Rana bicolor Boddaert, 1772
Phyllomedusa bicolor, also known as blue-and-yellow frog, bicoloured tree-frog, giant monkey frog, giant leaf frog, or waxy-monkey treefrog, is a hylid frog. It is found in the Amazon basin as well as some surrounding areas.
Males measure 91–103 mm (3.6–4.1 in) and females 111–119 mm (4.4–4.7 in) in snout–vent length. The dorsum is lime green whereas the belly is white to yellow-white or cream. Lower lips, chest and front legs bear sparse white spots with dark frames; these are more dense on the flanks and hind legs. Fingers are transparent brown and have large, green adhesive discs. There is a prominent gland extending from behind each eye over the tympanum. The iris is dark gray.
It is found throughout the Amazon Rain forest of northern Bolivia, western and northern Brazil, southeastern Colombia, eastern Peru, southern and eastern Venezuela, and the Guianas. Occasionally, it is also found in the riparian forest area of the Cerrado, a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil.
Habitat and behaviour
Phyllomedusa bicolor is a nocturnal, arboreal frog. Males call from trees in tropical humid forests. Female and male construct a leaf-nest above forest pools. When the eggs hatch from these nests, the tadpoles fall into the water, where they continue the development into adult frogs. Peak reproduction occurs during the rainy season.
The skin secretion of the frog is known as Vacina do sapo (frog vaccine) and contains the opioid peptides deltorphin, deltorphin I, deltorphin II and dermorphin. The secretion, known as Kambo or Sapo, has seen increasing popularity in cleansing rituals, where it induces intense vomiting. Claims of medicinal effects have not been supported by medical evidence.
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- Leban, V; Kozelk, G; Brvar, M (2016). "The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) venom exposure". Toxicon. 120: 107–109. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.07.007.
- Daly, Max (May 10, 2016). "How Amazonian Tree Frog Poison Became the Latest Treatment for Addiction". Vice. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
- Lavoipierre, Angela (September 6, 2018). "Tree frog poison being used as an alternative medicine". ABC Australia. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
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