Pine oil

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Not to be confused with Pine nut oil.
For the byproduct of wood pulp production sometimes called pine oil, see tall oil.
Pine oil[1]
Pine (Pinus sylvestris) essential oil in a clear glass vial
Other names
Essential oil of pine
8002-09-3 YesY
PubChem 2435
Appearance Colorless to pale yellow liquid
Density 0.95 g/cm3 at 25 °C (approximate)
Melting point 5 °C (41 °F; 278 K)
Boiling point 195 °C (383 °F; 468 K)
log P 1.7
Vapor pressure 4 mmHg
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperature before ignition can occur. Flash point between 38 and 93 °C (100 and 200 °F). E.g., diesel fuel Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 65 °C (149 °F; 338 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Pine oil is an essential oil obtained by the steam distillation of needles, twigs and cones from a variety of species of pine, particularly Pinus sylvestris.

It is used in aromatherapy, as a scent in bath oils, as a cleaning product, and as a lubricant in small and expensive clockwork instruments. It is naturally deodorizing, and antibacterial[citation needed]. It may also be used varyingly as a disinfectant, massage oil and an antiseptic[citation needed]. It is also used as an effective organic herbicide where its action is to modify the waxy cuticle of plants, resulting in desiccation.[2]

Pine oil is distinguished from other products from pine, such as turpentine, the low-boiling fraction from the distillation of pine sap, and rosin, the thick tar remaining after turpentine is distilled.

Chemically, pine oil consists mainly of cyclic terpene alcohols.[1] It may also contain terpene hydrocarbons, ethers, and esters. The exact composition depends on various factors, such as the variety of pine from which it is produced and the parts of the tree used.

Properties as a disinfectant[edit]

Pine oil is a phenolic disinfectant that is mildly antiseptic.[3] Pine oil disinfectants are relatively inexpensive and widely available. They are effective against Brevibacterium ammoniagenes, the fungi Candida albicans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Gram-negative enteric bacteria, household germs, Gram-negative household germs such as those causing salmonellosis, herpes simplex types 1 and 2, influenza type A, influenza virus type A/Brazil, influenza virus type A2/Japan, intestinal bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, odor-causing bacteria, mold, mildew, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhosa, Serratia marcescens, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.[4]

It will kill the causative agents of typhoid, gastroenteritis (some agents), rabies, enteric fever, cholera, several forms of meningitis, whooping cough, gonorrhea and several types of dysentery.[5] It is not effective against spore related illnesses, such as tetanus or anthrax, or against non-enveloped viruses such as poliovirus, rhinovirus, hepatitis B or hepatitis C.[5]

Froth flotation[edit]

Industrially, pine oil is used as collector in metal extraction from ores.[1] For example, in copper extraction pine oil is used to soak all copper sulfide ores for froth flotation. Therefore, it is important in the industry for the froth flotation process.


Pine oil has a relatively low human toxicity level, a low corrosion level and limited persistence; however, it irritates the skin and mucous membranes and has been known to cause breathing problems.[3] Large doses may cause central nervous system depression.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d Merck Index, 11th Edition, 7416. p. 1182
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b PDRhealth
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b Detailed Information On Chemical Disinfectants University of Arizona Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, accessed June 26, 2007.