Piaggio P.180 Avanti

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P.180 Avanti
Piaggio P-180 Avanti Rennes 2010 (cropped).jpg
Role Executive transport
National origin Italy
Manufacturer Piaggio Aero
Designer Alessandro Mazzoni (it) [1]
First flight 23 September 1986
Introduction 30 September 1990
Status In production
Primary users Italian Air Force
Italian Army
Italian Navy
Avantair; Ended operations in 2013
Produced 1986–present
Number built at least 220[2]
Unit cost
US$7.7 million (Avanti EVO, 2017)[3][4]

The Piaggio P.180 Avanti is an Italian executive transport aircraft with twin-turboprop engines mounted in pusher configuration.[5] It seats up to nine people in a pressurized cabin, and may be flown by one or two pilots. The design is of three-surface configuration, having both a small forward wing and a conventional tailplane as well as its main wing, with the wing spars passing outside of the passenger cabin area.

A Piaggio Avanti San Diego-to-Charleston flight in 2003, piloted by Joe Ritchie with co-pilot Steve Fossett, set National Aeronautic Association and Fédération Aéronautique Internationale transcontinental speed records with an average speed of 475.2 knots (880.1 km/h; 546.9 mph) knots,[6] breaking the previous Los Angeles to New York turboprop record of 395.21 knots set by Chuck Yeager in 1986 in a Piper Cheyenne 400LS. Elapsed time for the Avanti’s coast-to-coast trip was 3:51:52.[7]

Development[edit]

Piaggio P.180 Avanti II empennage and delta fins (only one visible)
Avanti II flight deck
Clean configuration

A 1980s wave of new-generation planes, developed to appeal to Fortune 500 clients, included Piaggio's Avanti and Beech Aircraft Corp.'s very similar Starship.[8][9] Engineering studies for the airplane that would eventually be named Avanti began in 1979 and designs were tested in wind tunnels in Italy and the United States in 1980 and 1981, conducted by Professor Jan Roskam from the University of Kansas (using Wichita State University's wind tunnel and Boeing's transonic wind tunnel in Seattle)[10] along with Professor Gerald Gregorek at Ohio State University (using OSU's 2D pressure wind tunnel).[11][12]

Piaggio's chief engineer, Alessandro Mazzoni,[13] filed in 1982 to patent the Avanti design.[1][14] Beginning in 1983, Gates Learjet partnered with Piaggio to develop a fuselage for the new aircraft (referred to as Gates Piaggio GP-180).[15][16] Learjet's design influence can be seen in the steeply raked windshield and the two large ventral delta fins under the tail.[17] At high angles of attack these delta fins provide a nose-down pitching moment and help to avoid a potential stall,[18][19][20] and they increase stability in flight by damping yaw and Dutch roll.[5]

Gates Learjet's financial problems ended their collaboration in January 1986, but Piaggio continued the project,[17] and the first prototype flew on 23 September 1986.[21] The P.180 Avanti received Italian certification on 7 March 1990[22][23] and American certification was obtained on 2 October 1990.[24][25]

The first 12 fuselages were manufactured in Wichita, Kansas, with H & H Parts and Plessey Midwest, then flown to Italy for final assembly.[22] Avanti Aviation Wichita ran out of money in 1994; the project languished until a group of investors led by Piero Ferrari became involved in 1998. The 100th aircraft was delivered in October 2005 and the 150th in May 2008. Piaggio reported that, as of October 2010, the Avanti and Avanti II fleets had logged over 500,000 flying hours.[26]

An improved Avanti II obtained European and U.S. certification in November 2005. Six months later, 70 planes had been ordered, including 36 by Avantair. Avanti II received type approval for Russia in 2011.[27] The Avanti II featured uprated Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66B turboprop engines and flies about 18 km/h (11 mph) faster, with better fuel economy; and an all-new "glass panel" avionics suite from Rockwell Collins reduced cockpit clutter.[28][29] In addition to heading, attitude and navigation information, flat panel color LCD displays add collision avoidance (TCAS), ground proximity (TAWS) and real-time graphic weather depiction.[30]

The Avanti is marketed as being faster than other turboprops and many midsized jets, with cost efficiency as much as 40 percent better than market-competing jets, as a result of less drag and a lower fuel burn rate.[31][32] Powered by the same Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66 engines as the Beechcraft King Air B200, the Avanti II is 100 knots (190 km/h; 120 mph) faster than that model King Air.[33] Flying magazine judged the Avanti to be the "Fastest Civilian Turboprop Twin" in 2014, saying "Avanti's speed is pretty much on par with Cessna's M2, while providing more space and a lower operating cost."[34]

The first Avanti EVO manufactured at the new $150 million factory at Albenga Airport was delivered in 2016, one year after moving production from its previous Genoa Cristoforo Colombo Airport plant.[35]

Design[edit]

The Avanti's turboprop engines are placed on a mid-set, high aspect ratio wing located just behind the cabin. The three-surface design incorporates both a T-tail and a pair of small, fixed forewings having slight anhedral and landing flaps. On the Avanti II these flaps automatically deploy in concert with the main wing flaps. This reduces the load on the tailplane, even when the flaps are deployed, by reducing the pitch-down moment created by the deployment of the main wing flaps. This in turn allows the size of both the tailplane and the main wing to be reduced.[36][37][38][39] This particular three-lifting-surface configuration was patented in 1982.[1]

The Avanti’s forward wing flaps deploy automatically with the main wing flaps to maintain neutral pitch trim.

The forward wing's angle of incidence is slightly greater than that of the main wing, so that it stalls before the main wing, producing an automatic nose-down effect prior to the onset of main wing stall; its five-degree anhedral (negative dihedral) keeps the stream wash interference clear of the engine inlets, the main wing and the tailplane.[37]

Showing the continuously-varying curve of the fuselage cross-section and forward wing

The cabin cross-section varies continuously along the length of the aircraft; the shape approximates an NACA airfoil section, and the slowly changing curve helps prolong laminar flow on the front of the fuselage. Piaggio claims that the fuselage contributes up to 20% of the Avanti's total lift, with the front and rear wing providing the remaining 80%. Due to the unusual fuselage shape, the mid cabin is considerably wider than the cockpit. The front and rear airfoils are custom sections designed by Dr. Jerry Gregorek[40] of Ohio State University's Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory to achieve a drag-reducing 50% laminar flow at cruise. The company claims the overall design of the P180 Avanti II enables the wing to be 34% smaller than on conventional aircraft.[41]

Cabin

The P180 is said to have good fuel efficiency relative to small turbojets flying in the same speed and altitude range. Flight International stated: "The Avanti has no direct turboprop competitors, its closest jet rivals are the Raytheon Premier I and the Cessna Citation CJ2+ ... Piaggio says low-drag laminar flow is maintained to around 50% of the wing chord, compared with around 20–25% for conventional tractor turboprops where propeller wash disturbs the airflow over the wing... specific air range at high altitude is 3.4km/kg (0.84nm/lb) compared with around 2km/kg (0.49nm/lb) for current jets or 2.7km/kg (0.67nm/lb) for other turboprops."[42] By this estimate, mileage is 70% better per fuel unit than comparable jet aircraft, although this greater efficiency is achieved only at a relatively slow 315 KTAS and FL410.[43] P180 Avanti II Specifications now show slightly lower numbers for specific range of 3.1 km/kg (0.76 nm/lb).

Interior noise is lower than conventional turboprop aircraft, because the propellers and engine exhausts are behind the cabin. Piaggio quotes 68 dBA. However, due to the strongly disturbed flow in which the pusher propellers operate, the exterior noise is higher. The exterior noise level and its higher pitched sound has been shown to be the result primarily of the interaction of the turbine engine exhaust flows and the five-bladed pusher propellers (est. +9 dB).[44] On takeoff, the Avanti has been measured at 81.9 dBA sideline noise level, slightly lower than the Beechcraft King Air at 82.8 dBA. This is below FAA stage 3 noise limits, which set a maximum of 89 EPNdB for takeoff.[45][46] However, the P180 has been the subject of noise complaints at airports, such as Aspen–Pitkin County Airport in Colorado[47] as well as Naples Municipal Airport, Florida, where that airport authority determined it was the noisiest aircraft using the facility.[48] Alan Parker, chairman of the Naples Municipal Airport Authority's technical committee, described the Avanti as "irritating loud" and compared the high pitched sound "to fingernails on a chalkboard".[49]

The Piaggio P.180 Avanti has a sea level, standard day, maximum gross weight takeoff distance of 869 m (2,851 ft) and a landing roll of 872 m (2,861 ft).[50]

Deliveries were at a high of 30 in 2008, but only two in 2013.

In 2014 Piaggio announced development of an updated version, called EVO.[51] It uses new Hartzell composite propellers, with blades of scimitar configuration. Its wings carry new winglets; aerodynamic improvements have been incorporated, and an additional 60-gallon (400 lb) fuel tank option to increase range to 1,770 nautical miles (3,280 kilometres; 2,040 miles).[52][53] The company predicts improved climb performance, 250 nm greater range, and 3% reduction in fuel usage. The revised propeller shape, combined with a lower engine speed, promises a 68% reduction in external noise. Avanti EVO type certification was granted by EASA on 28 November 2014,[54] and by the FAA on 6 July 2015.[55] Although projected purchase price was in the $7.4 million range,[56] by May 2017 the actual price was approximately $7.7 million.[57] The first EVO was delivered in April 2015, with five more to follow the same year.[58]

Variants[edit]

Two Avantis leaving assembly for testing
P.180 Avanti
First production variant.
P180 M
Military version with a combination passenger/freighter configuration for use as a VIP and light utility transport.
P.180 RM
Variant for use in radio calibration.
P.180 AMB
Air ambulance variant.[59]
P.180 APH
Aerial cartography.
P.180 Avanti II
Variant with improved avionics and engines.[23]
EVO
Variant with 400kt TAS and higher useful load.[60]
Multirole Patrol Aircraft (MPA)
Initially called Maritime Patrol Aircraft, MPA is a variant of the Avanti II with a larger wingspan and bigger fuel tanks.[61] As with the EVO propulsion system, MPA uses more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66B engines and Hartzell five-blade scimitar propellers.[62] MPA electronics include the Albatros mission mystem from Saab Group and Pro Line Fusion avionics from Rockwell Collins.[63]
P.1HH HammerHead at Paris Air Show 2013
Piaggio-Selex P.1HH Hammerhead
Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle based on the Avanti II airframe, with an increased wingspan and the ability to carry up to 1,100 pounds (500 kg) of weapons.[64] The P.1HH HammerHead Mission Management System is based on the Selex ES (now Leonardo S.p.A.) skyISTAR solution.[65][66] The vehicle's first flight took place in December 2013 from Trapani–Birgi Italian Air Force base.[67][68][69]
The Italian Air Force signed an agreement with Piaggio Aerospace to buy three Unmanned Aerial System P.1HH HammerHead (six aircraft and three ground control stations) with delivery starting from the early months of 2016.[70][67][68] United Arab Emirates Air Force ordered eight P.1HH aircraft.[71][72] On May 31, 2016 the single P.1HH prototype crashed off the Sicilian coast,[73] delaying flight testing until a second prototype could be completed.[74]

Operators[edit]

Civil[edit]

The Avanti is operated by charter companies and small feeder airlines, and is also used as a business aircraft. The fractional aircraft operator Avantair was Piaggio's largest client, with a fleet of 57 Avanti aircraft,[31] before they went bankrupt and the fleet was liquidated.[75][76]

In May 2017, 220 aircraft were in operation around the world,[2] with 89 being first-generation Avanti, 126 second-generation Avanti II and 6 Avanti EVO models.[77]

Government[edit]

Bulgaria
Canada
Italy
Poland
United Arab Emirates

Specifications (P180 Avanti Evo)[edit]

Planform view of the Avanti, highlighting its unusual design
front view

Data from Aviation Week[94]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Capacity: 7–9
  • Wing area: 16.0 m2 (172 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 3,799 kg (8,375 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 5,488 kg (12,100 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 1,271 kg (2,802 lb)
  • Max Landing weight : 5,216 kg (11,500 lb)
  • Max Zero Fuel weight : 4,445 kg (9,800 lb)
  • Cabin : 17.5 ft long, 5.8 ft high, 6.1 ft wide (3.5 ft floor)
  • Foreplane area: 2.19 m² (23.59 ft²)[37]
  • Horizontal stabilizer area: 3.83 m² (41.27 ft²)[37]
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66B turboprop, 630 kW (850 shp) each ISA+28C Flat Rated

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 741 km/h; 460 mph (400 kn) FL310 high speed cruise
  • Cruise speed: 589 km/h; 366 mph (318 kn) FL410 long range cruise
  • Minimum control speed: 185 km/h; 115 mph (100 kn) Vmca
  • Range: 2,797 km; 1,738 mi (1,510 nmi) 4 passengers, NBAA IFR, 100-nm alternate
  • Ferry range: 2,834 km; 1,761 mi (1,530 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 m (41,000 ft)
  • Time to altitude: 10 min to FL 250
  • Wing loading: 343 kg/m2 (70.3 lb/sq ft)
  • Fuel consumption: 0.220 kg/km (0.779 lb/mi)
  • Power/mass: 4.33 kg/kW (7.12 lb/hp)
  • Takeoff (SL, ISA) : 994 m (3,262 ft)

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era


Comparable aircraft of historic interest

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c US patent 4746081, Mazzoni, Alessandro, "Aircraft having three lift surfaces", published 1982-05-27, issued 1988-05-24, assigned to Industrie Aeronautiche e Rinaldo Piaggio S.p.A. 
  2. ^ a b John Morris (May 22, 2017). "Piaggio Steps Up Its Comeback". ShowNews. Aviation Week Network. 
  3. ^ 2017 Purchase Planning Handbook" p. 91
  4. ^ Griffiths, Ben (17 January 2017). "EVO is Piaggio's response to fast-growth in private aviation". Spear's. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "Fuel Miser". Flying Magazine. 30 December 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  6. ^ "FAI Record ID #7631". FAI portal. Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  7. ^ Harrison, Kirby J. (4 August 2008). "Piaggio gets confirmation of Avanti speed records". AINonline. Aviation International News. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  8. ^ Weiner, Eric (5 June 1989). "Innovative Plane Making Its Debut". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 June 2017. Like the Starship, the Piaggio Avanti features a canard and rear-mounted engines. But the Avanti is made mostly of aluminum, not composites. It weighs thousands of pounds less than the Starship and is about 60 m.p.h. faster. 
  9. ^ Martin, Ed (29 October 1989). "Business Jets Ready For Takeoff". Chicago Tribune. Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Retrieved 19 June 2017. This is the futuristic Piaggio Avanti. It, and a handful of other avant-garde designs like it are leading American business aviation into the 1990s. 
  10. ^ "Dr. Jan Roskam Project Advisor". DARcorp. Design, Analysis and Research Corporation. Retrieved 22 June 2017. Jan Roskam managed the low speed and transonic speed windtunnel programs for the SIAI Marchetti S-211 and Piaggio 180-Avanti. 
  11. ^ Roskam, Jan (2002). Roskam's airplane war stories : an account of the professional life and work of Dr. Jan Roskam, airplane designer and teacher. Lawrence, Kan: DARcorporation. pp. 195–198. ISBN 9781884885570. 
  12. ^ Cozzolino, A. (20 June 2006). "Research Investment & Commercial Success : Piaggio Aero Industries" (PDF). Sustainable Solutions for New Horizons. Fifth Community Aeronautics Days. Vienna: BMVIT. pp. 11–13. Retrieved 22 June 2017. 
  13. ^ "Dr. Alessandro Mazzoni". M3 Aviation Inc. Retrieved 22 June 2017. As Director of Engineering for I.A.M. Rinaldo Piaggio from 1974 to 1991, he designed the P.180 Avanti, and is the US Patent holder (4746081) for the Three Lifting Surface Configuration (3LSC) aircraft. 
  14. ^ US patent D280892, Mazzoni, Alessandro, "Aircraft ornamental design", published 1982-06-10, issued 1985-10-08, assigned to Rinaldo Piaggio S.p.A. 
  15. ^ Kleinfield, N. R. (14 December 1984). "BUSINESS PEOPLE; GATES LEARJET PICKS 2-DIVISION MANAGER". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 June 2017. Mr. Neal… …will also direct and coordinate the company's role in developing the new Gates Piaggio business aircraft, designated the GP-180. 
  16. ^ "Avanti doubts composite benefit" (PDF). Flight International. 12 October 1985. Retrieved 19 June 2017. It is manufactured using thechniques 'unique' to an aircraft of its size, according to Ronald Neal, the manager who heads Gates Learjet's Involvment wwith the sircraft, currently limited to fuselage construction. 
  17. ^ a b Huber, Mark (September 2002). "Piaggio Avanti". Business Jet Traveler. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  18. ^ Gerzanics, Mike (22 January 2002). "Pushing the envelope". Flightglobal. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  19. ^ Hodgkins, Stan (26 May 2011). "Piaggio Avanti II". P1 Magazine. Cambridge. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  20. ^ "The Sexy Avanti P180". Airport Journals. 1 June 2002. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  21. ^ Taylor 1988, p. 163
  22. ^ a b "Italy certificates Avanti". Flight International. 21 March 1990. p. 19. Retrieved 18 June 2017. 
  23. ^ a b "EASA TCDS EASA.A.059 Piaggio P.180" (PDF). 
  24. ^ Taylor 1999, p. 439
  25. ^ De'Pompeis, Roberto; Cinquetti, Paolo; Martini, P.I. Sergio (1 April 1991). "Development and Certification Flight Test on the Piaggio P.180 Avanti Aircraft: A General Overview". SAE Technical Paper. SAE International. doi:10.4271/911003. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
  26. ^ "NBAA: Piaggio embarks on 'new phase' of jet development", Flight global, 19 October 2010, archived from the original on 6 December 2014 
  27. ^ Morrison, Murdo (6 December 2011). "IN FOCUS: Piaggio looks to special missions market with P180 Avanti and new jet". Flightglobal. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  28. ^ George, Fred (October 2010). "Piaggio P180 Avanti II". Aviation Week. p. 40. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Perhaps its greatest asset is being the world’s most eco-friendly, twin-turbine business aircraft. 
  29. ^ Goyer, Robert (19 April 2012). "Piaggio P.180 Avanti II". Flying. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Think of the Avanti II as a jet with props and you’ll be close to the mark… 
  30. ^ Berlin, Jeff (1 March 2008). "Ciao, Avanti". Plane & Pilot. Madavor Media. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  31. ^ a b Fogelson, Jason (18 April 2012). "Piaggio's P180 Avanti II Turboprop Challenges Executive Jets". Forbes. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  32. ^ Reeves, Benjamin (6 April 2012). "Piaggio Aero P180 Avanti II: Too Much Private Plane Or Just Right?". International Business Times. Retrieved 12 June 2017. 
  33. ^ Barnard, Bailey S. (4 April 2014). "Test Flight: Piaggio Aero P.180 Avanti II". Robb Report. Retrieved 17 June 2017. 
  34. ^ Bergqvist, Pia (17 September 2014). "Fastest Airplanes: Top Performers in Their Class". Flying. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  35. ^ "First Avanti EVO Delivered from New Piaggio Plant". Aviation Week. November 1, 2016. 
  36. ^ Garrison, Peter (December 2002), "Three's Company", Flying Magazine 
  37. ^ a b c d "P180 Avanti-Specification and Description". Piaggio. January 2005. 
  38. ^ Aircraft Configuration Study for Experimental 2-Place Aircraft and RPVs, DTIC, March 1990 
  39. ^ Des couacs chez les canards [Quacks in the canards (ducks)] (diagram) (in French), FR, page bottom 
  40. ^ Gregorek, Dr. Gerald (1 September 2007). "A Word From the Doctor"Paid subscription required. Aviation Week. Retrieved 21 June 2017. The Avanti was one of the highlights of my career. The laminar flow airfoils were very clean sheet. I think they were the first of the new breed of laminar flow airfoils that demonstrated high performance at transonic speeds. 
  41. ^ "Efficiency", P.180, Piaggio Aero, archived from the original on 7 May 2006 
  42. ^ Collins, Peter (1 November 2005), "Flight Test: Piaggio Avanti II — Hard to beat", Flight International 
  43. ^ Black, Gary (March 1990), "Aircraft Configuration Study for Experimental 2-Place Aircraft and RPVs", Naval Postgraduate School Thesis 
  44. ^ "Tonal and Broadband Noise Calculations for Aeroacoustic Optimization of a Pusher Propeller", Journal of Aircraft, Mendeley, 47 (3), May–June 2010, retrieved 28 December 2011 
  45. ^ "FAA Stage Classifications", Aircraft Noise Terminology, Palm Beach International Airport, retrieved 13 December 2011 [dead link]
  46. ^ Noise Levels for U.S. Certificated and Foreign Aircraft, Federal Aviation Administration, 15 February 2001, retrieved 16 October 2012 
  47. ^ Urquhart, Janet (9 September 2011). "Aspen airport gets earful about noisy airplane". Aspen Times. Retrieved 12 June 2017. Operation of the P180 has climbed onto lists maintained by the airport, which tracks noise events and noise complaints, though the aircraft is actually quieter, in terms of decibels, than some private jets, according to Paul Dunholter, noise consultant for the airport. It’s the pitch that’s noticeable. 
  48. ^ Miguel-Navarro, Tracy X. (25 April 2010). "Naples airport addressing noise complaints with Avanti aircraft". Naples Daily News. Retrieved 14 December 2011. 
  49. ^ Niles, Russ (13 December 2011). "Naples Targets Piaggio Noise". AVweb. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  50. ^ "P180 Avanti II". Piaggio. Retrieved 28 January 2013. [dead link]
  51. ^ Sarsfield, Kate (7 August 2014), "Hartzell to supply propellers for new Avanti EVO", Flight Global, Reed Business Information, archived from the original on 9 August 2014, retrieved 9 August 2014 
  52. ^ George, Fred (20 May 2014). "Avanti Launches EVO: An Improved Avanti II". Aviation Week. Retrieved 12 June 2017. 
  53. ^ "P180 Avanti EVO". Avanti EVO dedicated site. Piaggio Aerospace. Retrieved 12 June 2017. 
  54. ^ "TCDS EASA.A.059 Issue 10" (PDF). EASA. European Aviation Safety Agency. 23 May 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017. 
  55. ^ "TCDS A59EU Rev 22 Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A." (PDF). Regulatory and Guidance Library. Federal Aviation Administration. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2017. 
  56. ^ Piaggio Says Chinese Like Italian Style, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 November 2014
  57. ^ Grady, Mary (22 May 2017). "New Piaggio Avanti Evo Twin Turboprop Takes Flight". Robb Report. Retrieved 13 June 2017. The new Piaggio planes are flying out of Southern California… 
  58. ^ Reed Business Information Limited. "Piaggio Avanti Evo enters service". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  59. ^ Huettel, Steve (4 July 2010). "Air Ambulance Worldwide helps critically ill patients around the globe". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 15 June 2017. Mark Jones describes his company’s newest ambulance, the Piaggio P180, as 'a turboprop that thinks it’s a jet.' 
  60. ^ "Avanti EVO deliveries begin". AOPA Pilot: 48. March 2015. 
  61. ^ Sweetman, Bill (11 July 2012). "Piaggio, Saab Tackle Ambitious MPA Program". Aviation Week. Retrieved 19 June 2017. 
  62. ^ Bergqvist, Pia (10 November 2015). "Piaggio Rolls Out MPA". Flying. Retrieved 13 June 2017. Italian twin-turboprop modified for military missions. 
  63. ^ Tomkins, Richard (16 November 2016). "New multirole aircraft shown by Piaggio Aerospace". UPI. Retrieved 13 June 2017. Piaggio Aerospace has rolled out a new multi-role aircraft it is developing with a company from the United Arab Emirates. 
  64. ^ Davies, Alex (19 June 2013). "The Italian Air Force Is Buying 10 Of These Strange-Looking Drones". Business Insider. New York. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  65. ^ "Piaggio Aero Industries unveils at the 2013 Paris Air Show – DETAIL – Selex ES". Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  66. ^ Osborne, Tony (18 February 2013). "Piaggio Reveals Unmanned Avanti". Aviation Week. Retrieved 14 June 2017. The Hammerhead will be controlled from mission control stations produced by Selex, with line of sight and beyond line of sight using satellite communications. 
  67. ^ a b Eshel, Tamir (26 February 2015). "Italian Air Force to acquire six HammerHead MALE UAVs". Defense Update. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  68. ^ a b Kington, Tom (26 February 2015). "Italian AF First To Buy HammerHead UAV". USA Today. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  69. ^ "First Flight of the P.1HH HammerHead UAS". YouTube. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  70. ^ "L’Aeronautica "cliente di lancio" del Piaggio P.1HH – Analisi Difesa". analisidifesa.it. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  71. ^ Chong, Jordan (27 February 2017). "Piaggio looks to increase awareness in Australia at Avalon". Australian Aviation. Retrieved 11 June 2017. 
  72. ^ Stevenson, Beth (6 March 2016). "UAE announced as first export customer for Hammerhead UAV". Flightglobal. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  73. ^ Kington, Tom (1 June 2016). "Piaggio Aero Drone Prototype Crashes in Mediterranean". Defense News. Retrieved 14 June 2017. Given that the crashed aircraft was the only version flying, the delivery schedule may suffer while investigators seek the cause of the incident. 
  74. ^ Morrison, Murdo (22 November 2016). "INTERVIEW: Piaggio chief executive Renato Vaghi". Flightglobal. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  75. ^ Avantair, Inc. Reports Fiscal 2012 Third Quarter Financial Results, See "fleet of 57 aircraft" at bottom of page[dead link]
  76. ^ Chad Trautvetter. "Selling Off Avantair, Piece by Piece | Aviation International News". Ainonline.com. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  77. ^ "Avanti EVO now available in MedEvac". FlyCorporate. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017. 
  78. ^ Aboulafia, Richard. Jane's Civil Aircraft, 1996, Harper Collins, p. 197
  79. ^ "RCMP sells sleek plane for half of asking price". CBC News. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  80. ^ a b Taylor 1999, pp. 438–39.
  81. ^ "P.180 unit page", Aeronautica Militare [Air Force] (in Italian), IT: Difesa [dead link]
  82. ^ "Siglato accordo tra AM e Protezione civile", Aeronautica [Air Force] (in Italian), IT: Difesa [dead link]
  83. ^ Flight International 15–21 December 2009, p. 43
  84. ^ "Servizio aereo", Organizzazione centrale [Central organisations] (in Italian), IT: Carabinieri [dead link]
  85. ^ "La flotta aerea", Servizio aeronavale [Aeronaval service] (in Italian), IT: GDF [dead link]
  86. ^ P.180, IT: Guardia costiera [dead link]
  87. ^ Polizia di Stato [State police] (in Italian), IT 
  88. ^ Corpo forestale [Forest Corp] (in Italian), IT [dead link]
  89. ^ Piaggio aero, April 2007 [dead link]
  90. ^ Servizi e attività [Services & activities] (in Italian), IT: Enav [dead link]
  91. ^ "O nas – Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe" [About Us – Polish Medical Air Rescue] (in Polish). Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe. Retrieved 25 April 2016. [dead link]
  92. ^ Peaford, Alan (15 June 2009). "PARIS AIR SHOW: UAE selects Piaggio Avanti for multi-utility role". Flightglobal. Retrieved 15 June 2017. The United Arab Emirates air force has selected the Piaggio P180 Avanti II as part of a fleet expansion programme, which includes two of the business aircraft for use as light multi-utility aircraft. 
  93. ^ Gale, Ivan (15 June 2009). "Air Force purchases two aircraft from Italy's Piaggio Aero". The National. Abu Dhabi. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
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Bibliography
  • "2017 Business Airplanes Purchase Planning Handbook". Business & Commercial Aviation. Penton. May 2017. pp. 72–102. 
  • Taylor, John W.R. (ed.) Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
  • Taylor, Michael J.H. (ed.) Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000 Edition. London: Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.
  • "World Air Forces Directory 2009". Flight International, 15–21 December 2009, pp. 33–53.

External links[edit]