|平話 / 平话|
Pinghua written in Chinese characters
|6.96 million (2016)|
|ISO 639-3||None (|
|Cantonese Yale||Pìhng Wá|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Píng Huà|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Cantonese Yale||Gwóngsāi Pìhng Wá|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Guǎngxī Píng Huà|
Pinghua (simplified Chinese: 平话; traditional Chinese: 平話; pinyin: Pínghuà; Yale: Pìhng Wá; sometimes disambiguated as Chinese: 廣西平話/广西平话) is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in Hunan province. Pinghua is a trade language in some areas of Guangxi, where it is spoken as a second language by speakers of Zhuang languages. Some speakers of Pinghua are officially classified as Zhuang, and many are genetically distinct from most other Han Chinese. The northern subgroup of Pinghua is centered on Guilin and the southern subgroup around Nanning. Southern Pinghua has several notable features such as having four distinct checked tones, and using various loanwords from the Zhuang languages, such as the final particle wei for imperative sentences.
History and classification
Language surveys in Guangxi during the 1950s recorded varieties of Chinese that had been included in the Yue dialect group but were different from those in Guangdong. Pinghua was designated as a separate dialect group from Yue by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in the 1980s:15 and since then has been treated as a separate dialect in textbooks and surveys. However, it is not at present noted in Ethnologue.[when?]
Since designation as a separate dialect group, Pinghua has been the focus of increased research. In 2008 a report by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences of research into Chinese varieties noted an increase in research papers and surveys of Pinghua, from 7 before the 1987 publication of the Language Atlas of China based on the revised classification, and about 156 between then and 2004.
Pinghua is divided into two mutually unintelligible subgroups:
- The Northern Pinghua (Guìběi 桂北平话) is spoken in northern Guangxi, around the city of Guilin, in close proximity with Southwest Mandarin dialects.
- and also in a some places in Hunan, such as Tongdao.
- The Southern Pinghua (Guìnán 桂南平话) is spoken in southern Guangxi, around the city of Nanning. These varieties form a dialect continuum with Yue varieties spoken in that part of Guangxi (excluding enclaves of Cantonese, such as in Nanning). Yu Jin subdivides this group into three types:
Nanning Pinghua has a voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ] for Middle Chinese /s/ or /z/, for example in the numbers /ɬam/ "three" and /ɬi/ "four". This is unlike Standard Cantonese but like some other Yue varieties such as Taishanese.
|高||52 [˥˨]||33 [˧]||55 [˥]||5 [˥]|
|高||21 [˨˩]||24 [˨˦]||22 [˨]||23 [˨˧]|
Genetically, Pinghua speakers have more in common with non-Han ethnic minorities in southern China than with other Han groups.
- 广西平话研究 Main Editor 余谨 ISBN 978-7-5161-8896-5 page 24
- Gan, Rui-Jing; Pan, Shang-Ling; Mustavich, Laura F.; Qin, Zhen-Dong; Cai, Xiao-Yun; Qian, Ji; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Peng, Jun-Hua; Li, Shi-Lin; Xu, Jie-Shun; Jin, Li; Li, Hui; The Genographic Consortium (1 April 2008). "Pinghua population as an exception of Han Chinese's coherent genetic structure". Journal of Human Genetics. 53 (4): 303–313. doi:10.1007/s10038-008-0250-x. Retrieved 16 January 2019 – via Springer Link.
- 现代汉语 (Xiàndài Hànyǔ) [Modern Chinese]. Hsing, Fu-I., 邢福义 (Xíng Fúyì). (1st ed.). [Peking]: Gao deng jiao yu chu ban she. 1991. ISBN 704002652X. OCLC 32842413.CS1 maint: others (link)
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- de Sousa, Hilário (2016). "Language contact in Nanning: Nanning Pinghua and Nanning Cantonese". In Chappell, Hilary M. (ed.). Diversity in Sinitic Languages. Oxford University Press. pp. 157–189. ISBN 978-0-19-872379-0. p. 162.
- de Sousa (2016), p. 160.
- Yan, Margaret Mian (2006). Introduction to Chinese Dialectology. LINCOM Europa. p. 204. ISBN 978-3-89586-629-6.
- "Learn a language the most natural way - Glossika". Ai.glossika.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Tan, Yuanxiong 覃远雄; Wei, Shuguan 韦树关; Bian, Chenglin 卞成林 (1997). Nánníng Pínghuà cídiǎn 南宁平话词典 [Nanning Pinghua Dictionary]. Nanning: Jiangsu jiaoyu chubanshe. p. 6. ISBN 978-7-5343-3119-0. (part of the Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects, edited by Li Rong)
- Lee, Gina (1993). Comparative, diachronic and experimental perspectives on the interaction between tone and the vowel in Standard Cantonese (PDF) (Ph.D. thesis). Ohio State University. pp. 75–76.
- Xie Jianyou [谢建猷], et al. 2007. Studies on the Han Chinese dialects of Guangxi [广西汉语方言研究]. Nanning: Guangxi People's Publishing House [广西人民出版社].
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