Pierre Nord Alexis

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Pierre Nord Alexis
Picture of Pierre Nord Alexis.jpg
17th President of Haiti
In office
21 December 1902 – 2 December 1908
Preceded byTirésias Simon Sam
Succeeded byFrançois C. Antoine Simon
Member of the provisional Government of Haiti
In office
20 May 1902 – 21 December 1902
PresidentPierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
Minister of War and Navy
In office
20 May 1902 – 21 December 1902
PresidentPierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
Preceded byVilbrun Guillaume Sam
Succeeded byCyriaque Célestin
Minister of Interior
In office
23 August 1889 – 29 October 1889
PresidentFlorvil Hyppolite
Preceded byMaximillien Momplaisir
Succeeded bySaint-Martin Dupuy
Personal details
Born(1820-08-02)2 August 1820
Cap-Henry, Haiti
Died1 May 1910(1910-05-01) (aged 89)
Kingston, Jamaica
Spouse(s)Célestina Pierrot
ProfessionMilitary general

Pierre Nord Alexis (2 August 1820 – 1 May 1910) was President of Haiti from 21 December 1902 to 2 December 1908.

Early life[edit]

He was the son of a high-ranking official in the regime of Henri Christophe, and Blézine Georges, Christophe's illegitimate daughter. Alexis joined the army in the 1830s, serving President Jean-Louis Pierrot, his father-in-law, as an aide-de-camp.


In the ensuing years, he had a tumultuous career: he was exiled in 1874 but was allowed to return to Haiti a few years later by President Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal. During the presidency of Lysius Salomon, he was a vocal leader of the opposition, enduring several jail sentences before Salomon was finally ousted in a revolt. The new president, Florvil Hyppolite, gave him an important military position in the north, but when President Tirésias Simon Sam resigned, he joined Anténor Firmin in a march on Port-au-Prince in an effort to seize control of the government.

The new president, however, was his old ally, Boisrond-Canal, who had returned him from exile some twenty years earlier. Canal defused the tension by appointing Alexis Minister of War, driving a wedge between him and Firmin. Troops loyal to Firmin were finally defeated in Port-au-Prince, leaving only two strongholds, Saint-Marc and Gonaïves, opposed to the new government of Canal and Alexis. Alexis took advantage of the situation by negotiating with the United States and declaring himself in support of American interests in the Caribbean. The U.S. responded by imposing a naval blockade on the two centers still loyal to Firmin, paving the way for Alexis to seize control of the government for himself.


At the age of 82, he became President on 21 December 1902 by leading troops loyal to him into the country's Chamber of Deputies. Alexis managed to hold on to power for the next six years, though his regime was plagued by rebellion. During his presidency, he took to justice all statesmen accused of corruption in 1904: " le proces de la consolidation" . All who stole the state's money were judged and condemned. In January 1908, Alexis, already in his eighties, decided to have himself proclaimed President for Life. This reunited the supporters of Firmin, who launched a new revolt against Alexis. While the revolt was crushed, it exacerbated the country's existing economic problems. A famine in the south that same year led to violent food riots and a new rebellion, this time from the south, led by General François Antoine Simon.


Ousted from power on 2 December 1908, Alexis went into exile in Jamaica and later relocated to New Orleans with his family, where he died on 1 May 1910. He is buried in St. Louis Cemetery #2 in New Orleans.


Alexis was married to Princess Marie-Louise-Amelie-Celestina Pierrot, daughter of President Jean-Louis Pierrot (a general and later Prince under Henri I). From this marriage, he had a son who bore the name of Henri Nord Alexis, also known as Henri Alexis. His great-great-grandson Jacques-Edouard Alexis was Prime Minister of Haiti twice: from 1999 to 2001 and from 2006 to 2008.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
President of Haiti
Succeeded by
François C. Antoine Simon