|Crystal class||Hexoctahedral (m3m) |
H-M symbol: (4/m 3 2/m)
|Formula mass||12.01 g/mol|
|Color||Faint pink to deep pink|
|Twinning||Spinel law common (yielding "macle")|
|Cleavage||111 (perfect in four directions)|
|Mohs scale hardness||10 (defining mineral)|
|Diaphaneity||Transparent to subtransparent to translucent|
|Refractive index||2.418 (at 500 nm)|
|Melting point||Pressure dependent|
Pink diamond is a type of diamond that has pink color. The source of their pink color is greatly debated in the gemological world but it is most commonly attributed to plastic deformation that these diamonds undergo during their formation.
Pink diamonds belong to a subcategory of diamonds called color diamonds, the generic name for all diamonds that exhibit any sort of color. Pink diamonds range from flawless to included, as do white diamonds.
Origin of the pink color
Numerous theories have been posited as to how the pink is formed in pink diamonds. The prevailing theory is that the pink is caused when the diamond is subjected to shear pressure during its formation. A similar theory is being tested on pink diamonds that originated in the Argyle Mine in Kimberley, Western Australia. This theory posits that a seismic shock propelled colorless diamonds to the surface and altered their molecular structure, causing them to appear pink.
Properties determining value
The same four basic parameters that govern the grading of all gemstones are used to grade pink diamonds–the four Cs of connoisseurship: color, clarity, cut and carat weight. Color is considered the most important criterion in grading a pink diamond and determining its value. However, size is an important consideration as well. The larger a pink diamond, and the better its color, the more valuable it will be. One of the most famous pink diamonds is the Pink Star — at 59.60-carats, this type IIa diamond is the largest vivid pink diamond in the world. In 2014, the auction buyer was unable to pay the promised sum and was subsequently forced to default on its purchase. Among famous pink diamonds; the Daria-i-Noor is the largest pink diamond in the world, estimated to weigh 182 carats; together with the Noor-ul-Ain, it is the oldest known pink diamond, both belonging to the Iranian crown jewels.
As with the color in all fancy color diamonds, the color in pink diamonds is assessed according to its hue, saturation and tone. The hue refers to the primary and secondary colors, the saturation refers to the intensity of color, and the tone refers to the darkness of the color. Pink diamonds can occur in hues ranging from brown-pink to purple-pink, although pink can also be a modifying color in other diamond colors. Brown, orange and purple are the only occurring secondary hues in pink diamonds although a pink diamond can exhibit both brown and orange overtones at the same time, making it a "brownish orangey pink" diamond. The ideal pink diamonds are generally considered to be those which exhibit pure pink color although purple-pink diamonds are generally very highly regarded as well. Generally speaking, a vivid pink diamond will be more valuable than a larger lighter pink diamond, although it is not always the case according to the Diamond Investment & Intelligence Center.
Pink diamonds can occur in eight intensities, faint pink, very light pink, light pink, fancy light pink, fancy pink, fancy intense pink, fancy vivid pink, fancy deep/dark pink. Just like in all fancy color diamonds, the more vivid intensity pink diamonds are far rarer than the less vivid, which is in part why they demand a higher price. The same cause in nature which is the course of the pink in pink diamonds can be more or less concentrated depending on the specimen. That is why it is so rare to find the most concentrated diamonds in each color. There is no perfect consensus as to what defines each color intensity grade, even though the GIA keeps a master catalog of each diamond color. Therefore, each color intensity also has a subscale of 1-10. Within the industry, a diamond trader may call a diamond "fancy vivid" or "fancy intense" but will often also call the diamond "a 7" or whichever number is most apropos to the diamond's appearance, which enables the most thorough representation of the diamond's color intensity.
Pink diamonds fall under the category of Type I or Type IIa diamonds. tend to have an irregular shape. The Argyle Mine, the world's current main source for pink diamonds, has developed their own pink diamond color classification system separate from that of the GIA. Instead of intensity, the color is divided into a scale from 1–9, 9 being the lightest and 1 being the darkest. However, some Argyle pink diamonds also receive GIA certificates.
Most gem-quality diamonds are examined under a loupe to determine their clarity. This 10x magnification determines whether or not the diamond exhibits inclusions either on its surface or inside. Like all diamonds, pink diamond clarity is measured on a scale from Flawless to Included. Only 7% of pink diamonds are either Flawless or Internally Flawless (IF), and majority are Slightly Included (SI). Like most of the colors of fancy color diamonds, the clarity has little effect on a pink diamond's value. Since pink diamonds are formed by a deformation on their lattice structure, their probability of a low clarity grade is higher, making high clarity pink diamonds extremely rare (<7%).
According to the GIA, more than 80% of pink diamonds display fluorescence.
Lab grown pink diamonds
A 'lab-grown' diamond is chemically the same as a mined diamond but it is manufactured by humans rather than crystallising naturally. Pink diamonds can be crystallised using either the chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) or the high-pressure, high-temperature method. The Pink colour is often the result of post-growth treatment such as irradiation and annealing. 
Pink diamond source mines
Pink diamonds have been found in all of the major diamond-producing nations, notably Australia, Brazil, Russia, South Africa and Tanzania. Pink diamonds were first discovered in India, in the Kollur mine in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh (which at the time was part of the Golconda kingdom), one of two of the earliest known diamonds are thought to have originated. Concurrently, and throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, pink diamonds were being discovered in the Minas Gerais region of Brazil. Pink diamonds are still occasionally found in the Golconda mine and in Brazil but approximately 80% of the world's pink diamonds originated from the Argyle mine in Kimberley, Western Australia while the mine was in operation (the Argyle mine closed in 2020). Out of the mine's 20 million carat annual output, only 0.1% were classified as pink diamonds. After the diamonds are polished, the total carats of pink diamonds becomes smaller still.
Pink diamonds in popular culture
In 2002, when Ben Affleck proposed to Jennifer Lopez with a 6.1-carat pink diamond engagement ring, it catapulted pink diamonds into the popular mindset, triggering an immense surge in pink diamond prices that still exists today.
The popularity of pink diamonds rose in November 2013, when the 59.6-carat Pink Star diamond was bid on at auction in Geneva for $83 million by New York diamond cutter Isaac Wolf, then renamed the Pink Dream. Wolf ultimately defaulted, forcing auctioneer Sotheby's to pay the owners the promised sum.
Pink Diamond was introduced in NBA 2K MyTeam with NBA 2K17, where it represents player cards with 99 rating (also applicable in NBA 2K18). In NBA 2K19 and NBA 2K20, it represents player cards with 96-98 rating, while in NBA 2K21, it represents player cards with 95 or 96 rating.
Prior to Sotheby's Pink Star diamond sale, the record price paid for a pink diamond was held by the 16.08 carat Sweet Josephine Diamond, which had sold to Hong Kong billionaire Joseph Lau, in 2015, for $28.5 million. (One day later, he also purchased the 12.03 carat Blue Moon of Josephine Diamond for $48.5 million. Both diamonds were bought as gifts for his daughter, Josephine, born in 2008, as was the 7.03-carat Blue Moon diamond, which he renamed the Star of Josephine diamond, purchased in 2009 for $9.5 million.)
An anthropomorphic diamond known as Pink Diamond is a member of the Great Diamond Authority in Steven Universe, which depicts the fallout of her death and the mystery behind it.
In November 2020, an extremely rare purple-pink Russian 14.8-carat diamond, called "The Spirit of The Rose", sold at an auction in Switzerland for $26.6 million. It was the largest diamond ever auctioned because 99% of all pink diamonds are under 10 carats.
In July 2022, a mine in Angola yielded a pink diamond that is believed to be the largest discovered since 300 years recording to the Australian miner Lucapa Diamond Company. The stone, weighing 170 carat, has been named "Lulo Rose" after the Lulo alluvial diamond mine, where it was found.
Notable pink diamonds
|Daria-i-Noor||Believed to be the oldest diamond in the Iranian crown jewels|
|Noor-ul-Ain||Cut from the same 400 carat rough diamond as the Daria-i-Noor|
|The Williamson Pink Diamond||Discovered at the Williamson diamond mine in Mwadui, Tanzania, in 1947 by Canadian geologist Dr John Williamson who gave the uncut stone to Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip upon their wedding in November 1947. The 54.5 carats (10.90 g) rough diamond was cut in London by Briefel and Lemer and set by Frederick Mew of Cartier as 23.6 carats (4.72 g) centre round-cut in a jonquil setting.|
|The Martian Pink||Originally owned by Harry Winston, sold at auction in 1976, the same year that the US sent a satellite to Mars|
|The Unique Pink||Most expensive fancy vivid pink diamond to ever sell at auction|
|The Pink Star||Originally owned by the Steinmetz Group and called the Steinmetz Pink, then sold and renamed the Pink Star, and sold again and renamed the Pink Dream.|
|The Hortensia Diamond||Belonged to the Crown Jewels of France and was worn by the Queen of Holland, Hortense de Beauharnais|
|The Graff Pink||Most expensive pink diamond price per carat ever paid at auction|
|Pink Legacy||Fancy vivid pink cut-cornered rectangular-cut diamond of 18.96 carats, purchased by Harry Winston in 2018, formerly owned by the Oppenheimer family.|
|The Condé Diamond||Gifted in 1643 by Louis XII to the Prince of Condé, Louis de Bourbon|
|The Agra Diamond||Originally owned by Rajah of Gwalior's family, who later handed it over to Barbur, the Moghul emperor, as a token of thanks for sparing their lives.|
|The Princie Diamond||Originally owned by the royal family of Hyderabad|
|Lulo Rose||Biggest pink diamond found in 300 years in Angola, at 170 carats|
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