Pieter van den Broecke
Pieter van den Broecke (25 February 1585, Antwerp - 1 December 1640, Strait of Malacca) was a Dutch cloth merchant in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), and one of the first Dutchmen to taste coffee. He also went to Angola three times. He was one of the first Europeans to describe societies in West and Central Africa and in detail trade strategies along the African coast.
His parents, Pieter van den Broecke Sr and Maiken de Morimont, lived in Antwerp but had to flee to Alkmaar due to Calvinist sympathies.[clarification needed] The family lived in Hamburg for a while and left around 1597 for Amsterdam. At the time the VOC began to develop, the younger Pieter joined it as a tradesman and climbed the career ladder. He became chief-tradesman and admiral.
In 1611 he brought in a cargo of 65,000 pounds of ivory to Amsterdam from a captured Portuguese ship. In 1614 he visited Mocha and drank "something hot and black, a coffee".,, obtaining some of the closely guarded arabica coffee bushes in 1616 and taking them back to Amsterdam, where they began to thrive in the Amsterdam Botanical Garden. He was made the VOC's manager in Dutch Suratte. He described the Ethiopian slave Malik Ambar. From 1616 the establishment there blossomed, with new minor establishments being set up in the hinterland., though in 1617 the Duyfken, under his command, was wrecked on the Surat coast.
He operated in Maritime Southeast Asia beside Jan Pieterszoon Coen and was present at the battle of Jakarta in 1619. Pieter van den Broecke took over from Coen as head of the Banda Islands. The islands were held to be important to trade due to their superior cloves and nutmeg, and so the Dutch were at that time enforcing a trade monopoly on the unwilling local population through drastic measures. So many inhabitants were killed on Banda that the island had to be deliberately repopulated.
On his retirement he was honoured with a gold chain, which he wears in the portrait by his friend Frans Hals (now hanging in Kenwood House). His son was a perkenier (plantation owner) on the Banda Islands. Descendants of the Van den Broecke family continue to live on Banda.
- "De VOCsite : handelsposten; Mocca". Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "La Fleur, J.D., ed. Pieter Van Den Broecke's Journal of Voyages to Cape Verde, Guinea and Angola, 1605-1612". Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "DBNL . J.G. Frederiks en F. Jos. van den Branden, Biographisch woordenboek der Noord- en Zuidnederlandsche letterkunde". Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "Pieter van den Broecke's Journal of Voyages to Cape Verde, Guinea and Angola (1605-1612). Edited by JAMES D. LA FLEUR. 2000. pp. xv + 139. 1 colour plate, 1 illustration, 7 maps. ISBN 0-904180-68-9". Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "De VOCsite : handelsposten; Suratte". Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "VOC bibliography". Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "Een blik op het verleden - RADIO NEDERLAND WERELDOMROEP - NIEUWS" (in Dutch). Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "The City Museum". Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- The Jakarta Post
De Geschiedenis van de VOC by Femme Gaastra, Walburg Press, 2002
Works and sources
- Pieter van den Broecke: Korte historiael ende Journaelsche aenteyckeninghe, van al’t geen merck-waerdigh voorgevallen is, in de langhdurige Reysen, soo nae Cabo Verde, Angola [etc.] als insonderheyd van Oost-Indien, Hans Passchiers van Wesbusch, Haerlem (Haarlem) 1634
- Pieter van den Broecke, Klaas Ratelband: Reizen naar West-Afrika van Pieter van den Broecke, 1605–1614, Nijhoff, ’s-Gravenhage 1950.
- Pieter van den Broecke, Willem Philippus Coolhaas: Pieter van den Broecke in Azië, Nijhoff, ’s-Gravenhage 1962–1963.
- Pieter van den Broecke: Station Azoren, Boer, Bussum 1970
- Pieter van den Broecke, J. D. La Fleur: Pieter van den Broecke's journal of voyages to Cape Verde, Guinea and Angola (1605–1612), Hakluyt Society, London 2000.