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He was educated at the Benedictine Niederaltaich Abbey, and was made bishop in 971. To him are attributed some, if not all, of the Forgeries of Lorch. These are a series of documents, especially papal bulls of Pope Symmachus, Pope Eugene II, Pope Leo VII, and Pope Agapetus II, fabricated to prove that Passau was a continuation of a former archdiocese of Lorch. By these he attempted to obtain from Benedict VI the elevation of Passau to an archdiocese, the re-erection of those dioceses in Pannonia and Mœsia which had been suffragans of Lorch, and the pallium for himself. There is extant an alleged Bull of Benedict VI granting Piligrim's demands; but this is also the work of Piligrim, possibly a document drawn up for the papal signature, which it never received.
Piligrim converted numerous pagans in Hungary. He built many schools and churches, restored the Rule of St. Benedict in Niederaltaich, transferred the relics of Maximilian of Tebessa from Altötting to Passau, and held synods (983–991) at Ennsburg (Lorch), Mautern an der Donau, and Mistelbach. In the Nibelungenlied he is lauded as a contemporary of the heroes of that epic.
- Dümmler, Piligrim von Passau und das Erzbisthum Lorch (Leipzig, 1854)
- ____ in Berliner Sitzungsberichte (1898), 758-75
- Uhlirz, Die Urkundenfälschung zu Passau im zehnten Jahrhundert in Mittheilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, III (Vienna, 1882), 177-228; IDEM, ibid., supplementary vol., II (1888), 548 sq.
- Heuwieser, Sind die Bischöfe von Passau Nachfolger der Bischöfe von Lorch? in Theologisch-praktische Monats-Schrift, XXI (Passau, 1910), 13-23, 85-90
- Mittermüller, War Bischof Piligrim von Passau ein Urkundenfälscher? in Der Katholik, XLVII (Mainz, 1867), 337-62.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Piligrim". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Franz-Reiner Erkens (1994). "Pilgrim, Bischof von Passau (971-991)". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 7. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 1344–1346. ISBN 3-88309-048-4.
- (in German)