Phytoene synthase

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
15-cis-phytoene synthase
EC no.
CAS no.50936-61-3
IntEnzIntEnz view
ExPASyNiceZyme view
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum

Phytoene synthase (EC, prephytoene-diphosphate synthase, 15-cis-phytoene synthase, PSase, geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase) is a transferase enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids. It catalyzes the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene.[1][2][3][4] This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction

2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate 15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate (overall reaction)
(1a) 2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate diphosphate + prephytoene diphosphate
(1b) prephytoene diphosphate 15-cis-phytoene + diphosphate

This enzyme requires Mn2+ for activity. It belongs to squalene/phytoene synthase family of proteins.


  1. ^ Phytoene synthase
  2. ^ Gregonis DE, Rilling HC (March 1974). "The stereochemistry of trans-phytoene synthesis. Some observations on lycopersene as a carotene precursor and a mechanism for the synthesis of cis- and trans-phytoene". Biochemistry. 13 (7): 1538–42. doi:10.1021/bi00704a033. PMID 4819767.
  3. ^ Chamovitz, Daniel; Misawa, Norihiko; Sandmann, Gerhard; Hirschberg, Joseph (27 January 1992). "Molecular cloning and expression in of a cyanobacterial gene coding for phytoene synthase, a carotenoid biosynthesis enzyme". FEBS Letters. 296 (3): 305–310. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)80310-d.
  4. ^ Misawa N, Truesdale MR, Sandmann G, Fraser PD, Bird C, Schuch W, Bramley PM (November 1994). "Expression of a tomato cDNA coding for phytoene synthase in Escherichia coli, phytoene formation in vivo and in vitro, and functional analysis of the various truncated gene products". Journal of Biochemistry. 116 (5): 980–5. PMID 7896759.