Pine Bluff, Arkansas
|City of Pine Bluff|
"City of Progress"
|Incorporated||January 8, 1839|
|• Mayor||Shirley Washington (D)|
|• Council||Pine Bluff City Council|
|• City||45.97 sq mi (119.07 km2)|
|• Land||43.77 sq mi (113.37 km2)|
|• Water||2.20 sq mi (5.69 km2)|
|Elevation||220 ft (67 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||947.48/sq mi (365.82/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−06:00 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−05:00 (CDT)|
71601, 71602, 71603
|GNIS feature ID||78006, 2404520|
|Major airport||Clinton National (LIT)|
Pine Bluff is the tenth-largest city in the state of Arkansas and the county seat of Jefferson County. It is the principal city of the Pine Bluff Metropolitan Statistical Area and part of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area. The population of the city was 49,083 in the 2010 Census with 2019 estimates showing a decline to 41,474.
The city is situated in the Southeast section of the Arkansas Delta and straddles the Arkansas Timberlands region to its west. Its topography is flat with wide expanses of farmland, similar to other places in the Delta Lowlands. Pine Bluff has numerous creeks, streams, and bayous, including Bayou Bartholomew, the longest bayou in the world and the second most ecologically diverse stream in the United States. Large bodies of water include Lake Pine Bluff, Lake Langhofer (Slack Water Harbor), and the Arkansas River.
Pre-Columbian era to colonial era
The area along the Arkansas River had been inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples of various cultures. They used the river for transportation as did European settlers after them, and for fishing. By the time of encounter with Europeans, the historical Quapaw were the chief people in the area, having migrated from the Ohio River valley centuries before.
The city of Pine Bluff was founded on a high bank of the Arkansas River heavily forested with tall pine trees. The high ground furnished settlers a safe haven from annual flooding. Joseph Bonne, a Métis fur trader and trapper of mixed Quapaw and colonial French ancestry, settled on this bluff in 1819.
1824–1860: Antebellum era
After the Quapaw signed a treaty with the United States in 1824 relinquishing their title to all the lands which they claimed in Arkansas, many other American settlers began to join Bonne on the bluff. In 1829 Thomas Phillips claimed a half section of land where Pine Bluff is located. Jefferson County was established by the Territorial Legislature on November 2, 1829, and began functioning as a county April 19, 1830.
At the August 13, 1832, county election, the pine bluff settlement was chosen as the county seat. The Quorum Court voted to name the village "Pine Bluff Town" on October 16, 1832. Pine Bluff was incorporated January 8, 1839, by the order of County Judge Taylor. At the time, the village had about 50 residents. Improved transportation aided in the growth of Pine Bluff during the 1840s and 1850s.
With its proximity to the Arkansas River, the small town served as a port for travel and shipping. Steamships provided the primary mode of transport, arriving from downriver ports such as New Orleans. From 1832–1838, Pine Bluff residents would see Native American migrants on the Trail of Tears waterway who were being forcibly removed by the US Army from the American Southeast to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. From 1832–1858, Pine Bluff was also a station on the passage of Seminole and Black Seminoles, who were forcibly removed from Florida to the Territory. They included the legendary Black Seminole leader John Horse, who arrived in the city via the steamboat Swan in 1842.
1861–1900: Civil War, Reconstruction and beyond
Pine Bluff was prospering by the outbreak of the Civil War; most of its wealth was based on the commodity crop of cotton. This was cultivated on large plantations by hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans throughout the state, but especially in the Delta. The city had one of the largest slave populations in the state by 1860, and Jefferson County, Arkansas was second in cotton production in the state. When Union forces occupied Little Rock, a group of Pine Bluff residents asked commanding Major General Frederick Steele to send Union forces to occupy their town to protect them from bands of Confederate bushwhackers. Union troops under Colonel Powell Clayton arrived September 17, 1863 and stayed until the war was over.
Confederate General J.S. Marmaduke tried to expel the Union Army in the Battle of Pine Bluff October 25, 1863, but was repulsed by a combined effort of soldiers and freedmen (former slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation). In the final year of the war, the 1st Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry (Colored) (composed primarily of escaped slaves from Arkansas and Missouri), was the first African-American regiment in the civil war to go into combat. It was dispatched to guard Pine Bluff and was eventually mustered out there.
Because of the Union forces, Pine Bluff attracted many refugees and freedmen after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued in early 1863. The Union forces set up a contraband camp there to house the runaway slaves and refugees behind Confederate lines. After the war, freed slaves worked with the American Missionary Association to start schools for the education of blacks, who had been prohibited from learning to read and write by southern laws. Both adults and children eagerly started learning. By September 1872, Professor Joseph C. Corbin opened the Branch Normal School of the Arkansas Industrial University, a historically black college. Founded as Arkansas's first black public college, today it is the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff.
Pine Bluff and the region suffered lasting effects from defeat, the aftermath of war, and the trauma of slavery and exploitation. Recovery was slow at first. Construction of railroads improved access to markets, and with increased production of cotton as more plantations were reactivated, the economy began to recover. The first railroad reached Pine Bluff in December 1873. This same year Pine Bluff's first utility was formed when Pine Bluff Gas Company began furnishing manufactured gas from coke fuel for lighting purposes. The state's economy remained highly dependent on cotton and agriculture, which suffered a decline through the 19th century.
As personal fortunes increased from the 1870s onward, community leaders constructed large Victorian-style homes west of Main Street. Meanwhile, the Reconstruction era of the 1870s brought a stark mix of progress and challenge for African Americans. Most blacks joined the Republican Party, and several were elected in Pine Bluff to county offices and the state legislature for the first time in history. Several black-owned businesses were also opened, including banks, bars, barbershops, and other establishments. But in postwar violence in 1866, an altercation with whites ensued at a refugee camp, and 24 black men, women and children were found hanging from trees in one of the worst mass lynchings in U.S. history.
The rate of lynchings of black males was high across the South during this period of social tensions and white resistance to Reconstruction. Armistad Johnson was lynched in 1889, and John Kelly and Gulbert Harris in 1892 in front of the Jefferson County Courthouse, after a mob of hundreds rapidly escalated to thousands of whites vehemently demanding execution, despite Kelly's pleas of innocence and lack of trial. The angry mob eventually forced over his custody from an Officer adamantly attempting to deliver the suspect to the jail house, then the crowd watched enthusiastically as he was hung and riddled with bullets. That same year the state adopted a poll tax amendment that disenfranchised many African-American and poor white voters. The Election Law of 1891 had already made voting more difficult and also caused voter rolls to decrease. With the Democratic Party consolidating its power in what became a one-party state, the atmosphere was grim toward the end of the 19th century for many African Americans. Democrats imposed legal segregation and other Jim Crow laws.
Bishop Henry McNeal Turner's "Back to Africa" movement attracted numbers of local African-American residents who purchased tickets and/or sought information on emigration (Arkansas had 650 emigrants depart to the colony of Liberia in West Africa; more than from any other state in the United States. The majority of these emigrants came from the black-majority Jefferson, St. Francis, Pulaski, Pope, and Conway counties.
According to historian James Leslie, Pine Bluff entered its "Golden Era" in the 1880s. Cotton production and river commerce helped the city draw industries, public institutions and residents to the area, making it by 1890 the state's third-largest city. The first telephone system was placed in service March 31, 1883. Wiley Jones, a freedman who achieved wealth by his own business, built the first mule-drawn, street-car line in October 1886. The first light, power and water plant was completed in 1887; a more dependable light and water system was put in place in 1912. Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, economic expansion was also fueled by the growing lumber industry in the region.
1900–1941: 1900 through the Great Depression
Situated on the Arkansas River, Pine Bluff depended on river traffic and trade. Community leaders were concerned that the main channel would leave the city. The United States Army Corps of Engineers built a levee opposite Pine Bluff to try to keep the river flowing by the city.
During a later flood, the main channel of the river moved away from the city, leaving a small oxbow lake (later expanded into Lake Pine Bluff). River traffic diminished, even as the river was a barrier separating one part of the county from the other. After many years of regional haggling, because the bond issue involved raised taxes, the county built the Free Bridge, which opened in 1914. For the first time, it united the county on a permanent basis.
African Americans in Pine Bluff were damaged by the state's disfranchisement in 1891–1892 and exclusion from the political system. But they continued to work for their rights; they joined activists in Little Rock and Hot Springs in a sustained boycott of streetcars, protesting passage in 1903 of the Segregated Streetcar Act, part of a series of Jim Crow laws passed by the white-dominated legislature. They did not achieve change then.
Development in the city's business district grew rapidly. The Masonic Lodge, built by and for the African-American chapter in the city, was the tallest building in Pine Bluff when completed in 1904. The Hotel Pines, constructed in 1912, had an intricate marble interior and classical design, and was considered one of Arkansas' showcase hotels. The 1,500-seat Saenger Theater, built in 1924, was one of the largest such facilities in the state; it operated the state's largest pipe organ. When Dollarway Road was completed in 1914, it was the longest continuous stretch of concrete road in the United States. The first radio station (WOK) broadcast in Arkansas occurred in Pine Bluff on February 18, 1922.
Two natural disasters had devastating effects on the area's economy. The first was the Great Flood of 1927, a 100-year flood. Due to levee breaks, most of northern and southeastern Jefferson County were flooded. The severe drought of 1930 caused another failure of crops, adding to the problems of economic conditions during the Great Depression. Pine Bluff residents scrambled to survive. In 1930, two of the larger banks failed.
The state's highway construction program in the later 1920s and early 1930s, facilitating trade between Pine Bluff and other communities throughout southeast Arkansas, was critical to Jefferson County, too. After the inauguration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, he launched many government programs to benefit local communities. Through the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and public works funding, Pine Bluff built new schools and a football stadium, and developed Oakland Park as its first major recreation facility. To encourage diversification in agriculture, the county built a stockyard in 1936 to serve as a sales outlet for farmers' livestock.
From 1936–1938, the WPA through the Federal Writers Project initiated a project to collect and publish oral histories of former slaves. Writers were sent throughout the South to interview former slaves, most of whom had been children before the Civil War. When the project was complete, Arkansas residents had contributed more oral slave histories (approximately 780) than any other state, although Arkansas' slave population was less than those of neighboring Deep South states. African-American residents of Pine Bluff/Jefferson County contributed more oral interviews of Arkansas-born slaves than any other city/county in the state. The city served to compile a valuable storehouse of oral slave narrative material.
1941–1960: World War II and economic diversification
World War II brought profound changes to Pine Bluff and its agriculture, timber and railroad-oriented economy. The Army built Grider Field Airport which housed the Pine Bluff School of Aviation and furnished flight training for air cadets for the Army Air Corps. At one time 275 aircraft were being used to train 758 pilots. Approximately 9,000 pilots had been trained by the time the school closed in October 1944.
The Army broke ground for the Pine Bluff Arsenal on December 2, 1941, on 15,000 acres (61 km2) bought north of the city. The arsenal and Grider Field changed Pine Bluff to a more diversified economy with a mixture of industry and agriculture. The addition of small companies to the industrial base helped the economy remain steady in the late 1940s. Defense spending in association with the Korean War was a stabilizing factor after 1950.
In December 1953, KATV television station, then based in Pine Bluff, transmitted Arkansas' first VHF broadcast (the first UHF broadcast had occurred a few months prior). In 1957, Richard Anderson announced the construction of a kraft paper mill north of the city. International Paper Co. shortly afterward bought a plant site five miles east of Pine Bluff. Residential developments followed for expected workers. The next year young minister Martin Luther King Jr. addressed students at the commencement program for Arkansas AM&N College (now the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff).
1960–present: The modern era
The decade of the 1960s brought heightened activism in the civil rights movement: through boycotts and demonstrations, African Americans demanded an end to segregated public facilities and jobs. Some whites responded with violence, attacking demonstrators, and bombing a black church in Pine Bluff in 1963. Some civil rights demonstrators were shot. Local leaders worked tirelessly, at times enlisting the support of national figures such as Dick Gregory and Stokely Carmichael, to help bring about change over the period. Voter registration drives that enabled increased black political participation, selective buying campaigns, student protests, and a desire among white local business leaders to avoid damaging negative media portrayals in the national media led to reforms in public accommodations.
During the 1960s and 1970s, major construction projects in the region included private and public sponsors: Jefferson Hospital (now Jefferson Regional Medical Center), the dams of the McClellan-Kerr Navigation System on the Arkansas River (which was diverted from the city to create Lake Langhofer), a Federal building, the Pine Bluff Convention Center complex including The Royal Arkansas Hotel & Suites, Pine Bluff Regional Park, two industrial parks and several large churches.
The 1980s and 1990s brought a number of significant construction projects. Benny Scallion Park was created, named for the alderman who brought a Japanese garden to the Pine Bluff Civic Center. Sadly, the city has not maintained the garden, but a small plaque remains. In the late 1980s, The Pines, the first large, enclosed shopping center, was constructed on the east side of the city. The mall attracted increased shopping traffic from southeast Arkansas.
The most important construction project of the 1990s was completion of a southern bypass, designated part of Interstate 530. In addition, a highway and bridge across Lock and Dam #4 were completed, providing another link between farm areas in northeastern Jefferson County and the transportation system radiating from Pine Bluff. Through a private matching grant, a multimillion-dollar Arts and Science Center for Southeast Arkansas was completed downtown in 1994.
In 2000, construction was completed on the 43,000-square-foot (4,000 m2) Donald W. Reynolds Community Services Center. Carl Redus became the first African American mayor in the city's history in 2005. The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff recently opened a $3 million business incubator in downtown Pine Bluff. Also, a new $2 million farmers market pavilion was opened in 2010 on Lake Pine Bluff in downtown Pine Bluff.
Shirley Washington is the first female African American mayor. She was elected in 2016.
Pine Bluff is on the Arkansas River; the community was named for a bluff along that river. Both Lake Pine Bluff and Lake Langhofer are situated within the city limits, as these are bodies of water which are remnants of the historical Arkansas River channel. (The former is a man-made expansion of a natural oxbow; the latter was created by diking the old channel after a man-made diversion.) Consequently, the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (or the Arkansas Delta) runs well into the city with Bayou Bartholomew picking up the western border as a line of demarcation between the Arkansas Delta and the Arkansas Timberlands.
A series of levees and dams surrounds the area to provide for flood control and protect from channel shift. One of the world's longest individual levees at 380 miles runs from Pine Bluff to Venice, Louisiana.
Metropolitan statistical area
Pine Bluff is the largest city in a three-county MSA as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau including Jefferson, Cleveland, and Lincoln counties. The Pine Bluff MSA population in 2000 was 107,341 people. The Pine Bluff MSA population in 2007 dropped to 101,484. Pine Bluff was the fastest-declining Arkansas MSA from 2000–2007. The Pine Bluff area is also a component of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area which had a population of 902,443 people in the 2014 U.S. census estimate.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 46.8 square miles (121 km2), of which 45.6 square miles (118 km2) is land and 1.2 square miles (3.1 km2) (2.65%) is water.
|Climate data for Pine Bluff (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1884–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||83
|Average high °F (°C)||51.7
|Daily mean °F (°C)||42.5
|Average low °F (°C)||33.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−6
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||4.06
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||1.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.0||8.4||9.7||8.8||9.1||7.1||7.8||6.3||5.9||7.2||8.5||9.0||96.8|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.4||0.7||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.1||0.2||1.5|
|Climate data for Pine Bluff (Grider Field) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1948–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||51.8
|Daily mean °F (°C)||42.8
|Average low °F (°C)||33.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−2
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.82
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.6||9.7||10.9||9.4||11.2||8.6||8.9||7.9||7.0||8.7||9.1||9.5||110.5|
As of the census of 2010, there were 49,083 people, 18,071 households, and 11,594 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,048.8 people per square mile (404.6/km2). There were 20,923 housing units at an average density of 447.1 per square mile (172.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 75.6% Black or African American, 21.8% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, and 1.1% from two or more races. 1.5% of the population were Latino of any race.
There were 18,071 households, out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 27.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.14.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.5% under the age of 18, 13.4% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,415, and the median income for a family was $39,993. Males had a median income of $38,333 versus $28,936 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,334. About 24.3% of families and 30.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.6% of those under age 18 and 13.7% of those age 65 or over.
Jefferson County is located in the heart of a rich agricultural area in the Arkansas River Basin. The leading products include cotton, soybeans, cattle, rice, poultry, timber and catfish.
Major area employers include Jefferson Regional Medical Center, Simmons First National Corp., Tyson Foods, Evergreen Packaging, the Pine Bluff Arsenal and the Union Pacific Railroad. It is the large number of paper mills in the area that give Pine Bluff its, at times, distinctive odor, a feature known prominently among Arkansans.
Arts and culture
The Pine Bluff Convention Center is one of the state's largest meeting facilities. The Arts and Science Center features theatrical performances and workshops for children and adults. Pine Bluff did also boast the only Band Museum in the country but it has closed. Other areas of interest include downtown murals depicting the history of Pine Bluff, the Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Historical Museum, Arkansas Entertainers Hall of Fame and the Arkansas Railroad Museum.
Annual cultural events
- King Cotton Classic- Running from 1982 to 1999, the King Cotton Classic was one of the premier high school basketball tournaments in the country. It featured many future NBA players, including Corliss Williamson and Jason Kidd.
The City of Pine Bluff is governed by the mayor–council government system, with the mayor, city attorney, city clerk and treasurer are all elected at large. The Pine Bluff City Council is the legislative body of the city. This group is constituted of eight members, with two members representing each of the city's four wards. Each council member serves a four-year term, and elections are staggered every two years. Meetings of the city council are held in the Pine Bluff City Council Chambers on the first and third Monday of every month unless otherwise scheduled.
The city also has ten commissions for citizens to serve upon, with approval required by both the mayor and city council. They are: Advertising and Promotion, Aviation, Civic Auditorium Complex, Civil Service, Historic District, Historical Railroad Preservation, Parks and Recreation, Pine Bluff / Jefferson County Port Authority, Planning and Wastewater Utility. The city also has four boards and one commission that fills their own vacancies: Arkansas River Regional Intermodal Facilities Board, Arts and Science Center for Southeast Arkansas Board of Trustees, Cemetery Committee, Library Board and Taylor Field Operations Facilities Board.
As the county seat of Jefferson County, Pine Bluff also hosts all functions of county government at the Jefferson County Courthouse in downtown Pine Bluff.
The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff (UAPB) is the second oldest public educational institution in the state of Arkansas, and the oldest with a black heritage. It maintains one of the nation's few aquaculture research programs and the only one in the state of Arkansas. It also houses the University Museum and Cultural Center dedicated to preserving the history of UAPB and the Arkansas Delta.
The newly accredited Southeast Arkansas College features technical career programs as well as a 2-year college curriculum.
Pine Bluff is served by three school districts: Pine Bluff School District, Watson Chapel School District, and White Hall School District, as well as a number of charter schools and the Ridgeway Christian School also serve the city.
The Main Library of the Pine Bluff and Jefferson County Library System contains an extensive genealogy collection, including the online obituary index of the Pine Bluff Commercial, Arkansas census records, and digital collections, which consists of many county and city records for much of southeast Arkansas. In addition to downtown Pine Bluff's Main Library, PBJCLS branch libraries can also be found in the city's Watson Chapel area, as well as in White Hall, Redfield, and Altheimer.
Colleges and universities
- Pine Bluff School District, including Pine Bluff High School and Dollarway High School
- Watson Chapel School District, including Watson Chapel High School
- White Hall School District includes parts of Pine Bluff; White Hall High School is in neighboring White Hall.
Prior to integration, black students attended separate, segregated schools. These included Merrill High School, Townsend Park High School, Coleman High School, and Southeast High School.
In December 2020 the Arkansas State Board of Education ruled that the Dollarway School District should merge into the Pine Bluff School District as of July 1, 2021. According to the consolidation plan, all schools of the two districts will continue to operate post-merger. Accordingly the attendance boundary maps of the respective schools remained the same for the 2021-2022 school year, and all DSD territory went into the PBSD territory. The exception was with the pre-kindergarten levels, as all PBSD areas are now assigned to Forrest Park/Greenville School, including the territory from the former Dollarway district.
There are two private schools in Pine Bluff, Ridgway Christian School (K3–12th) and Maranatha Baptist Academy K3-12.
The city formerly hosted Catholic schools:
- St. Joseph Catholic School – Grades 5–12, opened in 1993, closed in 2013
- St. Peter's Catholic School – The first school in Arkansas for black children to be established, was established in 1889 by St. Joseph Church Pastor Monsignor John Michael "J.M." Lucey as the Colored Industrial Institute and in 1897 became St. Peter Academy a.k.a. St. Peter High School. It closed in 1975, and reopened as an elementary school (Grades Preschool through 6) operated by the School Sisters of Notre Dame in 1985. It closed permanently in 2012. It was the last Catholic school established for black students in the State of Arkansas.
- St. Raphael School – A majority black school, it closed in 1960
The Pine Bluff and Jefferson County Library System maintains its main library in the Civic Center in downtown. The city received its first library in 1913. The library system also operates the Watson Chapel Dave Burdick Library in the Watson Chapel neighborhood.
- Interstate 530
- US Route 63
- US Route 65
- US Route 79
- U.S. Highway 270
- U.S. Highway 425
- Highway 15
- Highway 54
- Highway 81
- Highway 190
- Highway 365
Pine Bluff is served by a network of five U.S. and five state highways radiating from the city. Interstate 530, formerly part of US 65, connects Little Rock to southeast Pine Bluff. Multiple Interstates can be accessed in approximately 40 minutes from any point in the city.
Located on the navigable Arkansas River, with a slackwater harbor, Pine Bluff is accessible by water via the Port of Pine Bluff, the anchor of the city's Harbor Industrial District.
Daily commercial air freight and passenger services, along with scheduled commuter flights, are available at the Clinton National Airport (formerly Little Rock National Airport), Adams Field, (LIT), some 40 minutes driving time from Pine Bluff via Interstate 530 and interstate connectors.
Pine Bluff's municipal airport, Grider Field (PBF), is located four miles southeast of the city. The airport serves as home base for corporate and general aviation aircraft. Charter, air ambulance and cargo airline services are also available.
Royal Coach Lines offers local access to intrastate, regional, and charter services.
The city-owned Pine Bluff Transit operates six routes on a 12-hour/day, weekday basis, to various points including government, medical, educational and shopping centers. Two of the buses have professional-quality murals advertising the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff.
Current freight rail service to and through Pine Bluff is provided by the Union Pacific Railroad.
In 1972, the City of Pine Bluff and the "Fifty for the Future," a business leader group, donated 80 acres (32 ha) of land to the Arkansas Department of Correction (ADC). This parcel was developed as the Pine Bluff Complex.
Since 1979 it has included the ADC state headquarters; the administrative Annex East is on Harding Avenue south of city hall. The Ester Unit (formerly the Diagnostic Unit), the Pine Bluff Unit, and the Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility are in the "Pine Bluff Complex," as are the headquarters of the Arkansas Correctional School system.
The ADC Southeast Arkansas Community Corrections Center is in Pine Bluff.
Liberty Utilities (formerly United Water), a subsidiary of Algonquin Power & Utilities, a privately held company, treats potable water and operates the water distribution system in Pine Bluff (including Watson Chapel), as well as Hardin, Ladd, and White Hall. This partnership began in 1942 between the City of Pine Bluff and Arkansas Municipal Water Company, which has been acquired and merged to become Liberty Utilities.
Water is pumped from 12 wells that pump from the Sparta Sand Aquifer to three water treatment plants capable of producing 20,000,000 US gallons (76,000,000 L) per day (total). Each plant uses a process of pre-chlorination, aeration, filtration, and chlorine residual. Hydrofluosilic acid and zinc orthophosphate are also added in addition to chlorine. The water is then distributed to approximately serving over 18,000 customers via 388 miles (624 km) of water distribution mains. A Source Water Vulnerability Assessment was conducted by the Arkansas Department of Health in 2013; it concluded that Pine Bluff's water supply is at medium susceptibility to contamination
The Pine Bluff Wastewater Utility provides operation and maintenance of the city's municipally owned sewage collection and conveyance system. This system includes over 450 miles (720 km) of pipe and 52 lift stations to collect municipal and industrial wastewater and convey it to the Boyd Point Treatment Facility (BPTF). This facility treats and discharges treated effluent in accordance with a permit issued by the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ). The BPTF was most recently renovated in 2010 and is currently permitted to discharge a maximum daily flow of 30,000,000 US gallons (110,000,000 L).
The utility has been awarded by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies for its performance. In an Enforcement Compliance review completed in March 2014, it was noted that zero permit violations had occurred within the past three years.
Parks and recreation
Townsend Park was built on a 100-acre (40 ha) plot of land meant for a park for black people. The land was donated by the president of the Arkansas Agricultural, Mechanical, and Normal College to the state government. It was named after Merrill High School principal William J. Townsend.
- Blanch Ackers, painter
- Larry D. Alexander, visual artist, writer,
- Broncho Billy Anderson, actor, honorary Academy Award winner
- Camille Bennett, Democratic member of Arkansas House of Representatives; former Pine Bluff resident
- John Barfield, Major League Baseball player
- Mark Bradley, National Football League player
- Clifton R. Breckinridge, U.S. Representative from Arkansas
- Big Bill Broonzy, musician, member of Blues Hall of Fame
- Charles Brown, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee, blues musician/singer
- Jim Ed Brown, country music artist
- The Browns, country music trio
- Bill Carr, 1932 Olympic double gold medalist
- Harvey C. Couch, founder, Arkansas Power & Light
- Joe Barry Carroll, basketball player, top pick of 1980 NBA Draft
- Monte Coleman, NFL player, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff head coach
- Junior Collins, jazz musician
- Joseph Carter Corbin, Educator, first principal of the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, principal of Merrill High School
- CeDell Davis, blues musician
- Janette Davis, singer
- L. Clifford Davis, civil rights attorney, judge
- Larry Davis, blues musician
- Jay Dickey, lawyer and politician
- The Buddy Deane Show, national TV program of local radio DJ
- Jeff Donaldson, visual artist, founder AfriCobra
- Marty Embry, professional basketball player, chef, author
- Kenneth B. Ferguson, Democratic member of Arkansas House of Representatives for Jefferson and Lincoln counties since 2015
- Stephanie Flowers, African-American Democratic member of Arkansas State Senate since 2011; former member of Arkansas House of Representatives; Pine Bluff lawyer
- Vivian Flowers, African-American Democratic member of Arkansas House of Representatives from Pine Bluff since 2015; diversity officer at UAMS Medical Center in Little Rock
- Rodney Shelton Foss, possibly first American killed in World War II
- Charles Greene, Olympic gold medalist, track & field
- George W. Haley, U.S. ambassador
- Isaac Scott Hathaway, visual artist, first African American to create a coin for the U.S. Treasury
- George Edmund Haynes, first executive director of National Urban League, first African-American to receive PhD from Columbia
- Chester Himes, novelist,
- George Howard, Jr., federal judge
- Mike Huckabee (born 1955), 44th Governor of Arkansas
- Bobby Hutton, founding member of Black Panther Party
- Torii Hunter, Major League Baseball player, 5-time All-Star
- Don Hutson, member of College and Pro Football Hall of Fame
- George G.M. James, author
- Joseph Jarman, jazz saxophonist
- Charles Johnson, Negro league baseball player
- David Johnson, football player
- Kenneth Johnson, television producer
- E. Fay Jones, architect and designer
- Theresa A. Jones, neuroscientist
- Camille Keaton, actress
- Carl Kidd, player in Canadian and National Football Leagues
- Lafayette Lever, NBA player
- Henry Jackson Lewis, political cartoonist
- Kay Linaker, actress
- Dallas Long, Olympic gold medalist
- Martell Mallett, player in Canadian and National Football Leagues
- Andy Mayberry, member of Arkansas House of Representatives
- Carl McVoy, rock 'n' roll pianist/vocalist
- Peter McGehee, novelist
- Dwight McKissic, Southern Baptist minister
- Chris Mercer, the first African-American deputy state prosecutor in the South, one of the "six pioneers" who integrated the University of Arkansas Law School.
- Constance Merritt, poet
- Martha Mitchell, second wife of U.S. attorney general John N. Mitchell
- Raye Montague, US Navy engineer, created first computer generated draft of a naval ship
- Bitsy Mullins, jazz trumpeter
- Smokie Norful, Grammy Award-winning gospel singer
- Freeman Harrison Owens, inventor
- Ben Pearson, bowyer
- Edward J. Perkins, U.S. ambassador
- Elizabeth Rice, actress
- Andree Layton Roaf, justice of Arkansas Supreme Court (mother of Wille Roaf)
- Willie Roaf, NFL Hall of Famer (son of Andree Layton Roaf)
- John Roane (1817–1867), 4th Governor of Arkansas; Brigadier General in provisional Army of Confederate States
- Bobby Rush, musician, member of Blues Hall of Fame
- William Seawell, brigadier general in U.S. Air Force
- Peggy Shannon, actress
- Les Spann, jazz musician
- Jeremy Sprinkle, (White Hall) tight end for NFL's Washington Football Team
- Katherine Stinson, aviator
- James L. Stone, Medal of Honor recipient
- Francis Cecil Sumner, psychologist
- Jerry Taylor, businessman, legislator, Mayor of Pine Bluff
- Clark Terry, Grammy Award-winning jazz musician
- Sue Bailey Thurman, African-American author, lecturer, and historian
- Krista White, winner of America's Next Top Model Cycle 14
- Reggie Wilkes, football player, financial advisor
- J. Mayo Williams, blues/gospel/jazz producer, member of Blues Hall of Fame
- Mary Mouser, actress known for the role of Samantha LaRusso in Cobra Kai
- Bandō, Ibaraki, Japan– sister city since October 9, 1989
- Hestand Stadium
- List of cities and towns in Arkansas
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Arkansas
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 3, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". April 1, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- "Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain" (PDF). Retrieved October 7, 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Arkansas Lakes and Rivers". Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "History of Pine Bluff". Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- "Arkansas City Listings". Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "The Seminoles" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
- "Rebellion: John Horse and the Black Seminoles". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Sequoyah Research Center: A Chronicle, 1830–1849". Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
- "Slavery In Arkansas". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Antioch Missionary Baptist Church Cemetery, Sherrill, Jefferson County". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Pine Bluff (Jefferson County)". Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Pine Bluff, Ark". Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Facts About U.S. Colored Troops: American Civil War". Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "1st Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Action At Pine Bluff". Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- "Reconstruction Historiography: A Source of Ideas". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "A Partial List of Lynchings". Retrieved September 10, 2010.
- "Two Murderers Lynched" (PDF). The New York Times. February 15, 1892. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Separate Coach Law of 1891". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Back to Africa". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- Barnes, Kenneth C. Journey of Hope: The Back-to-Africa Movement in Arkansas in the Late 1800s. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004. ISBN 0807828793. Google Books. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Leslie, James W. (1981). Pine Bluff and Jefferson County: A Pictorial History. Norfolk, Va.: Donning Co. ISBN 978-0898651485.
- Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Pulaski, Jefferson, Lonoke, Faulkner, Grant, Saline, Perry, Garland and Hot Spring Counties, Arkansas. Chicago, Nashville and St. Louis: Goodspeed Publishing Co. 1889.
- John A. Kirk, "Civil Rights Movement (Twentieth Century)", Encyclopedia of Arkansas, 2015
- "Things To Do: African American History". Archived from the original on February 5, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Hotel Pines". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Saenger Theater". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Dollarway Road". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "WOK Radio Station". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "WPA Slave Narratives". Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- Project, Federal Writers' (January 2003). Bearing Witness:Memories of Arkansas Slavery. ISBN 1557287473.
- Streissguth, Michael (2006). Johnny Cash: The Biography. Da Capo Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-306-81368-9. Retrieved January 22, 2015.
johnny cash evacuate to pine bluff flood.
- "Grider Army Airfield". Retrieved November 30, 2010.
- "Geleve Grice:1922–2004" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010.
- "Land of Unequal Opportunity". Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- Michele M. Simmsparris (Spring 1998). "What Does it Mean to See a Black Church Burning". 1 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law: 127–151. Archived from the original on November 17, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Civil Rights Movement: 20th Century History". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Leaders call 72 Hour Truce" (PDF). Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Driving for Attorney C.B. King". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Arts & Science Center for Southeast Arkansas – Encyclopedia of Arkansas". www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
- "Lights Not Out Yet at Pine Bluff". Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Arkansas Black History Quiz Bowl Association". Archived from the original on October 26, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "Hopes for Pine Bluff Pinned on Two Projects". Retrieved September 21, 2010.
- "Market on Lake Part of Revitalization Plan". Retrieved September 21, 2010.
- Herzog, Rachel (February 26, 2019). "Arkansas black mayors talk election, job ahead". Arkansas Democrat Gazette.
- "Artificial Levees". Archived from the original on May 23, 2009. Retrieved October 29, 2010.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- "Station: Pine Bluff, AR". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- "Station: Pine Bluff Grider FLD, AR". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
- "Census of Population and Housing". United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
- Bearden, Russell E. "Pine Bluff (Jefferson County)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Arkansas River Basin". Archived from the original on January 30, 2010. Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- "Pine Bluff.Com". Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- "America's Most Impoverished Cities", Forbes, October 12, 2009.
- "Quapaw Nation Cuts Ribbon on Casino Resort". KARK.com. October 20, 2020.
- "Government". City of Pine Bluff. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "City Council Page". City of Pine Bluff. Archived from the original on October 2, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff". Archived from the original on August 14, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Jefferson County, AR" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 29, 2021. - The map shows Dollarway School District as not yet merged into Pine Bluff School District.
- Howell, Cynthia (December 11, 2020). "State votes to combine Dollarway, Pine Bluff schools". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "Annexation/Transition FAQ". Pine Bluff School District. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- Murrel, I. C. (June 28, 2021). "Dollarway alumni honor district". Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
- SJCHS. "SJC: History & Heritage". Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- Hebda, Dwain (May 16, 2013). "The last class graduates from St. Joseph in Pine Bluff". Arkansas Catholic. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "Pine Bluff Catholic school to Close". KATV. May 2, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Hargett, Malea (May 12, 2012). "State's last black Catholic school to close". Arkansas Catholic. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- "Pine Bluff Public Library." Pine Bluff-Jefferson County Library System. Retrieved on August 2, 2017.
- "Watson Chapel Public Library." Pine Bluff-Jefferson County Library System. Retrieved on August 2, 2017.
- "KPBF – Grider Field Airport". AirNav. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- "Pine Bluff Transit". Cityofpinebluff.com. Archived from the original on January 8, 2017. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- "Prison History and Gallery." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on September 7, 2010.
- "Pine Bluff city, Arkansas[permanent dead link]." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on September 7, 2010.
- "Central Office." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "2006 Facts Brochure." Arkansas Department of Correction. July 1, 2005 – June 30, 2006. 25 (25/38). Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
- "Facilities." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "Barbara Ester Unit." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on August 1, 2017.
- "Pine Bluff Unit/Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "School Sites." Arkansas Correctional School. Retrieved on July 18, 2010.
- "Contact Us." Arkansas Correctional School. Retrieved on July 18, 2010.
- "Locations Archived February 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." Arkansas Department of Community Corrections. Retrieved on March 5, 2011. "7301 West 13th Street, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71602"
- "Community". Liberty Utilities. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Water Quality Information" (PDF). United Water Arkansas. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Water Quality Information" (PDF). United Water Arkansas. June 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Annual Drinking Water Quality Report" (PDF). Liberty Utilities. 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Boyd Point Treatment Facility" (PDF). NPDES Permit AR0033316. Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- "Enforcement Compliance Review" (PDF). NPDES Permit AR0033316. Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality. March 20, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Pickhardt, John B. (Winter 2009). "We Don't Intend to Have a Story: Integration in the Dollarway School District". The Arkansas Historical Quarterly. Arkansas Historical Association. 68 (4): 357–387. JSTOR 40543600. - cited pages 359-360.
- Encyclopedia of Arkansas - Larry Dell Alexander
- "Joseph Carter Corbin". Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Kilpatrick, Judith. "Desegregating the University of Arkansas School of Law: L. Clifford Davis and the Six Pioneers" (PDF). Arkansas Black Lawyers. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
- "Vivian Flowers". arkansashouse.org. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- "University of Arkansas Mourns Death of Civil Rights Activist Christopher Mercer". November 26, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "Raye Jean Jordan Montague". Retrieved November 17, 2018.
- Pine Bluff and Jefferson County, Arkansas: Descriptive Pamphlet. Jefferson County Exposition and Bureau of Agriculture, Manufactures and Immigration. February 22, 1895 – via Graphic Printing Company, Pine Bluff, Ark.
- Pine Bluff and Jefferson County, Arkansas: Full Description (World's Fair ed.). Jefferson County Bureau of Agriculture, Manufactures and Immigration. May 1893.