Pink diamond

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Pink diamond
The Steinmetz Pink.png
General
Category Native minerals
Formula
(repeating unit)
C
Strunz classification 1.CB.10a
Crystal system Cubic
Crystal class Hexoctahedral (m3m)
H-M symbol: (4/m 3 2/m)
Identification
Formula mass 12.01 g/mol
Color Faint pink to deep pink
Crystal habit Octahedral
Twinning Spinel law common (yielding "macle")
Cleavage 111 (perfect in four directions)
Fracture Conchoidal (shell-like)
Mohs scale hardness 10 (defining mineral)
Luster Adamantine
Diaphaneity Transparent to subtransparent to translucent
Specific gravity 3.52±0.01
Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm3
Polish luster Adamantine
Optical properties Isotropic
Refractive index 2.418 (at 500 nm)
Birefringence None
Pleochroism None
Dispersion 0.044
Melting point Pressure dependent
References [1]

Pink diamond is a type of diamond which has all the same elements as more commonly known diamonds except that they also exhibit pink color. The source of their pink color is greatly debated in the gemological world but it is most commonly attributed to enormous additional pressure that these diamonds undergo during their formation. [2]Pink diamonds belong to a subcategory of diamonds called fancy color diamonds, the generic name for all diamonds that exhibit any sort of color. [2] Pink diamonds range from flawless to included, just as white diamonds. Several pink diamonds with internally flawless clarity have been discovered, but only one is known to be completely flawless, the Pink Star (which was shortly renamed the Pink Dream until it diverted to Sotheby’s). [3]

Origin of the Pink Color[edit]

Numerous theories have been posited as to how the pink is formed in pink diamonds. The prevailing theory is that the pink is caused when the diamond is subjected to enormous pressure during its formation. A similar theory is being tested on pink diamonds that originated in the Argyle Mine in Kimberley, Western Australia. This theory posits that a seismic shock propelled colorless diamonds to the surface and altered their molecular structure, causing them to appear pink. [4][5][6]


Properties determining value[edit]

The same four basic parameters that govern the grading of all gemstones are used to grade pink diamonds–the four Cs of Connoisseurship: Color, Clarity, Cut and Carat weight. Color is considered the absolute most important criterion in grading a pink diamond and determining its value. However, size is an important consideration in a pink diamond’s value. The larger a pink diamond, and the better its color, the more valuable it will be. [7] The most famous pink diamond is the now infamous Pink Star diamond, a 59.60 carat Fancy Vivid Pink Type IIa diamond which is the largest vivid pink diamond in the world and whose buyer at auction was unable to pay the promised sum and was subsequently forced to default. [8] The Daria-i-Noor diamond and the Noor-ul-Ain diamond are the oldest known pink diamonds, and both belong to the Iranian crown jewels. [9] Several other famous pink diamonds exist as well.

Color[edit]

As with the color in all fancy color diamonds, the color in pink diamonds is assessed according to its hue, saturation and tone. [10] The hue refers to the primary and secondary colors, the saturation refers to the distribution of color, and the tone refers to the darkness of the color. Pink diamonds can occur in hues ranging from brown-pink to purple-pink, although pink can also be a modifying color in other diamond colors. Brown, orange and purple are the only occurring secondary hues in pink diamonds although a pink diamond can exhibit both brown and orange overtones at the same time, making it a “brownish orangey pink” diamond. [11]The ideal pink diamonds are generally considered to be those which exhibit pure pink color although purple-pink diamonds are generally very highly regarded as well. Generally speaking, a vivid pink diamond will be more valuable than a larger lighter pink diamond, although it is not always the case according to the Diamond Investment & Intelligence Center. [12] Pink diamonds can occur in eight intensities, faint pink, very light pink, light pink, fancy light pink, fancy pink, fancy intense pink, fancy vivid pink, fancy deep/dark pink. [13] Just like in all fancy color diamonds, the more vivid intensity pink diamonds are far rarer than the less vivid, which is in part why they demand a higher price. The same cause in nature which is the course of the pink in pink diamonds can be more or less concentrated depending on the specimen. That is why it is so rare to find the most concentrated diamonds in each color. There is no perfect consensus as to what defines each color intensity grade, even though the GIA keeps a master catalog of each diamond color. Therefore, each color intensity also has a subscale of 1-10. [14] Within the industry, a diamond trader may call a diamond “Fancy Vivid” or “Fancy Intense” but will often also call the diamond “a 7” or whichever number is most apropos to the diamond’s appearance, which enables the most thorough representation of the diamond’s color intensity.

Pink diamond color scale.jpg

Pink diamonds fall under the category of Type IIa diamonds, meaning that they form under remarkably high pressure for longer time periods, and tend to have an irregular shape. They have no visible absorption, no nitrogen impurities that may cause a yellow or brown tint. [15] The Argyle Mine, the world’s current main source for pink diamonds, has developed their own pink diamond color classification system separate from that of the GIA. Instead of intensity, the color is divided into a scale from 1-9, 9 being the lightest and 1 being the darkest. However, Argyle pink diamonds still receive GIA certificates. [16]

Argyle-pink-diamonds-colour-chart.jpg

Clarity[edit]

All diamonds are examined under a loupe to determine their clarity. This 10x magnification determines whether or not the diamond exhibits inclusions either on its surface or inside. Like all diamonds, pink diamond clarity is measured on a scale from Flawless to Included. Only 7% of pink diamonds are either Flawless or Internally Flawless (IF), and majority are Slightly Included (SI). [17] Like most of the colors of fancy color diamonds, the clarity has little effect on a pink diamond’s value. Since pink diamonds are formed by a deformation on their lattice structure, their probably of a low clarity grade is higher, making high clarity pink diamonds extremely rare (<7%). [18]

Fluorescence[edit]

According to the GIA, more than 80% of pink diamonds display fluorescence. It is so rare for a pink diamond not to have fluorescence that in the case of pink diamonds, one that does not display fluorescence will actually be priced lower than one that does, out of suspicion that the diamond may be fake.[19]


Artificial Pink Diamonds[edit]

A pink diamond is only considered genuine, valuable, and investment-grade if it is pink from its inception. Natural colorless diamonds have been colored pink to various degrees of success, but it is more common to find synthetic diamonds/lab grown diamonds that are pink. A synthetic diamond is chemically the same as a mined diamond but its value is proportionally much lower. Therefore, a synthetic pink diamond does not have the value of a genuine pink diamond. Generally speaking, if a diamond is priced well beneath the market value, it is because the diamond is synthetic and the seller is hoping to make a sale. Trustworthy laboratories such as that of the GIA have equipment to determine whether or not a diamond is genuine or synthetic. Currently the only successful method to grow an artificial pink diamond is the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD).[20] A gem quality CVD pink diamond undergoes a process where a colorless diamond has an imperfection introduced into the diamond’s lattice structure. [21]


Pink diamond source mines[edit]

Pink diamonds have been found in Brazil, Russia, Siberia, South Africa, Tanzania and Canada. [22] Pink diamonds were first discovered in India, in the Kollur mine in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh (which at the time was part of the Golconda kingdom), one of two of the earliest known diamonds are thought to have originated.[23][24][25] Concurrently, and throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, pink diamonds were being discovered in the Minas Gerais region of Brazil. [26] Pink diamonds are still occasionally found in the Golconda mine and in Brazil but to date, 80% of the world’s pink diamonds now originate from the Argyle mine in Kimberley, Western Australia. Out of the mine’s 20 million carat annual output, only 0.1% are classified as pink diamonds. After the diamonds are polished, the total carats of pink diamonds becomes smaller still. This makes pink diamonds not only rare but also difficult to obtain, as all interested buyers of pink diamonds around the world are consequently fixed on Argyle pink diamonds. [27]


Pink diamonds in popular culture[edit]

The earliest known pink diamonds are the Daria-i-noor and the Noor-ul-ain diamonds which are both part of the Iranian crown jewels. [28] However, this fact alone does account for pink diamonds’ current popularity. In 1947, Princess Elizabeth, now Queen Elizabeth II, received a 23.6 carat pink diamond from Canadian geologist Dr. John Williamson, who had it set as a brooch designed as a jonquil by Cartier, and which remains one of her favorites until today. [29] However, the real push for pink diamonds into the spotlight was in 2002 when Ben Affleck proposed to Jennifer Lopez with a 6.1 carat pink diamond engagement ring. This catapulted pink diamonds into the public’s mindset and began the immense rise in pink diamond prices that still exists today. [30] Pink diamonds hit their peak of fame when the Pink Star diamond was bid on at auction for $83 million, renamed the Pink Dream, and whose buyer ultimately defaulted. This created a scandal in the fancy color diamond world and Sotheby’s was forced to pay the owners the promised sum, and they still remain the owners of the diamond. [31] Most recently, the record total price paid for a pink diamond is held by the Sweet Josephine Diamond, which was sold to Hong Kong billionaire Joseph Lau for $28.5 million, one day before he purchased the Blue Moon of Josephine Diamond. He purchased both diamonds for his daughter Josephine. [32]


Notable Pink Diamonds[edit]

Pink Diamond Notability
Daria-i-Noor Believed to be the oldest diamond in the Iranian crown jewels
Noor-ul-Ain Cut from the same 400 carat rough diamond as the Daria-i-Noor
The Martian Pink Originally owned by Harry Winston, sold at auction in 1976, the same year that the US sent a satellite to Mars [33]
The Unique Pink Most expensive fancy vivid pink diamond to ever sell at auction [34]
The Pink Star Originally owned by the Steinmetz Group and called the Steinmetz Pink, then sold and renamed the Pink Star, and sold again and renamed the Pink Dream
The Hortensia Diamond Belonged to the Crown Jewels of France and was worn by the Queen of Holland, Hortense de Beauharnais
The Graff Pink Most expensive pink diamond price per carat ever paid at auction [35]
The Condé Diamond Gifted in 1643 by Louis XII to the Prince of Condé, Louis de Bourbon [36]
The Agra Diamond Originally owned by Rajah of Gwalior’s family, who later handed it over to Barbur, the Moghul emperor, as a token of thanks for sparing their lives.
The Princie Diamond Originally owned by the royal family of Hyderabad

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Diamond". WebMineral. Retrieved July 7, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Rachminov, E. (2009). The Fancy Color Diamond Book: Facts and Secrets of Trading in Rarities. New York: Diamond Odyssey. ISBN 9659149905. 
  3. ^ "Will The Pink Star Diamond New Partnership Make Sotheby’s Share Price A Rising Star Again?". investments.diamonds. Diamond Investment & Intelligence Center. Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "What makes pink diamonds pink?". BBC. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  5. ^ "How Are Colored Diamonds Formed?". Diamond Price Guru. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  6. ^ "How Pink Diamonds Are Formed? – A Glimpse into Rarity". Beyond 4 C’s. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  7. ^ "Fancy Pink Diamonds". diamonds.pro. The Diamond Pro. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  8. ^ "The $83 Million Pink Diamond Default". forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  9. ^ "Darya-I- Noor". jewellermagazine.com. Jeweller Magazine. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  10. ^ Grading Fancy-Color Diamonds. Gemological Institute of America
  11. ^ "What Are The Colors Of Fancy Diamonds?". investments.diamonds. Diamond Investment & Intelligence Center. Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Fancy Color Diamonds Guide". investments.diamonds. Diamond Investment & Intelligence Center. Retrieved 22 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "Fancy Pink Diamonds: The Guide For Buyers and Investors". diamondenvy.com. Diamond Envy. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  14. ^ "Auction Price Results Misunderstood by Market". investments.diamonds. Diamond Investment & Intelligence Center. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  15. ^ "Diamond Types". Naturally Colored. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  16. ^ "Colour Grading". Argyle Pink Diamonds. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  17. ^ "Characterization And Grading Of Natural Color Pink Diamonds" Check |url= value (help). GIA.edu. Gemological Institute of America. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  18. ^ "Characterization And Grading Of Natural Color Pink Diamonds" Check |url= value (help). GIA.edu. Gemological Institute of America. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  19. ^ "Fancy Pink Diamonds: The Guide For Buyers and Investors". diamondenvy.com. Diamond Envy. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  20. ^ "Strongly Colored Pink CVD Lab-Grown Diamonds" (PDF). GIA.edu. Gemological Institute of America. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  21. ^ "What is Chemical Vapor Deposition?". Innovateus. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  22. ^ "Pink Diamonds Wiki". Naturally Colored. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  23. ^ India Before Europe, C.E.B. Asher and C. Talbot, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-521-80904-5, p. 40
  24. ^ A History of India, Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, Edition: 3, Routledge, 1998, p. 160; ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  25. ^ Deccan Heritage, H. K. Gupta, A. Parasher and D. Balasubramanian, Indian National Science Academy, 2000, p. 144, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 81-7371-285-9
  26. ^ "Diamond Mining in Minas Gerais, Brazil". GIA. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  27. ^ "Exceptional Pink to Red Diamonds: A Celebration of the 30th Argyle Diamond Tender". GIA. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  28. ^ "Darya-I- Noor". jewellermagazine.com. Jeweller Magazine. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  29. ^ "Sunday Brooch: The Williamson Diamond". The Royal Order of Sartorial Splendor. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  30. ^ "Pink Diamonds". NCDIA. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  31. ^ "The $83 Million Pink Diamond Default". forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  32. ^ "The Sweet Josephine: rare pink diamond sold in Geneva auction". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  33. ^ "The Martian Pink Diamond Sells for $17M at Christie's Hong Kong". Rapaport. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  34. ^ "Rare $31.6 million 'Unique Pink' diamond sets new auction record". CNN. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  35. ^ "Rare pink diamond sells for record-breaking £29m". BBC. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  36. ^ "The Condé". Famous Diamonds. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hofer S.C. (1998). “Collecting and Classifying Colored Diamonds: An Illustrated Study of the Aurora Collection” New York: Ashland Press. ISBN 0965941019
  • Liddicoat, R.T. (1993). “The GIA Diamond Dictionary” Santa Monica, CA: Gemological Institute of America. ISBN 0873110269
  • Rachminov, Eden (2009). “The Fancy Color Diamond Book: Facts and Secrets of Trading in Rarities” New York: Diamond Odyssey. ISBN 9659149905

External links[edit]