|Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) leaves and fruit|
About 75-90; see text
Physalis (//, /-/, //, /--/, from φυσαλλίς phusallís "bladder") is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), which grow in warm temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Most of the species, of which 75–90 may exist, are indigenous to the Americas. Cultivated species and weedy annuals have been introduced worldwide. A notable feature is the formation of a large, papery husk derived from the calyx, which partly or fully encloses the fruit. The fruit is small and yellow to orange, similar in size, shape, and structure to a small tomato (hence the name husk tomatoes).
Many Physalis species are called groundcherries. One name for Physalis peruviana is Inca berry; another is Cape gooseberry, not to be confused with gooseberries of the genus Ribes (family Grossulariaceae). Other names used to refer to the fruit are husk cherries, poha berries, and golden berries.
Physalis species are herbaceous plants growing to 0.4 to 3.0 m tall, similar to the common tomato, a plant of the same family, but usually with a stiffer, more upright stem. They can be either annual or perennial. Most require full sun and fairly warm to hot temperatures. Some species are sensitive to frost, but others, such as the Chinese lantern, P. alkekengi, tolerate severe cold when dormant in winter.
Cultivation and uses
These plants grow in most soil types and do very well in poor soils and in pots. They require moisture until fruiting. Plants are susceptible to many of the common tomato diseases and pests, and other pests such as aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, and the false potato beetle (Leptinotarsa juncta) also attack them. Propagation is by seed. Some species are self-incompatible and require pollen from other plants to bear fruit.
Not all Physalis species bear edible fruit. Select species are cultivated for their edible fruit, however; the typical Physalis fruit is similar to a firm tomato in texture, and like strawberries or pineapple in flavor, with a mild acidity. Some species, such as the Cape gooseberry and tomatillo, have been bred into many cultivars with varying flavors, from tart to sweet to savory. Physalis fruit are rich in cryptoxanthin. The fruit can be used like the tomato. Once extracted from its husk, it can be eaten raw and used in salads. Some varieties are added to desserts, used as flavoring, made into fruit preserves, or dried and used like raisins. They contain pectin and can be used in pie filling. Ground cherries are called poha in the Hawaiian language, and poha jam and preserves are traditional desserts made from Physalis plants grown on the Hawaiian Islands.
The Cape gooseberry is native to the Americas, but is common in many subtropical areas. Its use in South Africa near the Cape of Good Hope inspired its common name. Other species of commercial importance include the tomatillo (P. philadelphica). Some nations, such as Colombia, have a significant economic trade in Physalis fruit. Physalis spp. are widely cultivated in India.
In Chinese medicine, Physalis species are used to treat such conditions as abscesses, coughs, fevers, and sore throat. Smooth groundcherry (P. subglabrata) is classified (erroneously) as a hallucinogenic plant, and its cultivation for other than ornamental purposes is outlawed in the US state of Louisiana under State Act 159.
The extinct Dacian language has left few traces, but in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides, a plant called Strychnos alikakabos (Στρύχνος άλικακάβος) is discussed, which was called kykolis (or cycolis) by the Dacians. Some have considered this plant to be P. alkekengi, but the name more likely refers to ashwagandha (Withania somnifera).
As of 2005, about 75 to 90 species were placed in the genus.
- Physalis acutifolia (Miers) Sandw. – sharp-leaved groundcherry, Wright groundcherry
- Physalis alkekengi L. – Chinese lantern, Japanese lantern, bladder-cherry, winter-cherry, hōzuki (Japanese)
- Physalis angulata L. – cut-leaved groundcherry, lance-leaved groundcherry, camapu
- Physalis angustifolia Nutt. – coastal groundcherry
- Physalis arenicola Kearney – cypress-headed groundcherry
- Physalis carpenteri Riddell ex Rydb. – Carpenter's groundcherry
- Physalis caudella Standl. – southwestern groundcherry
- Physalis chenopodifolia
- Physalis cinerascens (Dunal) A.S. Hitchc. – small-flowered groundcherry
- Physalis clarionensis
- Physalis cordata Mill. – heart-leaved groundcherry
- Physalis coztomatl Moc. & Sessé ex Dunal
- Physalis crassifolia Benth. – thick-leaved groundcherry, yellow nightshade groundcherry
- Physalis foetens Poir. – tropical groundcherry
- Physalis grisea (Waterfall) Martínez – strawberry-tomato
- Physalis hederifolia A.Gray – ivy-leaved groundcherry
- Physalis heterophylla Nees – clammy groundcherry
- Physalis hispida (Waterfall) Cronq. – prairie groundcherry
- †Physalis infinemundi Wilf et al. 2017 fossil from the Ypresian of Argentina
- Physalis ixocarpa
- Physalis latiphysa Waterfall – broad-leaved groundcherry
- Physalis longifolia Nutt. – common groundcherry, long-leaved groundcherry
- Physalis longiloba
- Physalis mimulus
- Physalis minima L. – pygmy groundcherry, native gooseberry (Australia)
- Physalis missouriensis Mackenzie & Bush – Missouri groundcherry
- Physalis mollis Nutt. – field groundcherry
- Physalis noronhae
- Physalis peruviana L. – Cape gooseberry, Peruvian groundcherry, Inca berry, uchuva (Colombia), poha
- Physalis philadelphica Lam. (syn. P. ixocarpa) – tomatillo, Mexican groundcherry, jamberry, Mexican tomato, tomate de cáscara, tomate de fresadilla, tomate milpero, tomate verde
- Physalis pruinosa L. – strawberry groundcherry
- Physalis pubescens L. – golden strawberry, Chinese lantern
- Physalis pumila Nutt. – dwarf groundcherry
- Physalis subulata Rydb. – Chihuahuan groundcherry
- Physalis tamayoi
- Physalis turbinata Medik. – thicket groundcherry
- Physalis virginiana Mill. – Virginia groundcherry
- Physalis viscosa L. – grape groundcherry, star-haired groundcherry
- Physalis walteri Nutt. – Walter's groundcherry
Formerly placed here
- Deprea orinocensis (Kunth) Raf. (as P. orinocensis Kunth)
- Leucophysalis grandiflora (Hook.) Rydb. (as P. grandiflora Hook.)
- Quincula lobata (Torr.) Raf. (as P. lobata Torr.)
- Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam.) Baill. (as P. origanifolia Lam.)
- Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (as P. somnifera L.)
- "Genus: Physalis L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-09-01. Archived from the original on 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
- "Physalis | Definition of physalis in English by Oxford Dictionaries".
- Whitson, M.; Manos, P. S. (2005). "Untangling Physalis (Solanaceae) from the physaloids: a two-gene phylogeny of the Physalinae". Systematic Botany. 30 (1): 216–30. doi:10.1600/0363644053661841. JSTOR 25064051. S2CID 86411770.
- Vargas, O.; et al. (2001). "Two new species of Physalis (Solanaceae) endemic to Jalisco, Mexico". Brittonia. 53 (4): 505–10. doi:10.1007/bf02809650. S2CID 11564.
- "Physalis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- Doctor, Vikram (4 March 2013). "Golden berry: Decoding the acid freshness and wild sweet taste of physalis". The Economic Times. Retrieved 6 Sep 2014.
- Angier, Bradford (1974). Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 90. ISBN 0-8117-0616-8. OCLC 799792.
- Gibbons, Euell (1962). Stalking the Wild Asparagus. Chambersburg, Pennsylvania: Alan C. Hood & Company, Inc. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-911469-03-5.
- Duke, J. A.; Ayensu, E. S (1985). Reference Publications, Inc. (ed.). Medicinal Plants of China. ISBN 978-0-917256-20-2. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- Berendes, J. (ed.) Arzneimittellehre in fünf Büchern des Pedanios Dioskurides aus Anazarbos. Stuttgart. 1902. 405-08.
- "GRIN Species Records of Physalis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- Switek, Brian. "Paleo Profile: Tomatillo from the End of the World".
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- "Groundcherries, (cape-gooseberries or poha), raw". Nutrition Facts. Self Nutrition Data.
- Sorting Physalis names