Piano Sonata No. 13 (Beethoven)
Composition and publication
Beethoven was about 30 years old when he wrote the sonata. He had already made a name for himself in Vienna as pianist and composer and was beginning to explore alternatives to the classical-era compositional procedures that he had largely adhered to during the 18th century. The most famous works of his "middle period", often emphasizing heroism, were yet to come.
Beethoven's sketches for the first, second, and final movements survive, but the original autograph copy is lost. The sonata was published separately from its more famous companion, Opus. 27 No. 2 (the so-called "Moonlight" Sonata), but at the same time, by Cappi in Vienna; the first advertisements for the work appeared 3 March 1802. Both Op. 27 sonatas were originally titled Sonata quasi una fantasia.
Quasi una fantasia
Grove Music Online translates the Italian title Sonata quasi una fantasia as "sonata in the manner of a fantasy". While we cannot know precisely why Beethoven used this description for the two Op. 27 sonatas, several explanations are available. In the case of the present work (though not its companion), the entire sonata is played continuously without pauses between movements, in the manner of most fantasias. The movements are not in the usual order for a sonata: the opening movement is a slow movement and the scherzo and slow movement are in inverted order. The first movement is not in sonata form, as is true for most sonatas. As Kenneth Drake has pointed out, the movements are in extreme contrast with each other, a common trait of the sections of a fantasia. Lastly, the appearance of a quotation from one movement within another (here, from the third movement within the fourth) is a form of freedom not ordinarily employed in classical sonatas.
Several of these patterns are mentioned in Lewis Lockwood's discussion of the aesthetics of Beethoven's "quasi una fantasia" works:
The result of the "attacca" principle [i.e. performance of all movements without pause] is the blurring of the concept of each movement as an autonomous whole ... Instead, the "attacca" connections force attention on to the totality of the entire composition, with its transitions from movement to movement, and thus from one sharply defined affect to another. ... This is even more true when, as in [the present sonata], there is also a cyclic return of earlier material later in the sonata, which thus aims to integrate its movements into a unified cycle.— Lockwood 1996, 11
The Op. 27 No. 1 sonata is laid out in four movements:
- Andante – Allegro – Andante in ternary form (ABA); in E-flat major, middle section in C major.
- Allegro molto e vivace in C minor is in a modified Scherzo form.
- Adagio con espressione in A-flat major. is also in ternary form (ABA)
- Allegro vivace in E-flat major is in sonata rondo form (AB'ACAB)
The second movement is a scherzo and is in ternary form (the norm for scherzi) like the first movement. The main theme consists of mostly quarter notes in parallel octaves. When it returns following the trio section, the left hand plays staccato and the notes of the right hand part (still legato) are offset half a beat later. The movement includes a brief coda and concludes abruptly on the chord C major, a Picardy third.
The third movement is slow in tempo and features a lyrical, noble theme, set against an eighth note accompaniment (in a later appearance, 16ths). The movement does not conclude in its tonic key, but instead reaches a final cadenza that leads directly to the finale. The movement is brief and thus might be heard by some listeners as an introduction to the final movement rather than as an independent movement.
The finale is the most extended movement of the work; Charles Rosen notes, "With this movement, Beethoven began an experiment, to which he continued to return and develop through the years, of displacing some of the weight of the work from the opening movement to the finale". The work is in fast tempo and in sonata rondo form. In the coda section, the main theme of the slow movement briefly returns, followed by a brief cadenza. There follows a short final section, marked Presto, based on a tightly compressed version of the main theme.
A typical performance of the work lasts 15 minutes.
- Gordon (2005, 5)
- Gordon (2005, 114)
- Rosen (2002, 156)
- Quasi. Grove Music Online (Oxford Music Online). Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Jones (1999, 55–65)
- Marston (2000, 93)
- Quoted in Sisman (1998, 70)
- Beethoven would return to this procedure in the Fifth Symphony, the piano sonata Opus 101, the cello sonata Opus 102 No. 1 (Marston 2000, 93) and the Ninth Symphony. There are precedents from Haydn; his 31st and 46th symphonies.
- Some later instances of the same procedure include the companion piano sonata Op. 27 No. 2 (Marston 2000, 93), the piano sonatas Op. 101 (Marston 2000, 93), and Opus 111, the cello sonata Op. 102 No. 1 (Marston 2000, 93), and the Eighth Symphony.
- Steward (2005, 114)
- Gordon, Steward (2005) Editorial matter to his edition of the Beethoven piano sonatas, Volume II. Alfred Music Publishing.
- Jones, Timothy (1999) The "Moonlight" and other sonatas, Op. 27 and Op. 31. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Lockwood, Lewis (1996) "Reshaping the genre: Beethoven's piano sonatas from Op. 22 to Op. 28 (1799–1801)". Israeli Studies in Musicology 6: 1–16.
- Marson, Nicholas (2000) "The sense of an ending": goal directedness in Beethoven's music. In Glenn Stanley, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Beethoven. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Rosen, Charles (2002) Beethoven's Piano Sonatas: A Short Companion. New Haven: Yale University press.
- Sisman, Elaine (1998) After the heroic style: "fantasias" and the characteristic sonatas of 1809. In Stanley, Glenn (1998) Beethoven Forum VI. University of Nebraska Press.
- Piano Sonata No. 13: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project, including the first edition.
- A lecture by András Schiff on Beethoven's piano sonata Op. 27, No. 1
- Piano Sonata No. 13 in E-flat major, Op. 27, No.1, Musopen
- European Archive Copyright free LP recording of the Sonata No. 13, Op. 27, No.1 in E-flat major by Hugo Steurer, piano at the European Archive (for non-American viewers only).