|La Madonna della Pietà|
Our Lady of Piety
|Subject||Jesus and Mary|
|Dimensions||174 cm × 195 cm (68.5 in × 76.8 in)|
|Location||Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City|
|41°54′8″N 12°27′12″E / 41.90222°N 12.45333°E|
|Preceded by||Bacchus (Michelangelo)|
|Followed by||David (Michelangelo)|
The Madonna della Pietà (Italian: [pjeˈta]; 1498–1499) informally known as La Pietà is a Roman Catholic dolorous image of Jesus and Mary at Mount Golgotha representing the "Sixth Sorrow" of the Blessed Virgin Mary and a key work of Italian Renaissance sculpture carved by Michelangelo Buonarroti, now enshrined within Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. It is the first of a number of works of the same subject by the Florentine artist.
The statue was originally commissioned for a Cardinal of France, Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas, a serving French ambassador in Rome. The Carrara marble sculpture was made for the cardinal's funeral monument, but was moved to its current location, the first chapel on the north side after the entrance of the basilica, in the 18th century. It is the only piece Michelangelo ever signed.
The sculpture captures the moment when Jesus, taken down from the cross, is given to his mother Mary. Mary looks younger than Jesus; art historians believe Michelangelo was inspired by a passage in Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy: "O virgin mother, daughter of your Son...your merit so ennobled human nature that its divine Creator did not hesitate to become your creature" (Paradiso, Canto XXXIII). Michelangelo's aesthetic interpretation of the Pietà is unprecedented in Italian sculpture because it balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty with naturalism.
Pope Urban VIII granted the venerated Marian image a Pontifical decree of canonical coronation via his Papal bull "Domina Coronatum Est" signed and notarized on 14 August 1637 and granted to its patronal donor, Lord Ascanio Sforza y Pallavicini and Canon priest of the Vatican Chapter, Monsignor Ugo Ubaldini. The levitating diadem was manufactured by the Italian artisan, Fantino Taglietti, who charged 564 Italian scudo coins at the time. The official rite of coronation was executed on 31 August 1637. The cherubic angels were added in 1713 by his descendant, later relocated to the "Chapel of the Holy Choir" within the basilica in 1749.
The image was vandalized on Pentecost Sunday of 1972 by a mentally disturbed man who infiltrated the unsecured altar at the time.
Description, theories and interpretations
The structure is pyramidal, and the vertex coincides with Mary's head. The statue widens progressively down the drapery of Mary's dress, to the base, the rock of Golgotha. The figures are quite out of proportion, owing to the difficulty of depicting a fully-grown man cradled full-length in a woman's lap. Much of Mary's body is concealed by her monumental drapery, and the relationship of the figures appears quite natural. Michelangelo's interpretation of the Pietà was far different from those previously created by other artists, as he sculpted a young and beautiful Mary rather than a naturally older woman (aged 50+) that should be commensurate with the natural age of her son, Jesus (aged 33).
The marks of the Crucifixion are limited to very small nail marks and an indication of the wound in Jesus' side. Accordingly, Christ's face does not reveal signs of the Passion.[better source needed] According to another interpretation, when Michelangelo set out to create his Pietà, he wanted to create a work he described as "the heart's image".
Two drilled holes are located at the top head of the Virgin Mary, which once supported the bar holding two levitating angels, while another hole is located at the tophead of the Christ image.
The Pubescence of Mary
|Michelangelo's Pietà, Smarthistory|
Mary is represented as being very young for the mother of an approximately 33-year-old son, which is not uncommon in depictions of the Passion of Christ at the time. Various explanations have been suggested for this. One is that her youth symbolizes her incorruptible purity, as Michelangelo himself said to his biographer, the fellow compatriot and Roman sculptor Ascanio Condivi:
"Do you not know that chaste women stay fresh much more than those who are not chaste? How much more in the case of the Virgin, who had never experienced the least lascivious desire that might change her body?"
Another theory suggests that Michelangelo's treatment of the subject was influenced by his passion for Dante's Divine Comedy: so well-acquainted was he with the work that when he went to Bologna, he paid for hospitality by reciting verses from it. In "il Paradiso" (Cantica # 33 of the poem), Saint Bernard of Clairvaux in a prayer for the Virgin Mary, says: "Vergine madre, figlia del tuo figlio" ("Virgin mother, daughter of your son"). This is in accordance with the mystical doctrine of the Holy Trinity representing the following archetypes:
- Mary is the Daughter of Triune God the Father
- Mary is also his Mother as she bore the incarnated Christ in flesh
- Mary is also the designated wife and Spouse of the Holy Spirit.
Following completion, the Pietà's first home was the Chapel of Saint Petronilla, a Roman mausoleum near the south transept of Saint Peter's, which the Cardinal chose as his funerary chapel. The chapel was later demolished by Donato Bramante during his rebuilding of the basilica.
According to Giorgio Vasari, shortly after the installation of his Pietà, Michelangelo overheard someone remark (or asked visitors about the sculptor) that it was the work of another sculptor, Cristoforo Solari, whereupon Michelangelo signed the sculpture. Michelangelo carved the words on the sash running across Mary's chest.
MICHÆLANGELVS BONAROTVS FLORENTINVS FACIEBAT
(English: "Michelangelo Buonarroti, the Florentine was making this")
The signature echoes one used by the ancient Greek artists Apelles and Polykleitos. It was the only work he ever signed. Vasari also reports the anecdote that Michelangelo later regretted his outburst of pride and swore never to sign another work of his hands.
Fifty years later, Vasari declared the following regarding the Pietà:
"Never think, a rare sculptor or craftsman, to be able to add design or grace, nor with difficulty never being able to finesse, cleanliness and to pierce the marble as much with art, as Michelangelo did there, because you can see in it all the value and power of art."
In 1964, the Pietà was lent by the Vatican to the 1964–1965 New York World's Fair to be installed in the Vatican pavilion. The former Archbishop of New York, Cardinal Francis Spellman formally requested the statue from Pope John XXIII, appointed Edward M. Kinney, Director of Purchasing and Shipping of Catholic Relief Services – USCC, to head up the Vatican Transport Teams. The statue was shipped in a wooden crate 2.5 inches (6.4 cm) thick with an 8-inch (20 cm) base, secured to the deck of the liner Cristoforo Colombo; in case of an accident, the crate contained cushioning so thick that it would float in water, and had an emergency locator beacon as well as a marker buoy attached.
At the fair, people stood in line for hours to catch a glimpse from a conveyor belt moving past the sculpture. It was returned to the Vatican afterwards.
Subsequent to its carving the Pietà sustained much damage. Four fingers on Mary's left hand, broken during a move, were professionally restored in 1736 by the Roman sculptor Giuseppe Lirioni (1690—1746). Modern scholars today are divided as to whether the restorer took artistic liberties to make the hand gestures more "rhetorical".
The most substantial damage occurred on 21 May 1972 (Pentecost Sunday), when a mentally disturbed geologist, the Hungarian-born Australian Laszlo Toth, walked into the chapel and attacked the sculpture with a geologist's hammer while shouting, "I am Jesus Christ; I have risen from the dead!" With 15 blows he removed Mary's arm at the elbow, knocked off a chunk of her nose, and chipped one of her eyelids.
An American national, Bob Cassilly from Saint Louis, Missouri was one of the first people to remove Toth from the Pietà. He recalled the following events:
"I leaped up and grabbed the guy by the beard. We both fell into the crowd of screaming Italians. It was something of a scene."
Onlookers took many of the pieces of marble that flew off. Later, some pieces were returned, but many were not, including Mary's nose, which had to be reconstructed from a block cut out of her back.
After the attack, the work was painstakingly restored and returned to its place within the basilica, just to the right of the entrance, between the holy door and the altar of Saint Sebastian, and is now protected by a bulletproof acrylic glass panel.
- Asteroid 274472 Pietà
- Replicas of Michelangelo's Pietà
- List of statues of Jesus
- List of works by Michelangelo
- List of Vatican City-related articles
- ^ "The History · The Vatican Pietà · Fordham Art History". michelangelo.ace.fordham.edu. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
- ^ Michelangelo, la Pietà, Skira, 1997, Antonio Paolucci
- ^ "Michelangelo's Pieta. The sculptural masterpiece of the 15th century". www.romeandyou.org. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
- ^ Urbanus VIII, Papam. "Domina Coronatum Est", signed and notarized on 14 August 1637. Vatican Secret Archives.
- ^ "Everything you need to know about Michelangelo Buonarroti's Pietà". Official tourist service for Saint Peter's Basilica. 2017-04-14. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
- ^ "Pietà by Michelangelo St. Peter in Vatican Rome". RomaViva.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
- ^ McNeese, Tim (2005). Michelangelo: Painter, Sculptor, and Architect. pp. 43. ISBN 9780791086278.
- ^ Pope-Hennessy, John (1970). An Introduction to Italian Sculpture: Italian High Renaissance and Baroque sculpture (3 ed.). Phaidon. p. 304.
- ^ William E. Wallace, 1995 Life and Early Works (Michelangelo: Selected Scholarship in English) ISBN 0-8153-1823-5 p. 233
- ^ "The Divine Michelangelo – overview of Michelangelo's major artworks". BBC. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
- ^ Aileen June Wang (2004). "Michelangelo's Signature". The Sixteenth Century Journal. 35 (2): 447–473. doi:10.2307/20476944. JSTOR 20476944.
- ^ The Saga of a Statue, Edward M. Kinney, 1989
- ^ "Michelangelo's Pieta arrives in New York". Globe and Mail. Toronto. 1964-04-14. p. 13.
- ^ "1964 New York World's Fair 1965 – Attractions – Vatican". New York World's Fair 1964/1965. p. 4. Retrieved 2014-05-18.
- ^ "Time Essay: Can Italy be Saved from Itself?". Time Magazine U.S. Time Inc. June 5, 1972. Archived from the original on October 22, 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- ^ O'neill, Anne-arie. "Creature Features". People Magazine. People Magazine. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
- ^ "Vatican marks anniversary of 1972 attack on Michelangelo's Pieta". Reuters. 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2019-09-03.
- Pope-Hennessy, John (1996). Italian High Renaissance and Baroque Sculpture. London: Phaidon
- Hibbard, Howard. 1974. Michelangelo. New York: Harper & Row.
- Matthew 13:55–56 Passage Lookup – New International Version BibleGateway.com
- Wallace, William E. (2009). Michelangelo; the Artist, the Man, and his Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521111994
- Media related to Pietà in Saint Peter's Basilica at Wikimedia Commons
- 10 Facts That You Don't Know About Michelangelo's Pietà
- Robert Hupka's Pietà Picture gallery
- Models of wax and clay used by Michelangelo in making his sculpture and paintings