Publishing. ISBN 0-450-04170-0.
- Castleman, Harry; Podrazik, Walter J. (1976). All Together Now: The First Complete Beatles Discography 1961–1975. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25680-8.
- Clayson, Alan (2003). Ringo Starr. London: Sanctuary. ISBN 1-86074-488-5.
- Doggett, Peter (2011). You Never Give Me Your Money: The Beatles After the Breakup. New York, NY: It Books. ISBN 978-0-06-177418-8.
- Harry, Bill (2004). The Ringo Starr Encyclopedia. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 978-0-7535-0843-5.
- Huntley, Elliot J. (2006). Mystical One: George Harrison – After the Break-up of the Beatles. Toronto, ON: Guernica Editions. ISBN 978-1-55071-197-4.
- Ingham, Chris (2006). The Rough Guide to the Beatles (2nd edn). London: Rough Guides/Penguin. ISBN 978-1-84836-525-4.
- Inglis, Ian (2010). The Words and Music of George Harrison. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-37532-3.
- Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York, NY: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.
- Leng, Simon (2006). While My Guitar Gently Weeps: The Music of George Harrison. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-4234-0609-9.
- Madinger, Chip; Easter, Mark (2000). Eight Arms to Hold You: The Solo Beatles Compendium. Chesterfield, MO: 44.1 Productions. ISBN 0-615-11724-4.
- Rodriguez, Robert (2010). Fab Four FAQ 2.0: The Beatles' Solo Years, 1970–1980. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-9093-4.
- Romanowski, Patricia; George-Warren, Holly (eds) (1995). The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll. New York, NY: Fireside/Rolling Stone Press. ISBN 0-684-81044-1.
- Schaffner, Nicholas (1978). The Beatles Forever. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-055087-5.
- Snow, Mat (2013). The Beatles Solo: The Illustrated Chronicles of John, Paul, George, and Ringo After The Beatles (Volume 4: Ringo). New York, NY: Race Point Publishing. ISBN 978-1-937994-26-6.
- Spizer, Bruce (2005). The Beatles Solo on Apple Records. New Orleans, LA: 498 Productions. ISBN 0-9662649-5-9.
- Williams, Richard (2003). Phil Spector: Out of His Head. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-9864-3.
- Woffinden, Bob (1981). The Beatles Apart. London: Proteus. ISBN 0-906071-89-5.
"Keep on Truckin' (Part 1)" by Eddie Kendricks
|Billboard Hot 100 number-one single
24 November 1973 (one week)
"Top of the World" by the Carpenters
"Could You Ever Love Me Again" by Gary and Dave
|Canadian RPM 100 number-one single
24 November 1973 (two weeks)
"Top of the World" by the Carpenters