A pin-up model (known as a pin-up girl for a female and less commonly male pin-up for a male) is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as popular culture. Pin-ups are intended for informal display, i.e. meant to be "pinned-up" on a wall. Pin-up models may be glamour models, fashion models, or actors.
These pictures are also sometimes known as cheesecake photos.[a]
The term pin-up may refer to drawings, paintings, and other illustrations as well as photographs (see the list of pin-up artists). The term was first attested to in English in 1941; however, the practice is documented back at least to the 1890s.
The pin-up images could be cut out of magazines or newspapers, or on a postcard or lithograph. Such pictures often appear on wall or desk calendars. Posters of pin-ups were mass-produced and became popular from the mid 20th century.
Male pin-ups were less common than their female counterparts throughout the 20th century, although a market for homoerotica has always existed as well as pictures of popular male celebrities targeted at women or girls. Examples include James Dean and Jim Morrison.
In the late 19th century, burlesque performers and actresses sometimes used photographic advertisement as business cards to promote themselves. These adverts and business cards could often be found in almost every green room, pinned-up or stuck into "frames of the looking-glasses, in the joints of the gas-burners, and sometimes lying on-top of the sacred cast-case itself." Understanding the power of photographic advertisements to promote their shows, burlesque women self-constructed their identity to make themselves visible. Being recognized not only within the theater itself but also outside challenged the conventions of women's place and women's potential in the public sphere. "To understand both the complicated identity and the subversive nature of the 19th-century actress, one must also understand that the era's views on women's potential were inextricably tied to their sexuality, which in turn was tied to their level of visibility in the public sphere: regardless of race, class or background, it was generally assumed that the more public the woman, the more 'public,' or available, her sexuality", according to historian Maria Elena Buszek. Being sexually fantasized, famous actresses in early 20th-century film were both drawn and photographed and put on posters to be sold for personal entertainment. Among the celebrities who were considered sex symbols, one of the most popular early pin-up girls was Betty Grable, whose poster was ubiquitous in the lockers of G.I.s during World War II.
In Europe, prior to the First World War, the likes of Fernande Barrey (aka "Miss Fernande"), were arguably the world's first pinups as is known in the modern sense. Miss Barrey displayed ample cleavage and full frontal nudity. Her pictures were cherished by soldiers on both sides of the First World War conflict.
Other pin-ups were artwork depicting idealized versions of what some thought a particularly beautiful or attractive woman should look like. An early example of the latter type was the Gibson girl, a representation of the New Woman drawn by Charles Dana Gibson. "Because the New Woman was symbolic of her new ideas about her sex, it was inevitable that she would also come to symbolize new ideas about sexuality." Unlike the photographed actresses and dancers generations earlier, fantasy gave artists the freedom to draw women in many different ways. The 1932 Esquire "men's" magazine featured many drawings and "girlie" cartoons but was most famous for its Vargas girls. Prior to World War II they were praised for their beauty and less focus was on their sexuality. However, during the war, the drawings transformed into women playing dress-up in military drag and drawn in seductive manners, like that of a child playing with a doll. The Vargas girls became so popular that from 1942–46, owing to a high volume of military demand, "9 million copies of the magazine-without adverts and free of charge was sent to American troops stationed overseas and in domestic bases." The Vargas Girls were adapted as nose art on many World War II bomber and fighter aircraft; Generally, they were considered inspiring, and not seen negatively, or as prostitutes, but mostly as inspiring female patriots that were helpful for good luck.
Among the other well-known artists specializing in the field were Earle K. Bergey, Enoch Bolles, Gil Elvgren, George Petty, Rolf Armstrong, Duane Bryers and Art Frahm. Notable contemporary pin-up artists include Paul John Ballard, Elias Chatzoudis, Armando Huerta,Cris Delara and Chuck Bauman. Another is popular pin-up artist Olivia De Berardinis who is most famous for her pin-up art of Bettie Page and her pieces in Playboy.
Feminism and the pin-up
According to Joanne Meyerowitz in "Women, Cheesecake, and Borderline Material" an article in Journal of Women's History, "As sexual images of women multiplied in the popular culture, women participated actively in constructing arguments to endorse as well as protest them."
As early as 1869, women have been supporters and protesters of the pin-up. Women supporters of early pin-up content considered these to be a "positive post-Victorian rejection of bodily shame and a healthy respect for female beauty." Conversely, women protesters argued that these images were corrupting societal morality and saw these public sexual displays of women as lowering the standards of womanhood, destroying their dignity, reducing them to mere objects to pleasure men and therefore harmful to both women and young adolescents.
It has further been argued by some critics that in the early 20th century, these drawings of women helped define certain body images—such as being clean, being healthy, and being wholesome—and were enjoyed by both normal men and women; but as time progressed these images changed from respectable to illicit.
- Merriam-Webster Online defines a "cheesecake" as "a photographic display of shapely and scantily clothed female figure".
- Ayto (2006), p. 126.
- Buszek (2006), p. 43.
- Buszek (2006), p. 45.
- Buszek (2006), p. 29.
- Carole S. Vance, ed. "Seeking Ectasy on the Battlefield: Danger and Pleasure in Nineteenth-Century Feminist Sexual Thought," in Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality (Boston: Routledge and K. Paul, 1984)
- Dazzledent: Fernande Barrey; tumblr
- Miss Fernande; Comcast.net
- Buszek (2006), p. 82.
- Buszek (2006), p. 209.
- Buszek (2006), p. 210.
- Costello, John (1985). Virtue Under Fire: How World War II Changed Our social and Sexual Attitudes. Boston: Little Brown. pp. 144–155. ISBN 0-316-73968-5.
- Meyerowitz (1996), p. 9.
- Meyerowitz (1996), p. 10.
- Ross (1989), p. 61.
- Ayto, John (2006). Movers and shakers: a chronology of words that shaped our age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861452-7.
- Buszek, Maria Elena (2006). Pin-up grrrls: feminism, sexuality, popular culture. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3746-0.
- Meyerowitz, Joanne (1996). "Women, Cheesecake, and Borderline Material". Journal of Women's History. 8 (3).
- Ross, Andrew (1989). No Respect: Intellectuals and Popular Culture. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-90036-0.
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