Phyllomedusa bicolor

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Phyllomedusa bicolor
Phyllomedusa bicolor01a.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hylidae
Genus: Phyllomedusa
Species: P. bicolor
Binomial name
Phyllomedusa bicolor
(Boddaert, 1772)
Americas Phyllomedusa bicolor.jpg
Synonyms

Rana bicolor Boddaert, 1772
Hyla bicolor (Boddaert, 1772)

Phyllomedusa bicolor, also known as blue-and-yellow frog, bicoloured tree-frog, giant monkey frog,[2] giant leaf frog,[3] or waxy-monkey treefrog,[4] is a hylid frog. It is found in the Amazon basin as well as some surrounding areas.[2]

Description[edit]

Males measure 91–103 mm (3.6–4.1 in) and females 111–119 mm (4.4–4.7 in) in snout–vent length. The dorsum is lime green whereas the belly is white to yellow-white or cream. Lower lips, chest and front legs bear sparse white spots with dark frames; these are more dense on the flanks and hind legs. Fingers are transparent brown and have large, green adhesive discs. There is a prominent gland extending from behind each eye over the tympanum. The iris is dark gray.[4]

Distribution[edit]

It is found throughout the Amazon Rain forest of northern Bolivia, western and northern Brazil, southeastern Colombia, eastern Peru, southern and eastern Venezuela, and the Guianas. Occasionally, it is also found in the riparian forest area of the Cerrado, a vast tropical savanna ecoregion of Brazil.[1]

Habitat and behaviour[edit]

P. bicolor seated.

Phyllomedusa bicolor is a nocturnal, arboreal frog. Males call from trees in tropical humid forests. Female and male construct a leaf-nest above forest pools. When the eggs hatch from these nests, the tadpoles fall into the water, where they continue the development into adult frogs. Peak reproduction occurs during the rainy season.[4]

Conservation[edit]

The IUCN endangered species database lists them in the "Least Concern" category, in view of their current wide distribution and large population.[1]

Medicinal use[edit]

The skin secretion of the frog is known as Vacina do sapo [pt] (frog vaccine) and contains the opioid peptides deltorphin, deltorphin I, deltorphin II and dermorphin.[5][6][7] The secretion, known as Kambo or Sapo, has seen increasing popularity in cleansing rituals, where it induces intense vomiting.[8][9] Claims of medicinal effects have not been supported by medical evidence.[10][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Claudia Azevedo-Ramos; Enrique La Marca (2010). "Phyllomedusa bicolor". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T55841A11378972. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T55841A11378972.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Phyllomedusa bicolor (Boddaert, 1772)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  3. ^ "Phyllomedusa bicolor Giant Leaf Frog". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b c "Phyllomedusa bicolor". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  5. ^ Erspamer V, Melchiorri P, Falconieri-Erspamer G, et al. (July 1989). "Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 86 (13): 5188–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.13.5188. PMC 297583. PMID 2544892.
  6. ^ Melchiorri P, Negri L (1996). "The dermorphin peptide family". General Pharmacology: The Vascular System. 27 (7): 1099–107. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(95)02149-3. PMID 8981054.
  7. ^ Amiche M, Delfour A, Nicolas P (1998). "Opioid peptides from frog skin". EXS. 85: 57–71. doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8837-0_4. PMID 9949868.
  8. ^ Leban, V; Kozelk, G; Brvar, M (2016). "The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) venom exposure". Toxicon. 120: 107–109. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.07.007.
  9. ^ a b Daly, Max (May 10, 2016). "How Amazonian Tree Frog Poison Became the Latest Treatment for Addiction". Vice. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  10. ^ Lavoipierre, Angela (September 6, 2018). "Tree frog poison being used as an alternative medicine". ABC Australia. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2018.

External links[edit]