Injury

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This article is about physical injuries to biological organisms. It is not to be confused with Major trauma.
For the legal sense of the term, see Legal injury.
Injury
Xraymachine.JPG
The knee of a person is examined with the help of radiography after an injury.
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 S00-T88
ICD-9-CM 800-999
MeSH D014947

Injury is damage to the body.[1] This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes.[1]

Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.

In 2013 4.8 million people died from injuries up from 4.3 million in 1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport related injuries. In 2013 367,000 children less than five died from injuries down from 766,000 in 1990.[2] Injuries are the cause of 9% of all death and are the sixth leading cause of death in the world.[3][4]

Classification[edit]

The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). Under this system, injuries are classified by

  • mechanism of injury,
  • objects/substances producing injury,
  • place of occurrence,
  • activity when injured,
  • the role of human intent,

and additional modules. These codes allow the identification of distributions of injuries in specific populations and case identification for more detailed research on causes and preventive efforts.[5][6]

The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). Under this system injuries are classified by

  • nature,
  • part of body affected,
  • source and secondary source, and
  • event or exposure.

The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since.[7]

The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries.[8]

By cause[edit]

By modality[edit]

By location[edit]

By activity[edit]

Injury severity score[edit]

The injury severity score (ISS) is a medical score to assess trauma severity.[10][11] It correlates with mortality, morbidity and hospitalization time after trauma. It is used to define the term major trauma. A major trauma (or polytrauma) is defined as the ISS being greater than 15.[11] The AIS Committee of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) designed and improves upon the scale.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Wounds and Injuries: MedlinePlus". Nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-20. 
  2. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385: 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442. 
  3. ^ "The top 10 causes of death". Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  4. ^ Stein DM, Santucci RA (July 2015). "An update on urotrauma". Current opinion in urology 25 (4): 323–30. doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000184. PMID 26049876. 
  5. ^ "International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  6. ^ Robertson, LS (2015) Injury Epidemiology: Fourth Edition. Free online at www.nanlee.net
  7. ^ "Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  8. ^ Rae, K; Orchard, J (May 2007). "The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) version 10". Clin J Sport Med. 17 (3): 201–4. doi:10.1097/jsm.0b013e318059b536. PMID 17513912. 
  9. ^ "Trauma". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  10. ^ Baker, S.P.; B. O'Neill, W. Haddon Jr, W.B. Long (1974). "The Injury Severity Score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care". The Journal of Trauma (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 14 (3): 187–196. doi:10.1097/00005373-197403000-00001. PMID 4814394.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  11. ^ a b Copes, W.S.; H.R. Champion; W.J. Sacco; M.M. Lawnick; S.L. Keast; L.W. Bain (1988). "The Injury Severity Score revisited". The Journal of Trauma (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) 28 (1): 69–77. doi:10.1097/00005373-198801000-00010. PMID 3123707.