Photographers of the American Civil War

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Photographers E.T. Whitney and an assistant having lunch at the destroyed, temporary R.R. spur near Mitchel's Ford in March 1862.

The American Civil War was only the fifth war in history to be photographed, and was the best covered conflict of the 19th century. The first clear, sharp images of battlefield life made a powerful impression on the civilian public, as well as providing posterity with an extensive visual record of the war and its leading figures.

An important fact not generally known by the public is the fact that roughly 70% of the war's photography was made in stereo. The American Civil War was the first war whose reality would be brought home to the public, not only in newspaper accounts and gallery prints, but in 3D, stereo photography in the form of a "stereograph" or "stereocard." Millions of these cards were produced for a public eager to experience the true nature of warfare.[1]

Historical context[edit]

The American Civil War (1861–65) was the fifth war in history to be photographed, the first four being the Mexican-American War (1846–48), the Crimean War (1854–56), Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the Second Italian War of Independence (1859).

Northern photographers[edit]

Confederate Dead behind the Stone Wall at Mayre's Height's Fredericksburg VA May 3, 1863

Andrew J. Russell[edit]

Andrew Joseph Russell (1829 - 1902), was born in Walpole, New Hampshire, the son of Harriet (née Robinson) and Joseph Russell. He was raised in Nunda, New York. He took an early interest in painting, and in addition to executing portraiture for local public figures, he was drawn to railroads and trains.

During the first two years of the Civil War, Russell painted a diorama used to recruit soldiers for the Union Army. On 22 August 1862, he volunteered at Elmira, New York, mustering in the following month as a captain in Company F, 141st New York Volunteer Regiment. In February 1863, Russell, who had become interested in the new art of photography, paid civilian photographer Egbert Guy Fowx $300 to teach him the collodion process of wet-plate photography. Fowx was a free-lance photographer who sold many of his negatives to Mathew B. Brady, and who subsequently copyrighted and published many of them under his own name.

Russell's first photographs, taken with a camera borrowed from Fowx, were used by Brigadier General Herman Haupt to illustrate his reports. Impressed with his work, on 1 March 1863, Haupt arranged to have Russell detached from his regiment and assigned to the United States Military Railroad Construction Corps, making Russell the only non-civilian Civil War photographer. In that role he photographed primarily transportation subjects for the War Department, but was responsible for a few photographs of more historical and graphical interest sold to and distributed by the Mathew Brady Studios. One such was "Confederate dead Behind the Stone Wall" after the battle of Chancellorsville, May 1863.[2]

In his embedded capacity, Capt. Russell took over a thousand photos in two and a half years, some of which were distributed exclusively to President Lincoln.

One of Roche's Civil War photographs, showing a dead Confederate soldier at Fort Mahone, Petersburg, Virginia April,1865.

Thomas C. Roche[edit]

Thomas C. Roche (1826 - 1895) was a photographer for E. & H. T. Anthony & Company and while with the Union Army of the James in April 1865 made twenty-four photographs of dead Confederate soldiers killed April 2, 1865 at Fort Mahone, Petersburg Virginia. Besides contract work for the War Department, Roche was Anthony Co.'s senior operator and R&D man and counts among his many accomplishments the roughly 50 stereoviews taken on April 3, 1865, after the fall of Petersburg. These include at least 20 stereoviews of the dead, taken at Fort Mahone, known as "Fort Damnation" by Federal troops).

Mathew Brady[edit]

Mathew Brady taken shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run, wearing a saber given to him for defense by New York Fire Zouaves

Mathew B. Brady (1823-1896), the son of Irish immigrants, was born in Warren County, New York. Brady can be viewed as the father of photojournalism. He was the most prominent photographer of the Civil War because of his commitment and mastery of his job. He mastered the art when he was in his 20s. Brady would later spend his own accumulated earnings to take pictures of the war. In 1844, Brady opened a private studio in New York City displaying photographs of famous Americans. He himself said, "From the first, I regarded myself as under obligation to my country to preserve the faces of its historic men and mothers." [3][4]

  • Mathew Brady became known to history as the most prominent photographer of the American Civil War because a very large number of war views that were not actually his came to be associated almost exclusively with his name. From the very beginning Brady determined to accumulate as many war views as possible, with the understanding that in the not too distant future a photomechanical means of reproduction would be possible. With this end in mind, Brady bought, exchanged, borrowed, purloined and copied prints and negatives. If there were duplicate views to be had, he bought those. In light of Brady's practice, it is not surprising therefore, that nearly every photograph associated with the struggle seemed to be a "photograph by Brady."

At the beginning of the war in 1861, Mathew Brady organized his employees into groups, in order to spread them across the country, and to get work. Brady provided carriages, which were rolling darkrooms (to develop the photographic plates into pictures), to all his parties at his own personal expense. The total cost was about $100,000. The First Battle of Bull Run provided the initial opportunity to photograph an engagement between opposing armies. Brady was very calm during battle, as can be seen from Lt. J.A. Gardner's notes:

On July 21, 1861, Brady, the photographer, drove his light wagon out to the entrenchments. Approaching Captain Cooper, Brady politely asked if he could take a picture of the battery when just about to fire. The enemy, observing the movement of the preparations, began firing. (Note: In other words, the Confederates started bombarding Cooper's battery, where Brady was standing). Brady, seeing his camera was uninjured, recalled his assistant and took more pictures from a little to the rear.[5]
Brady photo: Soldier guarding arsenal, Washington D.C., 1862
  • Brady returned with no known photographs from the battlefield of 1st Bull Run, and arrived in Washington D.C. the day after the battle, July 22, when he was photographed at his own studio wearing a soiled duster and small musician's sword (see photo).

Brady recorded more than just photographs. Commentaries found in his traveling journal are used by historians studying the war in detail. One of his commentaries recorded an event that would otherwise have been lost to history. On the night before a battle, Brady heard when the silence was broken as a Confederate soldier across the field began singing patriotic songs. Soon, a second voice was heard, followed by more voices. In no time at all, both armies were singing together in a spirit of common fellowship. Yet, they still attacked each other in the morning.

  • This is a fanciful account that is often repeated, but is unsupported by what tantalizingly little evidence exists. No known journal belonging to Mathew Brady has ever been found. - see "Mathew Brady, Portraits of a Nation", Robert Wilson, 2013.

After the war, Brady went bankrupt and was forced to live off his friends' generosity. The government bought his collection of 5,712 plates for $25,000, rather than the much higher $125,000 he asked. He once said that long after his death, his work will be appreciated. Some familiar with Brady's efforts[who?] feel that he was as much a hero as the soldiers who fought. He died in 1896, in poverty and isolation.

  • In his last days, Mathew Brady was indeed basically broke, but he did not die in isolation. Brady was visited and comforted by friends and admirers up until the very end. His funeral was largely financed by the friends of his adopted regiment, the 7th NYSM. - see "Mathew Brady, Portraits of a Nation", Robert Wilson, 2013.
  • While it is true that, in the beginning, the enterprising Mathew Brady determined to finance and direct the documentation of the American Civil War with photography, it was others, particularly those under the direct supervision of Alexander Gardner, such as Timothy O'Sullivan, James Gibson, George Barnard, James Gardner and William Pywell, who would follow the armies and ultimately fulfill the difficult task, recording for posterity a timely, consecutive photographic history of immeasurable value.

Alexander Gardner, self-portrait

Alexander Gardner[edit]

Alexander Gardner (October 17, 1821–82) was born in Paisley, Scotland. He became an apprentice silversmith jeweller at the age of fourteen. In his youth, Gardner found out that his interests and talents lay in photography and journalism, not jewellery. So, as a committed socialist, Gardner published pamphlets promoting emigration to a colony called Clydesdale in the wilderness of Iowa. Gardner persuaded many of his friends and relatives to settle in this semi-socialist "Utopia." He intended to join them but, because of an epidemic in the settlement, never did. In 1856, Brady invited, and paid, Gardner to come to New York to work for him. When the war began, Gardner was made the official photographer of the Union armies. He took one of the most renowned pictures of the war, which he named "Home of the Rebel Sharpshooter."[4][6]

In November 1861 Gardner was appointed to the staff of General George McClellan, the commander of the Army of the Potomac. He was given the honorary rank of captain and in this capacity photographed the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg and the siege of Petersburg.

  • Alexander Gardner, Lincoln's favorite photographer, never lost his status as army photographer, and could pretty much come and go as he pleased throughout the war. Until November 1862, while he retained the unofficial rank of Capt., Gardner and/or his operators photographed the 1st Bull Run battlefield, McClellan's Peninsula Campaign, and the battlefields of Cedar Mountain and Antietam. The battles of 2nd Bull Run and 1st Fredericksburg went unphotographed. Grant's Petersburg operations were mostly photographed by Gardner's employee Timothy O'Sullivan, at a time when the designation of official photographer for Grant's headquarters command devolved to Mathew Brady, this at the petition of Grant's wife Julia. - see "Mathew Brady, Historian with a Camera", James D. Horan, 1955.

Gardner also photographed Mary Surratt, Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt, David Herold, Michael O'Laughlin, Edman Spangler and Samuel Arnold who were arrested for conspiring to assassinate Abraham Lincoln. He also took photographs of the execution of Surratt, Powell, Atzerodt and Herold as they were hanged at Washington Penitentiary on July 7, 1865. Four months later he photographed the execution of Henry Wirz, commanding officer at the infamous Andersonville Prisoner of War camp in Georgia.

For a brief time following the war, Gardner worked for the Washington police force taking photographs of convicted criminals and eventually, according to some,[who?] became Abraham Lincoln's favorite photographer. Gardner was known as quiet, intelligent, and dour. In 1865, he was charged with photographing Lincoln's assassins. He published the two-volume work, Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, in 1866. Each book contained 50 hand-mounted original prints. However, it was not a sales success.[7] Although Gardner never found his utopia in the wild west, he unexpectedly found himself a new home in America. He stayed in Washington until his death, but he never forgot his Scottish heritage, as he was a member of Saint Andrew's Cross. When asked about his work he said, "It is designed to speak for itself. As mementos of the fearful struggle through which the country has just passed, it is confidently hoped that it will possess an enduring interest."

Ruined roundhouse in Atlanta, Georgia after the Atlanta Campaign. Albumen print by George Barnard, 1866. Digitally restored.

George N. Barnard[edit]

George Norman Barnard[8] (1819-1902) was born in Coventry, Connecticut. During his childhood, he lived throughout the country, including the South. In New York, he opened a studio; to this day, it is not known where he learned his skill. He married Sarah Jane Hodges in 1843, with whom he had two children, a daughter, Mary Grace, and a son, who died in infancy. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Barnard was sent to photograph various locations in Virginia, including Harper's Ferry, Bull Run and Yorktown, as well as in, and around, Washington, D.C. Later, he followed Sherman's Campaign from Tennessee through Georgia and South Carolina and produced a book from the photographs he took, including famous views of the ruins of Atlanta, Columbia, and Charleston, South Carolina.[9]

A distinctive attribute of Barnard's work was to superimposed clouds into an otherwise overexposed sky.

"Incidents of the war. A harvest of death, Gettysburg, July, 1863

Timothy H. O'Sullivan[edit]

Timothy H. O'Sullivan (1840-1882) was born in New York City. As a teenager, he was employed by Mathew Brady and worked for him continuously from 1856 to late 1862, when he would be hired by Alexander Gardner as "superintendent of my map and field work" and living with the army. In the winter of 1861-62, O'Sullivan was dispatched to document Gen. Thomas W. Sherman's Port Royal, S.C. operations. In July 1862, O'Sullivan followed the campaign of Gen. John Pope in Virginia. In July 1863, he reached the pinnacle of his career when he took pictures at Gettysburg, PA., most notably, "The Harvest of Death". In 1864, following Gen. Grant's trail, he photographed during the Siege of Petersburg and the siege of Fort Fisher. That brought him to Appomattox Court House in April 1865, and back to Petersburg in May. Fully 45 of the 100 prints in "Gardner's Sketch Book Of The War" are credited to O'Sullivan.

Following the end of the Civil War, O'Sullivan was made official government photographer for the King (1867, 68, 69, 72), Darien (Panama 1870) and Wheeler (1871, 73, 74) Expeditions respectively, during which time he married fellow photographer, William Pywell's sister Laura in 1873. O'Sullivan's pictures were among the first to record the prehistoric ruins, Navajo weavers, and Pueblo villages of the southwest, and were instrumental in attracting settlers to the West. In 1875 O'Sullivan returned to Washington, D.C. where he spent the last years of his short life as the official photographer of the Treasury Department. Just seven years later, at the young age of 42, O'Sullivan died of tuberculosis at his parent's home in Staten Island, New York.

"Savage Station, Virginia. Union field hospital after the battle of June 27" June 28, 1862

James F. Gibson[edit]

  • James F. Gibson[10] (1828-?) was probably the least known of the Civil War photographers. Gibson was born in Scotland. In 1860 his name appeared with that of his wife Elizabeth in the Washington D.C. census, and the city directory showed that Mathew Brady employed him. Gibson may have emigrated to America with Alexander Gardner, who was also from Scotland. Gibson's first documented trip into the field was when he accompanied George N. Barnard to the Bull Run battlefield in March 1862. Gibson is perhaps the least recognized of the war's most significant photographers. He worked with Alex Gardner at both Antietam and Gettysburg, but his own greatest legacy was the wide array of photographs he took while on the Virginia peninsula, in particular his landmark photo of the wounded at Savage Station, Virginia.[11] Several years after the war, before a court could rule on his civil suit against business partner, Mathew Brady (he also sued Gardner), Gibson heavily mortgaged Brady's Washington Gallery, left for Kansas with the cash, and was never heard from again.[12]

Collodion (Wet Plate) photography had existed for around fifteen years at the time of the Civil War. Cameras were much larger than they are today. Taking pictures was a slow and complex process. Photographers would often follow armies into battle to get pictures of the battle scene.

  • There is no evidence that any photographers followed troops into battle to secure combat photographs. Scenes on the battlefields were take well after the belligerents were separated by many miles at least, most being taken well behind the lines.

These included both newspaper and Army photographers.

  • Newspapers did not have photographers, they had "specials", artists who would sketch first hand scenes that would later be turned into woodcuts for the papers.

Jacob F. Coonley[edit]

Jacob Frank "Jay" Coonley (1832 - 1915) was originally a landscape painter who early on learned photography from George N. Barnard and managed Edward Anthony's stereoscopic print shop. When war erupted, Coonley began a relationship with Mathew Brady. In 1864 Quartermaster General Montgomery Meigs tasked Coonley with photographic work along the lines of the railroads in US. possession in Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee. During this time, Coonley also produced the Nashville series for Edward Anthony. Around 1889, Coonley found an idyllic life in Nassau, Bahamas with his family, and never left.[13]

A Burial Party, Cold Harbor by John Reekie. April 15, 1865

John Reekie[edit]

John Reekie[14] (1829-?) was another little known Civil War photographer. Scotsman, Reekie was employed by Alexander Gardner. One of his most well-known images, A Burial Party, Cold Harbor, was included with six other of his negatives in "Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War", and depicts African American soldiers gathering remains for reburial at the site of the Battle of Cold Harbor almost a year after the battle. This photograph is notable for being one of relatively few images depicting black soldiers' role in the war.[15] John Reekie was an officer of the St. Andrews Society, a Scottish relief organization in Washington D.C., as was Alexander Gardner.

13 inch mortar "Dictator", in front of Petersburg, Va. Sept. 1, 1864

David Knox[edit]

Information on Alexander Gardner's photographer, David Knox[16] (?-?) is scant. Scotsman, Knox was first employed by Mathew Brady and later by Alexander Gardner. Knox is best known for "13 inch mortar Dictator, in front of Petersburg, Va." Four of Knox's negatives were included in "Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War." David Knox was an officer of the St. Andrews Society, a Scottish relief organization in Washington D.C.

David B. Woodbury[edit]

David B. Woodbury (1839 - 1866) was arguably the best of the artists who stayed with Brady through the war.[17] In March 1862, Mathew Brady sent Woodbury and Edward Whitney out to photograph the 1st Bull Run battlefield, and in May, views of the Peninsula Campaign. In July 1863, Woodbury and Anthony Berger photographed the Gettysburg battlefield for Brady, returning on November 19 to take "pictures of the crowd and Procession" (Nov. 23, 1863 letter to sister Eliza). In the summer of 1864, Woodbury photographed Grant's Headquarters Command for Brady, who had replaced Alexander Gardner as official photographer.[18] Little of Woodbury's prolific work was attributed to him, but rather was ascribed to Brady's Gallery.

William Redish Pywell[edit]

William Pywell (1843 - 1887) worked for both Mathew Brady and later, for Alexander Gardner, and his photographs are an important and integral part of the historic photographic record of the American Civil War. Pywell was busy in the Western Theatre as well as in the East, but is probably best remembered for his early photographs of the slave pens of Alexandria, Va.[19]

Isaac G. and Charles J. Tyson[edit]

Isaac G.(1833 - d?) and Charles J.(1838-1906) Tyson. Though residents of Gettysburg in July of 1863, the Tysons' "Tyson's Excelsior Photographic Gallery" wasn't as yet properly equipped to take photographs in the field, for which there was basically no demand at the time. The Tysons evacuated town, as did most of the residents, prior to the Rebel shelling and occupation on July 1. Soon after Gardner's and Brady's July visits, the Tyson brothers were making their own lucrative stereoviews of the battlefield. On November 19, the brothers would record their historic views of the procession to the dedication of the Soldier's National Cemetery, one of which captured President Lincoln on horseback.[20]

George Stacy[edit]

George Stacy (1831 - 1897) George Stacy was a Civil War, field photographer and later a prolific publisher of stereoviews, not necessisarily his own.[21] It is not known exactly where the Maine native learned his trade. The earliest confirmed Stacy, stereoviews are a series he took of the Prince of Whales' visit to Portland, ME. Oct. 20, 1860, and the renowned Fortress Monroe series in June 1861. An industry census shows that Stacy was still marketing his stereoviews in 1870. By 1880 he had taken up horticulture in Patterson N.J.[22]

Southern photographers[edit]

Many photographs were taken by Southerners, but most were lost to history. According to the Photographic History of the Civil War

The natural disappointment in the South at the end of the war was such that photographers were forced to destroy all negatives, just as owners destroyed all the objects that might serve as souvenirs or relics of the terrible struggle, thinking for the moment at least, that they could not bear the strain of brooding over the tragedy.

Cook stereo half of Ironclads firing at Fort Moultrie Sept 8, 1863

George S. Cook[edit]

The most noted Southern photographer was George Smith Cook (1819-1902). Born in Connecticut, Cook tried, but failed, as a merchant in his home town. He moved to New Orleans and became a painter, but that also proved futile. In 1842, however, he began working with the newly invented daguerreotype. He finally settled in Charleston, South Carolina, where he raised his family.

He is one of the foremost Confederate photographers, thanks to his recording of the gradual destruction of Charleston and Fort Sumter, by enemy action. He even photographed the naval action of ironclads at Fort Sumter September 8, 1863.[23]

  • Cook's extensive collection, mainly cosisting of portraits of notable Southern personalities, was lost on Feb. 17, 1865, when his Columbia, S.C. studio was destroyed during the firestorm that engulfed the capitol city. Oddly, the historic images of USS New Ironsides firing on Fort Moultrie in defense of monitor U.S.S. Weehawken, grounded off Cummings Point, were not marketed until 1880, when Cook's son, George LaGrange Cook, finally offered the historic stereoview for sale.

Cook moved his family to Richmond in 1880, and his older son, George LaGrange Cook, took charge of the studio in Charleston. In Richmond, Cook bought the businesses (and the negatives) of the photographers who were retiring or moving from the city. He thus amassed the most complete photographic collection of the former Confederate capital, held in one location. Cook remained an active photographer for the remainder of his life. His younger son, Huestis Cook, eventually went into business with his father. After his brother George's death on November 27, 1902, Huestis took over the Richmond studio.

  • Note: The famous "exploding shell" photo falsely attributed to Cook is in reality a painting by C.S.A. Lt. John R. Key, based on three half stereos taken by Cook inside Fort Sumter on Sept. 8, 1863. Experts had overlooked the fact that no camera of the time was capable of taking the wide angle depicted.[24]

Osborn & Durbec[edit]

In 1858, daguerreotypist James M. Osborn (?-?) joined forces with Frederick Eugene Durbec (?-?), and were among the war's first photographers. Following Maj. Anderson's surrender of Fort Sumter, James Osborn, on April 17 visited the fort and its surrounds, taking at least 43 stereo images of the battle's aftermath, in what is the largest known group of Confederate images of the war, and which is considered the most comprehensive photographic record of a Civil War engagement ever made.[25] Today, thirty-nine are known to exist. By 1863, the war had brought their Charleston, South Carolina business to an end.[26]

Robert M. Smith[edit]

Confederate Lieutenant Robert M. Smith was captured and imprisoned at Johnson's Island, Ohio. He is unique in that he was able to secretly construct a wet-plate camera using a pine box, pocket knife, tin can, and spyglass lens. Smith acquired chemicals from the prison hospital to use for the photographic process. He used the camera clandestinely to photograph other prisoners at the gable end of the attic of cell block four.[27]

Itinerant Photographers[edit]

Itinerant photographers would receive permissions from the commanding generals to set up shop within the encampments, to make portraits of the soldiers and photographs of the camps. These would often be sent to loved ones as a memento. The photographers would travel by horse and wagon to different locations.


  • The "Sun Tax" on photographs was seen by the U.S. congress as a means to help finance the war. The tax was either 1¢, 2¢, 3¢, or 5¢, depending on the price of the photo (1-10¢, 10-25¢, 25-50¢, 50-$1 respectively). The tax was repealed in 1866.


The results of the efforts of all Civil War photographers can be seen in almost all of the history texts of the conflict. In terms of photography, the American Civil War is the best covered conflict of the 19th century. It presaged the development of the wartime photojournalism of World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.

The number of Civil War photographs that are available contrasts sharply with the scarcity of pictures from subsequent conflicts such as the Russian wars in Central Asia, the Franco-Prussian War, and the various colonial wars before the Boer War.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "CCWP". Center for Civil War Photography, John Richter's 3-D Anaglyph Photographs Exhibit. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  2. ^ {Other pictures from Russell Series include Union Soldiers on the West bank of the Rappahannock River opposite Fredericksburg May 1863; Confederate soldiers in Fredericksburg May 1863 and Remains of a Confederate Battery at Mayre's Heights May 3, 1863}
  3. ^ "Mathew B. Brady (1822–1896)". Keya Morgan. Retrieved November 30, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Brady". Dickinson College, Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 30, 2010. 
  5. ^ [Note this was actually refers to Petersburg Va 1864-see Miller's "Photographic History of the Civil War" Volume 1]
  6. ^ Hagen, Charles. "A Civil War Image Maker's Belated Recognition", The New York Times, July 31, 1992: p. C19.
  7. ^ "Antietam, Maryland. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand: Another View". World Digital Library. 1862-10-03. Retrieved 2013-06-10. 
  8. ^ "George Barnard". National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  9. ^ "Barnard". "Barnard's Photographic views of the Sherman Campaign", 1866. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  10. ^ "James F. Gibson". James Gibson's negatives at the Library of Congress. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  11. ^ Zeller, Bob. "The Blue And Gray In Black And White", 2005: pg. 66.
  12. ^ "Brady's Civil War", Webb Garrison, 2008
  13. ^ "Jacob Coonley". "Cambridge University Library 2003. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  14. ^ 'Officers of the St Andrews Society ', John Reekie (far right) illustrated in D. Mark Katz, Witness to an Era. The Life and Photographs of Alexander Gardner, Viking, New York, 1991, p. 231
  15. ^ Harvey, Eleanor Jones; Smithsonian American Art Museum, N.Y.) Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York (2012). The Civil War and American art. ISBN 9780300187335. 
  16. ^ 'Officers of the St Andrews Society', David Knox (second from right) illustrated in D. Mark Katz, Witness to an Era. The Life and Photographs of Alexander Gardner, Viking, New York, 1991, p. 231
  17. ^ "David Woodbury". "Woodbury negatives at the Library of Congress P&P. Retrieved November 25, 2015. 
  18. ^ Bob Zeller, "Blue and Gray in Black and White", 2005
  19. ^ "Slave Pen". "Slave pen, Alexandria, Va." negative by William R. Pywell, Library of Congress. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  20. ^ William A. Frassanito , "Early Photography at Gettsburg", 1995 pg. 131
  21. ^ "Stacy, George". Library of Congress P&P. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  22. ^ Keith Brady article in "Stereo World", March/April 2015 VOL. 40 No. 5
  23. ^ "George Cook". Library of Congress P&P. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  24. ^ "George Cook". The "exploding shell painting" at the Library of Congress P&P. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  25. ^ "Osborn & Durbec". Library of Congress P&P. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 
  26. ^ Zeller, Bob. "The Blue And Gray In Black And White", 2005: pg. 44-46.
  27. ^ Wes Cowan (August 21, 2006). "Civil War POW Photos; Grace Kelly Automobile; Mystery Motorcycle". History Detectives. Season 4. Episode 9. Transcript (PDF). PBS.  External link in |chapter= (help)

External links[edit]

Mathew Brady[edit]

Alexander Gardner[edit]

George Barnard[edit]

Timothy O'Sullivan[edit]