Animals (Pink Floyd album)
|Studio album by Pink Floyd|
|Released||23 January 1977|
|Studio||Britannia Row Studios, London|
|Pink Floyd chronology|
Animals is the tenth studio album by English rock band Pink Floyd. It was first released on 23 January 1977 by Harvest Records in the United Kingdom and by Columbia Records in the United States. It is a concept album that provides a scathing critique of the social-political conditions of late 1970s Britain, and presents a marked change in musical style from their earlier work. Animals was recorded at the band's Britannia Row Studios in London, but its production was punctuated by the early signs of discord that, three years later, would culminate in keyboardist Richard Wright leaving the band. The album's cover image, a pig floating between two chimneys of the Battersea Power Station, was conceived by the band's bassist and lead songwriter Roger Waters, and was designed by long-time collaborator Storm Thorgerson.
The album was released to generally positive reviews in the United Kingdom, where it reached number 2 on the UK Albums Chart. It was also a success in the United States, reaching number 3 on the US Billboard 200, and although it scored on US charts for half a year, steady sales have resulted in its certification by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) at 4x platinum. The size of the venues of the band's In the Flesh Tour prompted an incident in which Waters spat at members of the audience, setting the background for the band's next studio album The Wall, released two years later.
In 1975, Pink Floyd bought a three-storey block of church halls at 35 Britannia Row in Islington, north London. Their deal with Harvest Records' parent company EMI for unlimited studio time in return for a reduced percentage of sales had expired, and they converted the building into a recording studio and storage facility. Its construction took up most of 1975, and in April 1976 the band started work on their tenth studio album, Animals, at the new facility.
Animals was engineered by a previous Floyd collaborator, Brian Humphries, and recording took place at Britannia Row from April to December 1976, continuing into early 1977. "Raving and Drooling" and "You've Got to Be Crazy", two songs previously performed live and considered for Wish You Were Here, reappeared as "Sheep" and "Dogs" respectively. They were reworked to fit the new concept, and separated by a Waters-penned composition, "Pigs (Three Different Ones)". With the exception of "Dogs" (co-written by David Gilmour) the album's five tracks were written by Waters. The song contains references to Waters' private life; his new romantic interest was Carolyne Anne Christie (married to Rock Scully, manager of the Grateful Dead). Gilmour was distracted by the birth of his first child, and contributed little else towards the songwriting of the album. Similarly, neither Mason nor Wright contributed as much as they had on previous albums, and Animals was the first Pink Floyd album not to contain a composer's credit for Wright.
The band had discussed employing another guitarist for future tours, and Snowy White was therefore invited into the studio. When Waters and Mason inadvertently erased one of Gilmour's completed guitar solos, White was asked to record a solo on "Pigs on the Wing". Although his performance was omitted from the vinyl release, it was included on the eight-track cartridge version. White later performed on the Animals tour. Mason recalled that he enjoyed working on Animals more than he had working on Wish You Were Here.
Loosely based on George Orwell's political fable Animal Farm, the album's lyrics describe various classes in society as different kinds of animals: the combative dogs, the despotic ruthless pigs, and the "mindless and unquestioning herd" of sheep. Whereas the novella focuses on Stalinism, the album is a critique of capitalism and differs again in that the sheep eventually rise up to overpower the dogs. The album was developed from a collection of unrelated songs into a concept which, in the words of author Glenn Povey, "described the apparent social and moral decay of society, likening the human condition to that of mere animals".
Apart from its critique of society, the album is also a part-response to the punk rock movement, which grew in popularity as a nihilistic statement against the prevailing social and political conditions, and also a reaction to the general complacency and nostalgia that appeared to surround rock music. Pink Floyd were an obvious target for punk musicians, notably Johnny Rotten of The Sex Pistols, who wore a Pink Floyd T-shirt on which the words "I hate" had been written in ink; Lydon, however, has constantly said it was done for a laugh (he was a fan of several progressive rock bands of the era, including Magma and Van Der Graaf Generator). Drummer Nick Mason later stated that he welcomed the "Punk Rock insurrection" and viewed it as a welcome return to the underground scene from which Pink Floyd originated. In 1977 he produced The Damned's second album, Music for Pleasure, at Britannia Row.
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In his 2008 book Comfortably Numb, author Mark Blake argues that "Dogs" contains some of David Gilmour's finest work; although the guitarist sings only one lead vocal, his performance is "explosive". The song also contains notable contributions from Wright, which echo the synthesizer sounds used on the band's previous album, Wish You Were Here.
"Pigs (Three Different Ones)" is audibly similar to "Have a Cigar", with bluesy guitar fills and elaborate bass lines. Of the song's three pigs, the only one directly identified is morality campaigner Mary Whitehouse, who amongst other things is described as a "house-proud town mouse".
"Sheep" contains a modified version of Psalm 23, which continues the traditional "The Lord is my shepherd" with words like "he maketh me to hang on hooks in high places and converteth me to lamb cutlets". Towards the end of the song, the eponymous sheep rise up and kill the dogs, but later retire back to their homes. Wright played the song's introduction unaccompanied on the electric piano, but did not receive a writing credit for it.
The album is book-ended by each half of "Pigs on the Wing", a simple love song in which a glimmer of hope is offered despite the anger expressed in the album's three other songs. Described by author Andy Mabbett as "[sitting] in stark contrast to the heavyweight material between them", the two halves of the song were heavily influenced by Waters' relationship with his then-wife.
Once the album was complete, work began on its cover. Hipgnosis, designer of the band's previous album covers, offered three ideas, one of which was a small child entering his parents' bedroom to find them having sex: "copulating, like animals!" The final concept was, unusually, designed by Waters. At the time he lived near Clapham Common, and regularly drove past Battersea Power Station, which was by then approaching the end of its useful life. A view of the building was chosen for the cover image, and the band commissioned German company Ballon Fabrik (who had previously constructed Zeppelin airships) and Australian artist Jeffrey Shaw to build a 40-foot (12 m) porcine balloon (known as Algie). The balloon was inflated with helium and maneuvered into position on 2 December 1976, with a marksman ready to fire if it escaped. Inclement weather delayed work, and the band's manager Steve O'Rourke neglected to book the marksman for a second day; the balloon broke free of its moorings and disappeared from view. The pig flew over Heathrow, resulting in panic and cancelled flights; pilots also spotted the pig in the air. It eventually landed in Kent and was recovered by a local farmer, who was apparently furious that it had scared his cows. The balloon was recovered and filming continued for a third day, but as the early photographs of the power station were considered better, the image of the pig was later superimposed onto one of those.
During the Isles of Wonder short film shot by Danny Boyle and shown as part of the Opening Ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, the camera zooms down the length of the River Thames, from a small spring in the countryside all the way to the Olympic venue. During the fly-by, a pig can be seen floating above Battersea Power Station.
The album's theme continues onto the record's picture labels. Side one's label shows a fisheye lens view of a dog and the English countryside, and side two features a pig and sheep, in the same setting. Mason's handwriting is used as a typeface throughout the packaging. The gatefold features monochrome photographs of the dereliction around the power station.
|Christgau's Record Guide||B+|
|The Daily Telegraph|||
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|The Great Rock Discography||8/10|
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
The album's release followed Capital Radio's broadcast two days earlier of The Pink Floyd Story, and an evening press conference held at the power station two days before that. The broadcast was originally to have been an exclusive for the London-based station, who since mid-December had been broadcasting The Pink Floyd Story, but a copy was given to John Peel, who played side one of the album in its entirety a day earlier.
Animals was released in the UK on 23 January 1977,[nb 1] and in the US on 12 February. It reached number two in the UK, and three in the US. Thanks to the album and the band's back catalogue, noted The Guinness Book of British Hit Albums, "Pink Floyd bested ABBA for most weeks on chart (in 1977), 108 to 106."
NME called Animals "one of the most extreme, relentless, harrowing and downright iconoclastic hunks of music to have been made available this side of the sun", and Melody Maker's Karl Dallas described it as an "uncomfortable taste of reality in a medium that has become in recent years, increasingly soporific". Rolling Stone's Frank Rose was unimpressed, writing: "The 1977 Floyd has turned bitter and morose. They complain about the duplicity of human behavior (and then title their songs after animals – get it?). They sound like they've just discovered this – their message has become pointless and tedious." Robert Christgau of The Village Voice gave the album a "B+" rating and found the negative reaction overly cynical, reasoning that the album functions simply as "a piece of well-constructed political program music ... lyrical, ugly, and rousing, all in the right places".
In his 2004 autobiography Inside Out, Nick Mason suggests that the album's perceived harshness, when compared to previous Floyd releases, may be a result of a "workman-like mood in the studio", and an unconscious reaction to the accusations from the aforementioned punk genre that bands like Pink Floyd represented "dinosaur rock". Animals was certified by the RIAA as 4× Platinum on 31 January 1995.
Originally released on Harvest Records in the UK and Columbia Records in the US, Animals was issued on Compact Disc (CD) in 1985,[nb 2] and in the US in 1987.[nb 3] It was reissued as a digitally remastered CD with new artwork in 1994,[nb 4] and as a digitally remastered limited-edition vinyl album in 1997.[nb 5] An anniversary edition was released in the US in the same year,[nb 6] followed in 2000 by a reissue from Capitol Records.[nb 7] The album was also included in the Shine On box set in 1992, in the 2007 Oh, By The Way box set and in the 2011 Why Pink Floyd...? re-release series both in the box set and as a standalone 'Discovery' edition CD[nb 8].
The album became the subject material for the band's In the Flesh Tour, which began in Dortmund on the same day the album was released. The tour continued through continental Europe in February, the UK in March, the US for three weeks in April and May, and another three weeks in the US in June and July. Algie became the inspiration for a number of pig themes used throughout. An inflatable pig was floated over the audience, and during each performance was replaced with a cheaper, but explosive version. On one occasion the mild propane gas was replaced with an oxygen-acetylene mixture, producing a massive (and dangerous) explosion. German promoter Marcel Avram presented the band with a piglet in Munich, only for it to leave a trail of broken mirrors and excrement across its mirrored hotel room, leaving manager O'Rourke to deal with the resulting fallout.
The band were joined by familiar figures such as Dick Parry and Snowy White, but relations within the band became fraught. Waters took to arriving at the venues alone, departing as soon as each performance was over. On one occasion, Wright flew back to England, threatening to leave the band. The size of the venues was also an issue; in Chicago, the promoters claimed to have sold out the 67,000 person regular capacity of the Soldier Field stadium (after which ticket sales should have been ended), but Waters and O'Rourke were suspicious. They hired a helicopter, photographer and attorney, and discovered that the actual attendance was 95,000; a shortfall to the band of $640,000. The end of the tour was a low point for Gilmour, who felt that they had by now achieved the success they originally sought, and that there was nothing else they could look forward to. In July 1977 – on the final date at the Montreal Olympic Stadium – a small group of noisy and excited fans in the front row of the audience irritated Waters to such an extent that he spat at one of them. He was not the only person who felt depressed about playing to such large audiences, as Gilmour refused to perform a third encore. Waters later spoke with producer Bob Ezrin and told him of his sense of alienation on the tour, and how he sometimes felt like building a wall to separate himself from the audience. The spitting incident would later form the basis of a new concept, which would eventually become one of the band's most successful album releases, The Wall.
All tracks written and all lead vocals performed by Roger Waters, except where noted.
|1.||"Pigs on the Wing 1"||1:25|
|2.||"Dogs"||Waters, Gilmour||Gilmour, Waters||17:03|
|1.||"Pigs (Three Different Ones)"||11:25|
|3.||"Pigs on the Wing 2"||1:23|
- David Gilmour – lead guitar, co-lead vocals, rhythm and acoustic guitar on "Dogs", bass guitar on "Pigs (Three Different Ones)" and "Sheep", talk box on "Pigs (Three Different Ones)"
- Nick Mason – drums, percussion, tape effects
- Roger Waters – lead and harmony vocals, acoustic guitar on "Pigs on the Wing", rhythm guitar on "Pigs (Three Different Ones)" and "Sheep", tape effects, vocoder, bass guitar on "Dogs"
- Richard Wright – Hammond organ, electric piano, Minimoog, ARP string synthesizer, piano, clavinet, harmony vocals on "Dogs"
- Pink Floyd
- Brian Humphries – engineering
- Roger Waters – sleeve concept
- Storm Thorgerson – sleeve design (organiser)
- Aubrey Powell – sleeve design (organiser), photography
- Nick Mason – graphics
- Peter Christopherson – photography
- Howard Bartrop – photography
- Nic Tucker – photography
- Bob Ellis – photography
- Rob Brimson – photography
- Colin Jones – photography
- E. R. G. Amsterdam – inflatable pig design
Charts and certifications
- Povey (2007) suggests the album was released on 21 January, Mason (2005) suggests 28 January
- EMI CDP 7461282
- Columbia CK 34474
- EMI CD EMD 1060
- EMI EMD 1116
- Columbia CK 68521
- Capitol CDP 724382974826
- EMI 50999 028951 2 3
- Greene, Andy (16 August 2013). "Weekend Rock Question: What Is the Best Prog Rock Album of the 1970s?". Rolling Stone. New York. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Mason 2005, pp. 218–220
- Blake 2008, p. 239
- Povey 2007, p. 208
- Blake 2008, pp. 244–245
- Blake 2008, pp. 242–243
- Mason 2005, p. 220
- Schaffner 1991, p. 199
- Blake 2008, pp. 241–242
- Povey 2007, p. 200
- Browne, Pat (15 June 2001), "Pink Floyd", The guide to United States popular culture, p. 610, ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2
- Schaffner 1991, pp. 194–196
- Blake 2008, p. 243
- Shea 2009, p. 94
- Blake 2008, pp. 243–244
- Shea 2009, p. 91
- Mabbett 1995, p. 70
- Mabbett 1995, pp. 70–71
- Blake 2008, p. 245
- Povey 2007, p. 201
- Jeffrey Shaw, Pig for Pink Floyd, medienkunstnetz.de, retrieved 21 May 2009
- Blake 2008, p. 246
- Mason 2005, pp. 223–225
- "Opening Ceremony: The Isles of Wonder – Video". NBC Olympics. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Album review at AllMusic. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
- Christgau, Robert. "Album: Pink Floyd: Animals". Retrieved 10 September 2012.
- McCormick, Neil (20 May 2014). "Pink Floyd's 14 studio albums rated". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Larkin 2011, pp. 2065–66.
- "Pink Floyd Animals". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel (eds) (1999). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album Guide. Farmington Hills, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 872. ISBN 1-57859-061-2.
- Album review, pitchfork.com, retrieved 4 July 2011
- Garratt, John (22 November 2011). "Pink Floyd: Animals". PopMatters. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Sheffield, Rob (2 November 2004). "Pink Floyd: Album Guide". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media, Fireside Books. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- Povey 2007, p. 347
- *Roberts, David (editor). The Guinness Book of British Hit Albums, p18. Guinness Publishing Ltd. 7th edition (1996). ISBN 0-85112-619-7
- Blake 2008, p. 247
- Rose, Frank (24 March 1977), Pink Floyd Animals, rollingstone.com, archived at web.archive.org, archived from the original on 18 June 2008, retrieved 13 October 2009
- Christgau, Robert (25 April 1977). "Christgau's Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Mason 2005, pp. 220–221
- Searchable database, riaa.com, archived from the original on 26 June 2007, retrieved 13 October 2009
- Mason 2005, pp. 225–226
- Blake 2008, pp. 248–249
- Blake 2008, pp. 252–253
- Mason 2005, p. 230
- Mason 2005, pp. 235–236
- Povey 2007, p. 217.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (Illustrated ed.). St. Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 233. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "Austriancharts.at – Pink Floyd – Animals" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Top RPM Albums: Issue 5269a". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Pink Floyd – Animals" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "15.04.1977". Musikmarkt. Musikmarkt GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "New Zealand charts portal (27/03/1977)". charts.org.nz. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Norwegian charts portal (11/1977)". norwegiancharts.com. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Hits of the World - Spain". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 30 April 1977. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Pink Floyd – Animals". Hung Medien. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Pink Floyd | Artist | Official Charts". UK Albums Chart. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Pink Floyd Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Archivio - Album - Classifica settimanale WK 30 (dal 24-07-2006 al 30-07-2006)". Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- "Archivio - Album - Classifica settimanale WK 44 (dal 01-11-2010 al 07-11-2010)". Federation of the Italian Music Industry. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Les charts francais (01/10/2011)". lescharts.com. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Norwegian charts portal (39/2011)". norwegiancharts.com. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- "Swisscharts.com – Pink Floyd – Animals". Hung Medien. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Spanishcharts.com – Pink Floyd – Animals". Hung Medien. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Austrian album certifications – Pink Floyd – Animals" (in German). IFPI Austria. Retrieved 5 August 2014. Enter Pink Floyd in the field Interpret. Enter Animals in the field Titel. Select album in the field Format. Click Suchen
- "Canadian album certifications – Pink Floyd – Animals". Music Canada. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "French album certifications – Pink Floyd – Animals" (in French). InfoDisc. Retrieved 5 August 2014. Select PINK FLOYD and click OK
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Pink Floyd; 'Animals')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "Italian album certifications – Pink Floyd – Animals" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "British album certifications – Pink Floyd – Animals". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 5 August 2014. Enter Animals in the search field and then press Enter.
- "American album certifications – Pink Floyd – Animals". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 5 August 2014. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- Blake, Mark (2008), Comfortably Numb – The Inside Story of Pink Floyd, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-81752-7
- Larkin, Colin (2011). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-85712-595-8.
- Mason, Nick (2005), Philip Dodd, ed., Inside Out – A Personal History of Pink Floyd (Paperback ed.), Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1906-6
- Mabbett, Andy (1995), The Complete Guide to the Music of Pink Floyd, Omnibus Pr, ISBN 0-7119-4301-X
- Povey, Glenn (2007), Echoes, Mind Head Publishing, ISBN 0-9554624-0-1
- Schaffner, Nicholas (1991), Saucerful of Secrets (1st ed.), London: Sidgwick & Jackson, ISBN 0-283-06127-8
- Shea, Stuart (2009), Pink Floyd FAQ: Everything Left to Know ... and More!, Backbeat Books, ISBN 1-61713-394-9
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