Pilosa

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Pilosa[1]
Temporal range: Paleocene - Holocene, 55.8–0 Ma
Pilosa collage.png
Pilosa species of different families; from top-left, clockwise: Silky anteater (Cyclopes didactylus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), pale-throated sloth (Bradypus tridactylus), Linnaeus's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Superorder: Xenarthra
Order: Pilosa
Flower 1883
Families

The order Pilosa /pˈlsə/ is a clade of xenarthran placental mammals, native to the Americas. It includes the anteaters and sloths (which includes the extinct ground sloths). The name comes from the Latin word for "hairy".[2]

Origins and taxonomy[edit]

The biogeographic origins of the Pilosa are still unclear,[3] but they can be traced back in South America as far as the early Paleogene (about 60 million years ago, only a short time after the end of the Mesozoic Era). The presence of these animals in Central America and their former presence in North America is a result of the Great American Interchange. A number of sloths were also formerly present on the Antilles, which they reached from South America by some combination of rafting or floating with the prevailing currents.

Together with the armadillos, which are in the order Cingulata, pilosans are part of the larger superorder Xenarthra, a defining characteristic of which is the presence of xenarthrals (extra formations between lumbar vertebrae). In the past, Pilosa was regarded as a suborder of the order Xenarthra, while some more recent classifications regard Pilosa as an order within the superorder Xenarthra. Earlier still, both armadillos and pilosans were classified together with pangolins and the aardvark as the order Edentata (meaning toothless, because the members do not have front incisor teeth or molars, or have poorly developed molars). Edentata was subsequently realized to be polyphyletic; it contained unrelated families and was thus invalid.

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy[edit]

Restoration of the ground sloth Nothrotheriops

Order Pilosa

Phylogeny[edit]

Major families within Pilosa[4]

  Pilosa  
  Vermilingua  

Cyclopedidae

Myrmecophagidae

  Folivora  
  Mylodontoidea  

Scelidotheriidae

Choloepodidae

Mylodontidae

  Megatherioidea  

Nothrotheriidae

Megatheriidae

Bradypodidae

Megalonychidae

  Megalocnoidea  

Megalocnidae

Cladogram of living Pilosa[4][5][6]

  Pilosa  
  Vermilingua  
  Myrmecophagidae  
  Myrmecophaga  

M. tridactyla

  Tamandua  

T. mexicana

T. tetradactyla

  Cyclopedidae  
  Cyclopes  

C. rufus

C. thomasi

C. ida

C. xinguensis

C. dorsalis

C. didactylus

  Folivora  
  Choloepodidae  
  Choloepus  

C. didactylus

C. hoffmanni

  Bradypodidae  
  Bradypus  

B. torquatus

B. pygmaeus

B. tridactylus

B. variegatus

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gardner, A. L. (2005). "Order Pilosa". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Kidd, D.A. (1973). Collins Latin Gem Dictionary. London: Collins. p. 248. ISBN 0-00-458641-7.
  3. ^ A proposed clade, Atlantogenata, would include Xenarthra and early African mammals.
  4. ^ a b c Presslee, S.; Slater, G. J.; Pujos, F.; Forasiepi, A. M.; Fischer, R.; Molloy, K.; Mackie, M.; Olsen, J. V.; Kramarz, A.; Taglioretti, M.; Scaglia, F.; Lezcano, M.; Lanata, J. L.; Southon, J.; Feranec, R.; Bloch, J.; Hajduk, A.; Martin, F. M.; Gismondi, R. S.; Reguero, M.; de Muizon, C.; Greenwood, A.; Chait, B. T.; Penkman, K.; Collins, M.; MacPhee, R.D.E. (2019). "Palaeoproteomics resolves sloth relationships" (PDF). Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3 (7): 1121–1130. doi:10.1038/s41559-019-0909-z. PMID 31171860. S2CID 174813630.
  5. ^ Miranda, Flávia R.; Casali, Daniel M.; Perini, Fernando A.; Machado, Fabio A.; Santos, Fabrício R. (2018). "Taxonomic review of the genus Cyclopes Gray, 1821 (Xenarthra: Pilosa), with the revalidation and description of new species". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 183 (3): 687–721. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx079.
  6. ^ Gibb, Gillian C.; Condamine, Fabien L.; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; Moraes-Barros, Nadia; Superina, Mariella; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Delsuc, Frédéric (2015). "Shotgun Mitogenomics Provides a Reference PhyloGenetic Framework and Timescale for Living Xenarthrans". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33 (3): 621–42. doi:10.1093/molbev/msv250. PMC 4760074. PMID 26556496.
  • Data related to Pilosa at Wikispecies
  • Media related to Pilosa at Wikimedia Commons