Pinguicula vulgaris, the common butterwort, is a perennial carnivorous plant in the bladderwort family Lentibulariaceae. It grows to a height of 3–16 cm, and is topped with a purple, and occasionally white, flower that is 15 mm or longer, and shaped like a funnel. This butterwort grows in damp environments such as bogs and swamps, in low or subalpine elevations. It has a generally circumboreal distribution, being native to almost every country in Europe as well as Russia, Canada, and the United States. Being native to environments with cold winters, they produce a winter-resting bud (hibernaculum) during the winter. There are three forms originating from Europe: P. vulgaris f. bicolor which has petals that are white and purple; P. vulgaris f. albida which has all white petals; and P. vulgaris f. alpicola which has unusually large flowers. 
- Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Lone Pine Publishing, 1994. p. 351
- Anderberg, Arne. "Den Virtuella Floran, Pinguicula vulgaris L.". Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden.
- The Savage Garden, Revised: Cultivating Carnivorous Plants. Random House LLC, 2013.
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