Jump to content

Pigeon pea

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pigeon pea
Botanical illustration of the morphological details of a C. cajan specimen.
Botanical image depicting the foliage characteristics and differing pod and flower phenotypes.
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Genus: Cajanus
C. cajan
Binomial name
Cajanus cajan
(L.) Huth

The pigeon pea[1] (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial legume from the family Fabaceae native to the Eastern Hemisphere.[2] The pigeon pea is widely cultivated in tropical and semitropical regions around the world, being commonly consumed in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.[3]: 5941 

Etymology and other names

Botanical inscription of C. cajan from Hendrik van Rheede transcribed in Devanagari, Malayalam, Arabic and the Latin alphabet from "Hortus Malabaricus" (1686).[4]

Scientific epithet


The scientific name for the genus Cajanus and the species cajan derive from the Malay word katjang (modern spelling: kacang) meaning legume in reference to the bean of the plant.[5]

Common English names


In English they are commonly referred to as pigeon pea which originates from the historical utilization of the pulse as pigeon fodder in Barbados.[6][7] The term Congo pea and Angola pea developed due to the presence of its cultivation in Africa and the association of its utilization with those of African descent.[8][9] The names no-eye pea and red gram both refer to the characteristics of the seed, with no-eye pea in reference to the lack of a hilum blotch on most varieties, unlike the black-eyed pea, and red gram in reference to the red color of most Indian varieties and gram simply referring to the plant being a legume.[10]





In Benin the pigeon pea is locally known as klouékoun in Fon, otinin in Ede and eklui in Adja.[11] In Cape Verde they are called Fixon Kongu in Cape Verdean creole.[12] In Comoros and Mauritius they are known as embrevade or ambrebdade in Comorian[13] and Morisyen, respectively, in return originating from the Malagasy term for the plant amberivatry.[14] In Ghana they are known as aduwa or adowa in Dagbani.[15][16] In Kenya and Tanzania they are known as mbaazi in Swahili.[17] In Malawi they are called nandolo in Chichewa.[18] In Nigeria pigeon peas are called fiofio or mgbụmgbụ in Igbo,[19][20] waken-masar "Egyptian bean"[21] or waken-turawa "foreigner bean"[22] in Hausa,[23] and otinli in Yoruba.[24] In Sudan they are known as adaseya, adasy and adasia.[25][26]


Pigeon peas displayed next to a ruler from the Ereke market in Buton Island, Indonesia

In India the plant is known by various different names such as

  • Assamese: ৰহৰ মাহ (rohor mah), মিৰি মাহ (miri-mah)
  • Bengali: অড়হর (arahar)
  • Gujarati: તુવેર (tuver)
  • Hindi: अरहर (arhar), तुवर (tuvar)
  • Kannada: ತೊಗರಿ ಬೆಳೆ (togari bele), ತೊಗರಿ ಕಾಳು (togari kalu)
  • Konkani: तोरी (tori)
  • Malayalam: ആഢകി (adhaki), തുവര (tuvara)
  • Manipuri: মাইৰোংবী (mairongbi)
  • Marathi: तूर (tur)
  • Nepali: रहर (rahar)
  • Oriya: ହରଡ଼ (harada), କାକ୍ଷୀ (kakhyi), ତୁବର (tubara)
  • Punjabi: ਦਿੰਗੇਰ (dinger)
  • Tamil: ஆடகி (adhaki), இருப்புலி (iruppuli), காய்ச்சி (kaycci) and துவரை (tuvarai)
  • Telugu: ఆఢకి (adhaki), కంది (kandi), తొగరి (togari), తువరము (tuvaramu)
  • Tibetan: tu ba ri
  • Urdu: ارهر (arhar), توأر (tuar).[27][28]

In Persian,it is known as شاخول (shakhul) and is popular in dishes. In the Philippines they are known as Kadios in Filipino and Kadyos in Tagalog.[29][30]

The Americas


In Latin America,[31] they are known as guandul or gandul in Spanish, and feijão andu or gandu in Portuguese all of which derive from Kikongo wandu or from Kimbundu oanda; both names referring to the same plant.[32][33][34][35]

In the Anglophone regions of the Caribbean, like Jamaica,[36] they are known as Gungo peas, coming from the more archaic English name for the plant congo pea, given to the plant because of its popularity and relation to Sub-Saharan Africa.[37][38]

In Francophone regions of the Caribbean they are known as pois d' angole,[39] pwa di bwa in Antillean creole[40] and pwa kongo in Haitian creole.[41]

In Suriname they are known as wandoe[42] or gele pesi,[43] the former of which is derived from the same source as its Spanish and Portuguese counterparts, the latter of which literally translates to 'yellow pea' from Dutch and Sranan Tongo.



In Hawaii they are known as pi pokoliko 'Puerto Rican pea' or pi nunu 'pigeon pea' in the Hawaiian language.[44]

History and origin

Pigeon pea flowers
Pollen grains of Pigeon pea



The closest relatives to the cultivated pigeon pea are Cajanus cajanifolia, Cajanus scarabaeoides and Cajanus kerstingii, native to India and the latter West Africa respectively.[45][46][47] Much debate exist over the geographical origin of the species, with some groups claiming origin from the Nile river and Western Africa, and the other Indian origin.[48] The two epicenters of genetic diversity exist in both Africa and India, but India is considered to be its primary center of origin with West Africa being considered a second major center of origin.[49]



By at least 2,800 BCE in peninsular India,[50] where its presumptive closest wild relatives Cajanus cajanifolia occurs in tropical deciduous woodlands, its cultivation has been documented.[51] Archaeological finds of pigeon pea cultivation dating to about 14th century BC have also been found at the Neolithic site of Sanganakallu in Bellary and its border area Tuljapur (where the cultivation of African domesticated plants like pearl millet, finger millet, and Lablab have also been uncovered),[52] as well as in Gopalpur and other South Indian states.[53]

From India it may have made its way to North-East Africa via Trans-Oceanic Bronze Age trade that allowed cross-cultural exchange of resources and agricultural products. [54] The earliest evidence of pigeon peas in Africa was found in Ancient Egypt with the presence of seeds in Egyptian tombs dating back to around 2,200 BCE. [55] From eastern Africa, cultivation spread further west and south through the continent, where by means of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, it reached the Americas around the 17th century.[38]

Pigeon peas were introduced to Hawaii in 1824 by James Macrae with a few specimens becoming naturalized on the islands, but they wouldn't gain much popularity until later.[56] By the early 20th century Filipinos and Puerto Ricans began to emigrate from the American Philippines and Puerto Rico to Hawaii to work in sugarcane plantations in 1906 and 1901, respectively.[57][58][59] Pigeon peas are said to have been popularized on the island by the Puerto Rican community where by the First World War their cultivation began, to expand on the island where they are still cultivated and consumed by locals.[60]


Pigeon peas, immature, raw
Pigeon peas in Trinidad and Tobago
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy569 kJ (136 kcal)
23.88 g
Sugars3 g
Dietary fiber5.1 g
1.64 g
7.2 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.4 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.17 mg
Niacin (B3)
2.2 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.68 mg
Vitamin B6
0.068 mg
Folate (B9)
173 μg
45.8 mg
Vitamin C
39 mg
Vitamin E
0.39 mg
Vitamin K
24 μg
42 mg
1.6 mg
68 mg
0.574 mg
127 mg
552 mg
5 mg
1.04 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
Values for Choline, Vit. E/K available
Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[61] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[62]
Pigeon peas, mature, raw
Seeds of the pigeon pea
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,435 kJ (343 kcal)
62.78 g
Dietary fiber15 g
1.49 g
21.7 g
Tryptophan212 mg
Threonine767 mg
Isoleucine785 mg
Leucine1549 mg
Lysine1521 mg
Methionine243 mg
Cystine250 mg
Phenylalanine1858 mg
Tyrosine538 mg
Valine937 mg
Arginine1299 mg
Histidine774 mg
Alanine972 mg
Aspartic acid2146 mg
Glutamic acid5031 mg
Glycine802 mg
Proline955 mg
Serine1028 mg
Hydroxyproline0 mg
Thiamine (B1)
0.643 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.187 mg
Niacin (B3)
2.965 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
1.266 mg
Vitamin B6
0.283 mg
Folate (B9)
456 μg
130 mg
5.23 mg
183 mg
1.791 mg
367 mg
1392 mg
17 mg
2.76 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
Values for Choline, Vit. E/K unavailable
Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[61] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[62]

Pigeon peas contain high levels of protein and the important amino acids methionine, lysine, and tryptophan.[63]

The following table indicates completeness of nutritional profile of various amino acids within mature seeds of pigeon pea.

Essential Amino Acid Available mg/g of Protein Min. Required mg/g of Protein
Tryptophan 9.76 7
Threonine 32.34 27
Isoleucine 36.17 25
Leucine 71.3 55
Lysine 70.09 51
Methionine+Cystine 22.7 25
Phenylalanine+Tyrosine 110.4 47
Valine 43.1 32
Histidine 35.66 18

Methionine + Cystine combination is the only limiting amino acid combination in pigeon pea. In contrast to the mature seeds, the immature seeds are generally lower in all nutritional values, however they contain a significant amount of vitamin C (39 mg per 100 g serving) and have a slightly higher fat content. Research has shown that the protein content of the immature seeds is of a higher quality.[64]


Harvested pigeon peas from Cape Verde

Pigeon peas can be of a perennial variety, in which the crop can last three to five years (although the seed yield drops considerably after the first two years), or an annual variety more suitable for seed production.[69]

Global production

Naturalized pigeon peas growing on Cha das Caldeiras on Fogo island in Cape Verde

World production of pigeon peas is estimated at 4.49 million tons.[70] About 63% of this production comes from India.[71] The total number of hectares grown to pigeon pea is estimated at 5.4 million.[70] India accounts for 72% of the area grown to pigeon pea or 3.9 million hectares. Africa is the secondary centre of diversity and at present it contributes about 21% of global production with 1.05 million tons. Malawi, Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique and Uganda are the major producers in Africa.[72]

The pigeon pea is an important legume crop of rainfed agriculture in the semiarid tropics. The Indian subcontinent, Africa and Central America, in that order, are the world's three main pigeon pea-producing regions. Pigeon peas are cultivated in more than 25 tropical and subtropical countries, either as a sole crop or intermixed with cereals, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), or maize (Zea mays), or with other legumes, such as peanuts (Arachis hypogea). Being a legume capable of symbiosis with Rhizobia, the bacteria associated with the pigeon pea enrich soils through symbiotic nitrogen fixation.[73]

The crop is cultivated on marginal land by resource-poor farmers, who commonly grow traditional medium- and long-duration (5–11 months) landraces. Short-duration pigeon peas (3–4 months) suitable for multiple cropping have recently been developed. Traditionally, the use of such input as fertilizers, weeding, irrigation, and pesticides is minimal, so present yield levels are low (average = 700 kilograms per hectare (620 lb/acre)). Greater attention is now being given to managing the crop because it is in high demand at remunerative prices.

Pigeon peas are very drought-resistant and can be grown in areas with less than 650 mm annual rainfall. With the maize crop failing three out of five years in drought-prone areas of Kenya, a consortium led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) aimed to promote the pigeon pea as a drought-resistant, nutritious alternative crop.[74]



John Spence, a botanist and politician from Trinidad and Tobago, developed several varieties of dwarf pigeon peas which can be harvested by machine, instead of by hand.[75]

Genome sequence


The pigeon pea is the first seed legume plant to have its complete genome sequenced. The sequencing was first accomplished by a group of 31 Indian scientists from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research. It was then followed by a global research partnership, the International Initiative for Pigeon pea Genomics (IIPG), led by ICRISAT with partners such as BGI–Shenzhen (China), US research laboratories like University of Georgia, University of California-Davis, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and National Centre for Genome Resources, European research institutes like the National University of Ireland Galway. It also received support from the CGIAR Generation Challenge Program, US National Science Foundation and in-kind contribution from the collaborating research institutes.[76][77] It is the first time that a CGIAR-supported research center such as ICRISAT led the genome sequencing of a food crop. There was a controversy over this as CGIAR did not partner with a national team of scientists and broke away from the Indo American Knowledge Initiative to start their own sequencing in parallel.[78]

The 616 mature microRNAs and 3919 long non-codingRNAs sequences were identified in the genome of pigeon pea.[79]


Kenyans shelling pigeon peas

Various methodologies exist in order to remove the pulse from its shell. In earlier days hand pounding was common. Several traditional methods are used that can be broadly classified under two categories: the wet method and the dry method. The Wet method Involves water soaking, sun drying and dehulling. The Dry method Involves oil/water application, drying in the sun, and dehulling. Depending on the magnitude of operation, large-scale commercial dehulling of large quantities of pigeon pea into its deskinned, split version, known as toor dal in Hindi, is done in mechanically operated mills.[80][81]



In cuisine


Pigeon peas are both a food crop (dried peas, flour, or green vegetable peas) and a forage/cover crop. In combination with cereals, pigeon peas make a well-balanced meal and hence are favored by nutritionists as an essential ingredient for balanced diets. The dried peas may be sprouted briefly, then cooked, for a flavor different from the green or dried peas. Sprouting also enhances the digestibility of dried pigeon peas via the reduction of indigestible sugars that would otherwise remain in the cooked dried peas.[82]


A bowl of Cape Verdean fixon Kongu

In Cape Verde they make a soup with the dried pigeon peas called feijão Congo, after its own name, made with dried pigeon peas in a similar manner to Brazilian feijoada.[83]

In Kenya and throughout the Swahili-speaking region of East Africa, pigeon peas are utilized in dishes such as mbaazi na mahamri, that is usually served for breakfast.[84][85]

In the Enugu state of Nigeria, and igbo dish called Ẹchịcha or Achịcha is made with palm oil, cocoyam, and seasoning.[86] It is also similar to other dishes from the state such as ayarya ji and fio-fio.[87][88][89]

In Ethiopia, the pods, the young shoots and leaves, are cooked and eaten.[90]


Dal/pappu and rice, the twice-daily staple meal for most people in India and the Indian subcontinent

In India, it is one of the most popular pulses, being an important source of protein in a mostly vegetarian diet. It is the primary accompaniment to rice or roti and has the status of staple food throughout the length and breadth of India. In regions where it grows, fresh young pods are eaten as a vegetable in dishes such as sambar.

In the Western Visayas region of the Philippines, pigeon peas are the main ingredient of a very popular dish called "KBL" - an acronym for "Kadyos" (pigeon pea), "Baboy" (pork), and "Langka" (jackfruit). It is a savory soup with rich flavors coming from the pigeon peas, smoked pork preferably the legs or tail, and souring agent called batuan. Raw jackfruit meat is chopped and boiled to soft consistency, and serves as an extender. The violet color of the soup comes from the pigment of the variety commonly grown in the region.[91]

The Americas


In the Caribbean coast of Colombia, such as the Atlántico department of Colombia, the sopa de guandú con carne salada (or simply "gandules") is made with pigeon peas, yam, plantain, yuca, and spices.[92] During the week of Semana santa a sweet is made out of pigeon peas called dulce de guandules which is made by mashed and sweetened pigeon peas with origins in the maroon community of San Basilio de Palenque.[93][94][95]

In the Dominican Republic, a dish made of rice and green pigeon peas called moro de guandules is a traditional holiday food. It is also consumed as guandules guisados, which is a savoury stew with coconut and squash served with white rice. A variety of sancocho is also made based on green pigeon peas that includes poultry, pork, beef, yams, yucca, squash, plantain and others. Dominicans have a high regard for this legume and it is consumed widely. [96]

In Panama, pigeon peas are used in a dish called Arroz con guandú y coco or "rice with pigeon peas and coconut" traditionally prepared and consumed during the end of year holidays.[97]

In Puerto Rico, arroz con gandules is made with rice and pigeon peas and sofrito which is a traditional dish, especially during Christmas season.[98] Pigeon peas can also be made in to a stew called asopao de gandules, with plantain balls.[99]

Jamaica also uses pigeon peas instead of kidney beans in their rice and peas dish, especially during the Christmas season.[100]

Trinidad and Tobago and Grenada have their own variant, called pelau, which includes either beef or chicken, and occasionally pumpkin and pieces of cured pig tail.[101]

Unlike in some other parts of the Greater Caribbean, in The Bahamas pigeon peas are used in dried form, light brown in color to make the heartier, heavier, signature Bahamian staple dish "Peas 'n Rice."[102]



In Hawaii they are used to make a dish called gandule rice,[103] also called godule rice,[104] gundule rice,[105] and ganduddy rice[106] originates on the island from the Puerto Rican community with historic ties to the island and is prepared in a similar manner to that of traditional Puerto Rican arroz con gandules.[107]

Other uses



Harvested pods of pigeon peas in Benin.

It is an important ingredient of animal feed used in West Africa, especially in Nigeria, where it is also grown. Leaves, pods, seeds and the residues of seed processing are used to feed all kinds of livestock.[108]

In the Congo pigeon peas are utilized as one of the main food forest and soil improvement crops after using a slash-and-burn fire technique called maala.[109]

Pigeon peas are in some areas an important crop for green manure, providing up to 90 kg nitrogen per hectare.[110] The woody stems of pigeon peas can also be used as firewood, fencing, thatch and as a source for rope fiber.[111]



In the Republic of Congo the Kongo, Lari, and Dondo people use the sap of the leaves as an eyedrop for epilepsy.[112]

In Madagascar the branches have been used as a teeth cleaning twig.[113][114]

See also



  1. ^ "Cajanus cajan". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2019-05-19.
  2. ^ Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Sharma, Shivali; Reddy, K.N.; Saxena, Rachit; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Gowda, C.L. Laxmipathi (2013). "Pigeonpea" (PDF). Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement. pp. 181–202. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-397935-3.00008-6. ISBN 978-0-12-397935-3.
  3. ^ Kingwell-Banham, Eleanor; Fuller, Dorian Q. (2014). "Pigeon Pea: Origins and Development". Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. pp. 5941–5944. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_2320. ISBN 978-1-4419-0426-3.
  4. ^ "Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth): branch with flowers and pods, separate flower, sectioned flower and seed. Coloured line engraving". Wellcome Collection. Retrieved 2022-05-12.
  5. ^ "Cajanus cajan etymology". Un Mondo Ecosostenibile. 2018-01-14. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  6. ^ "How the Pigeon Pea Became Such a Kitchen Staple Around the World". Matador Network. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  7. ^ "Pigeon peas: A sweet summer addition to the edible garden". Los Angeles Times. 2013-08-20. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  8. ^ "Angola pea etymology".
  9. ^ "Congo pea". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  10. ^ "gram in Hindi - gram meaning in Hindi". www.hindlish.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  11. ^ Kinhoégbè, Géofroy; Djèdatin, Gustave; Loko, Laura Estelle Yêyinou; Favi, Abraham Gnimansou; Adomou, Aristide; Agbangla, Clément; Dansi, Alexandre (December 2020). "On-farm management and participatory evaluation of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millspaugh) diversity across the agro-ecological zones of the Republic of Benin". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 16 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/s13002-020-00378-0. PMC 7218501. PMID 32404139.
  12. ^ "Congo bean - Arca del Gusto". Slow Food Foundation. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  13. ^ "Food and drink in Comoros". World Travel Guide. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  14. ^ "Malagasy Dictionary and Madagascar Encyclopedia : amberivatry". en.mondemalgache.org. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  15. ^ "Dagbani » Download". Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  16. ^ "Adowa Beans". techrisemedia. 2021-12-03. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  17. ^ Iwu, Maurice M. (2014-02-04). Pharmacognostical Profile of Selected Medicinal Plants. Routledge Handbooks Online. doi:10.1201/b16292-4. ISBN 978-1-4665-7197-6.
  18. ^ "Nandolo in English. Nandolo Meaning and Chichewa to English Translation". www.indifferentlanguages.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  19. ^ Obidike, Jennifer (2020-08-01). "Pigeon peas (fio-fio): 6 Proven Health Benefits and Nutrition". Healthful Wonders. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  20. ^ Lois (2014-02-10). "The many names of the pigeon pea…". Lois Elsden. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  21. ^ "Hausa Names for Plants and Trees". yumpu.com (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  22. ^ "waken-turawa". Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  23. ^ "Pigeon pea Archives". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  24. ^ "Pigeon peas and Nutrition - Tasty 9ja - Benefits of Fiofio". Tasty Nigerian Recipes. 2020-07-08. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  25. ^ "Agricultural plant names in Sudan".
  26. ^ "Pigeon pea in Sudan".
  27. ^ "Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change" (PDF).
  28. ^ "Cajanus cajan". www.tropicalforages.info. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  29. ^ "Kadyos (Kadios): Tagalog-English Dictionary Online". TAGALOG LANG. 2021-05-08. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  30. ^ "Kadios or pigeon pea in Filipino". 27 July 2010.
  31. ^ "What Are Gandules?". CulinaryLore. 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  32. ^ "Gracias a las manos africanas". listindiario.com (in Spanish). 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  33. ^ "Culture: How the African Diaspora Left It's Mark on the DR". Una Vaina Bien Spanish. 2016-08-15. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  34. ^ "Cocina Dominicana – Anexo 2". mipais.jmarcano.com. 2020-10-21. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  35. ^ "African Origin of Papiamentu Plant names". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  36. ^ "Jamaican Ingredient: Gungo Peas – Cook Like a Jamaican". cooklikeajamaican.com. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  37. ^ "PlantFiles: Cajanus Species, Congo Pea, Gungo Pea, Pigeon Pea Bush, Red Gram". Dave's Garden. Retrieved 2021-08-12.
  38. ^ a b Carney, J. A. and Rosomoff, R. N. (2009) In the Shadow of Slavery. Africa’s Botanical legacy in the Atlantic World. Berkeley: University of California Press
  39. ^ "Pigeon peas (Pois d'Angole)". AZ Martinique. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  40. ^ Dictionnaire pratique du créole de Guadeloupe. Suivi d'un Index français-créole (in French). Karthala Editions. 2009-02-01. ISBN 978-2-8111-3020-6.
  41. ^ Yurnet-Thomas, Mirta (2004). A Taste of Haiti. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-0998-6.
  42. ^ Instituut voor de Nederlandse taal (2022-06-04). "Wandoe". etymologiebank.nl (in Dutch). Instituut voor de Nederlandse taal.
  43. ^ Instituut voor de Nederlandse taal (2022-06-04). "Pesi". etymologiebank.nl (in Dutch). Instituut voor de Nederlandse taal.
  44. ^ "Pigeon Peas". FoodPrint. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  45. ^ "Cajanus kerstingii (Flora of the WAP complex - legumes) · iNaturalist". iNaturalist. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  46. ^ "Cajanus scarabaeoides" (PDF).
  47. ^ "Cajanus cajanifolius (Haines) Maesen | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  48. ^ "Pigeon pea history and origin". www.ikisan.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  49. ^ "Winrock International - Cajanus cajan: It's More than Just a Pulse Crop". winrock.org. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  50. ^ "History of the cultivation and domestication of Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea)" (PDF). uidaho.edu.
  51. ^ Van der Maeson, L. J. G. (1995). "Pigeonpea Cajanus cajan", pp. 251–5 in Smartt, J. and Simmonds, N. W. (eds.), Evolution of Crop Plants. Essex: Longman.
  52. ^ Fuller, Dorian; Korisettar, Ravi; Venkatasubbaiah, P.C.; Jones, MartinK. (June 2004). "Early plant domestications in southern India: some preliminary archaeobotanical results". Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 13 (2). doi:10.1007/s00334-004-0036-9. S2CID 8108444.
  53. ^ Fuller, D. Q.; Harvey, E. L. (2006). "The archaeobotany of Indian pulses: Identification, processing and evidence for cultivation". Environmental Archaeology. 11 (2): 219–246. Bibcode:2006EnvAr..11..219F. doi:10.1179/174963106x123232. S2CID 59135495.
  54. ^ Fuller, Dorian. "Across the Indian Ocean: the prehistoric movement of plants and animals" (PDF).
  55. ^ "USDA - National Agricultural Statistics Service - Puerto Rico - Ag History of Pigeon Peas". www.nass.usda.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  56. ^ "Cajanus cajan". Plant Pono. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  57. ^ Duff, Diana (2020-02-02). "Plant of the Month: Pidgeon pea, a multipurpose tree for a small garden". West Hawaii Today. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  58. ^ "Filipinos in Hawaii, UHM Center for Philippine Studies". www.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  59. ^ "How The First Puerto Ricans Arrived On Hawai'i Island | Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños". centropr-archive.hunter.cuny.edu. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  60. ^ "Pigeon peas hawaii" (PDF).
  61. ^ a b United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". FDA. Archived from the original on 2024-03-27. Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  62. ^ a b National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154. Archived from the original on 2024-05-09. Retrieved 2024-06-21.
  63. ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis for Pigeon peas (red gram), mature seeds, raw"
  64. ^ Bressani, Ricardo; Gómez-Brenes, Roberto A.; Elías, Luiz G. (March 1986). "Calidad nutricional de la proteína de gandul, tierno y maduro, y su valor suplementario a los cereales" [Nutritional quality of pigeon pea protein, immature and ripe, and its supplementary value for cereals]. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (in Spanish). 36 (1): 108–116. OCLC 69765297. PMID 3632193.
  65. ^ "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service.
  66. ^ "Nutrition facts, calories in food, labels, nutritional information and analysis". NutritionData.com.
  67. ^ "USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6" (PDF). USDA. Dec 2007.
  68. ^ a b "Nutritional Effects of Food Processing". NutritionData.com.
  69. ^ Bilello, Stanley (2016-10-10). 21st Century Homestead: Nitrogen-Fixing Crops. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-365-45290-1.
  70. ^ a b Fatokimi, Esther Olawumi; Tanimonure, Victoria Adeyemi (2021). "Analysis of the current situation and future outlooks for pigeon pea (Cajanus Cajan) production in Oyo State, Nigeria: A Markov Chain model approach". Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 6: 100218. doi:10.1016/j.jafr.2021.100218. ISSN 2666-1543.
  71. ^ Devegowda, S. R.; Singh, O. P.; Kumari, K. (2018). "Growth performance of pulses in India" (PDF). The Pharma Innovation Journal. 7 (11): 394–399.
  72. ^ "Products (Pigeon peas)". amago-tanzania.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  73. ^ "pigeon pea cultivation". asapglobe.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  74. ^ "|| ICRISAT || Impact". www.icrisat.org. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  75. ^ "John Spence (1929) Plant Pathologist". National Institute of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  76. ^ "ICRISAT-led global team cracks pigeonpea genome". Retrieved 2014-12-21.
  77. ^ Varshney, RK; Chen, W; Li, Y; et al. (January 2012). "Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers". Nat. Biotechnol. 30 (1): 83–9. doi:10.1038/nbt.2022. PMID 22057054.
  78. ^ Singh, NK; Gupta, DK; Jayaswal, PK; Mahato, AK; Dutta, S; Singh, S; Bhutani, S; Dogra, V; Singh, BP; Kumawat, G; Pal, JK; Pandit, A; Singh, A; Rawal, H; Kumar, A; Rama Prashat, G; Khare, A; Yadav, R; Raje, RS; Singh, MN; Datta, S; Fakrudin, B; Wanjari, KB; Kansal, R; Dash, PK; Jain, PK; Bhattacharya, R; Gaikwad, K; Mohapatra, T; Srinivasan, R; Sharma, TR (2012). "The first draft of the pigeonpea genome sequence". J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol. 21 (1): 98–112. doi:10.1007/s13562-011-0088-8. PMC 3886394. PMID 24431589.
  79. ^ Nithin, Chandran; Thomas, Amal; Basak, Jolly; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad (December 2017). "Genome-wide identification of miRNAs and lncRNAs in Cajanus cajan". BMC Genomics. 18 (1): 878. doi:10.1186/s12864-017-4232-2. PMC 5688659. PMID 29141604.
  80. ^ Harvesting And Storage
  81. ^ Pigeonpea in Eastern and Southern Africa Archived 2014-07-18 at the Wayback Machine, ICRISAT Posted 10 October 2012. Downloaded 26 January 2014.
  82. ^ Akporhonor, EE; Egwaikhide, PA; Eguavoen, IO (31 October 2006). "Effect of sprouting on invitro digestibility of some locally consumed leguminous seeds". Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 10 (3). doi:10.4314/jasem.v10i3.17320.
  83. ^ "Feijão Congo: Cape Verdean Stewed Peas (ervilha seca)". Crumb-Snatched. 2021-02-20. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  84. ^ Jammy (2016-03-05). "Swahili Breakfast: Mbaazi and Mahamri". Life in Mombasa. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  85. ^ "Nairobi - Make Your Own Swahili Breakfast - mbaazi na mahamri". www.heygo.com. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  86. ^ "Achicha Ede (Echicha Ede)". All Nigerian Recipes. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  87. ^ Onyeakagbu, Adaobi (2021-08-31). "Fio Fio: How to prepare this spicy traditional Enugu dish". Pulse Nigeria. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  88. ^ "Ayaraya Oka, Pigeon peas, Fiofio and corn - Tasty 9ja". Tasty Nigerian Recipes. 2020-07-08. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  89. ^ "Ayaraya Ji (Yam And Pigeon Peas)". The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News. 2019-07-28. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  90. ^ Zemede Asfaw, "Conservation and use of traditional vegetables in Ethiopia" Archived 2012-07-07 at the Wayback Machine, Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshop on Genetic Resources of Traditional Vegetables in Africa (Nairobi, 29–31 August 1995)
  91. ^ "KBL – Kadyos, Baboy at Langka". Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  92. ^ "Sopa de Guandú | Colombia Buena". 2010-07-13. Archived from the original on 2010-07-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  93. ^ "Recetas EH | Aprenda a preparar tres dulces típicos para la Cuaresma". EL HERALDO (in Spanish). 2 March 2018. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  94. ^ "El dulce sabor de Palenque". www.eluniversal.com.co (in European Spanish). 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  95. ^ "La dulzura de San Basilio de Palenque" (PDF).
  96. ^ "Pigeon Peas Rice With Sausage (Moro de Gandules y Salchichas)". Hispanic Kitchen. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  97. ^ Israely, Ruth (June 2016). "Arroz con Guandú y Coco (Rice with Pigeon Peas and Coconut Milk)". Jamie Geller. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  98. ^ "El Boricua, a bilingual , cultural publication for Puerto Ricans". www.elboricua.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  99. ^ Taylor, David (2021-06-15). "Asopao de Gandules ~ Pigeon Pea Stew". Hispanic Food Network. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  100. ^ Hidden, Katie (2015-12-20). "Gungo Peas and Rice". Taste the Islands. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  101. ^ "Pelau – A Popular and Historical Trinidadian Dish - New York Carib News". New York Carib News -. 2022-03-21. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  102. ^ "Tru Bahamian Must Eats: Peas & Rice". Tru Bahamian Food Tours. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  103. ^ "Hawaii Hispanic News - History Of Hispanics in Hawaii". www.hawaiihispanicnews.org. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  104. ^ "Gondule rice hawaii". www.americastestkitchen.com. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  105. ^ "Gundule Rice Recipes". SparkRecipes. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  106. ^ "Puerto Rican Rice & Beans—By Way Of Hawaii". Food52. 2018-07-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  107. ^ "Arroz con Gandules Recipe (Gandule Rice)". PBS Food. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  108. ^ Heuzé V., Thiollet H., Tran G., Delagarde R., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2017. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/329
  109. ^ Bauer, Jean-Martin (2018-05-09). "Food and forests in Congo-Brazzaville". World Food Programme Insight. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  110. ^ Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph J.; Myaka, Fidelis A.; Sakala, Webster D.; Odgaard, Rie; Vesterager, Jens M.; Høgh-Jensen, Henning (June 2007). "Biological nitrogen fixation and nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in farmer-managed intercrops of maize–pigeonpea in semi-arid southern and eastern Africa". Plant and Soil. 295 (1–2): 127–136. Bibcode:2007PlSoi.295..127A. doi:10.1007/s11104-007-9270-0. S2CID 20000912.
  111. ^ "Effects of Pre-Treatments on Pigeon Pea Stalk Fibers" (PDF).
  112. ^ "Prelude Medicinal Plants Database - Browse by reference - HA 05 | Royal Museum for Central Africa - Tervuren - Belgium". www.africamuseum.be. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  113. ^ Portères, Roland (1974). "Les baguettes végétales mâchées servant de frotte-dents (fin)". Journal d'agriculture traditionnelle et de botanique appliquée. 21 (4): 111–150. doi:10.3406/jatba.1974.3157.
  114. ^ "AMBREVADES OU POIDS D'ANGOLE". LIDIE OUSSENI-ALI (in French). 2021-09-05. Retrieved 2022-05-13.