Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision. Iodopsin, the cone pigment system in chicken retina, is a close analog of the visual purple rhodopsin that is used in night vision. Iodopsin consists of the protein component and a bound chromophore, retinal.
Opsins are Gn-x protein-coupled receptors of the retinylidene protein family. Isomerization of 11-cis-retinal into all-trans-retinal by light induces a conformational change in the protein that activates photopsin and promotes its binding to G protein transducin, which triggers a second messenger cascade.
|Cone type||Name||Range||Peak wavelength|
|S (OPN1SW) - "tritan", "cyanolabe"||β||400–500 nm||420–440 nm|
|M (OPN1MW) - "deutan", "chlorolabe"||γ||450–630 nm||534–545 nm|
|L (OPN1LW) - "protan", "erythrolabe"||ρ||500–700 nm||564–580 nm|
In humans there are 3 different iodopsins (rhodopsin analogs) that contain the protein-pigment complexes photopsin I, II, and III.
The 3 types of iodopsins are called erythrolabe(photopsin I + retinal), chlorolabe(photopsin II + retinal), and cyanolabe(photopsin III + retinal).
These photopsins have absorption maxima for red ["erythr"-red] (photopsin I), green ["chlor"-green] (photopsin II), and bluish-violet light ["cyan"-bluish violet] (photopsin III).
- Rhodopsins, the pigment for monochromatic (scotopic) dark vision.
- Melanopsin, the pigment which is used to control pupil sizes and the sleep/wake cycle
- Visual cycle, the chemistry of phototransduction
- Color blindness
- Wyszecki, Günther; Stiles, W.S. (1982). Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics. ISBN 0-471-02106-7.
- R. W. G. Hunt (2004). The Reproduction of Colour (6th ed.). Chichester UK: Wiley–IS&T Series in Imaging Science and Technology. pp. 11–12. ISBN 0-470-02425-9.
- Rushton, W. A. H. (1 June 1966). "Densitometry of pigments in rods and cones of normal and color defective subjects" (PDF). Investigative Ophthalmology 5 (3): 233–241. PMID 5296487. Retrieved 2006-11-14.
- The Nobel Foundation. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- Rhodopsin and the eye, an excellent summary with pictures.
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