Pinus echinata

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Shortleaf pine
Shortleaf pine.jpg
Shortleaf pine forest
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
(unranked): Gymnosperms
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Subgenus: P. subg. Pinus
Section: P. sect. Trifoliae
Subsection: P. subsect. Australes
Species:
P. echinata
Binomial name
Pinus echinata
Pinus echinata range map.png
Natural range

Pinus echinata, the shortleaf pine,[2] is a species of pine native to the southeastern United States.

Description[edit]

The tree is variable in form, sometimes straight, sometimes crooked, with an irregular crown. The tree reaches heights of 20–30 metres (65–100 feet) with a trunk diameter of 0.5–0.9 m (1+12–3 ft).

The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles (bundles) of two and three mixed together, and from 7–11 centimetres (2+344+14 inches) long. The cones are 4–7 cm (1+122+34 in) long, with thin scales with a transverse keel and a short prickle. They open at maturity but are persistent.[3] Shortleaf pine seedlings develop a persistent J-shaped crook near the ground surface.[4] Axillary and other buds form near the crook and initiate growth if the upper stem is killed by fire or is severed.[5]

The bark has resin pockets, which form small depressions, less than 1 millimetre (132 in) in diameter. This feature can be used to distinguish P. echinata from all other Pinus species within its native range.[6]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Latin specific epithet of echinata refers to hedgehog, from echinus.[7]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Shortleaf pine has the largest range of the southern US yellow pines. It is found from southernmost New York, south to northern Florida, west to eastern Texas and Oklahoma.[8]

This pine occupies a variety of habitats from rocky uplands to wet flood plains.

Ecology[edit]

With frequent fire, the species it creates a savanna, with a very diverse understory and prime habitat for the red-cockaded woodpecker.[9]

The tree frequently hybridizes naturally with loblolly pine and pitch pine where their ranges intersect. Hybridization with loblolly pine has become increasingly frequent in recent decades and results in a loss of fire tolerance.[5]

Uses[edit]

This pine is a source of wood pulp, plywood veneer, and lumber for a variety of uses. The shortleaf pine is one of the southern US "southern yellow pines; it is also occasionally called southern yellow pine or the shortstraw pine.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus echinata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T42359A2974993. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42359A2974993.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Pinus echinata". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  3. ^ Kral, Robert (1993). "Pinus echinata". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 2. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. ^ Lawson, Edwin R. (1990). "Pinus echinata". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. (eds.). Conifers. Silvics of North America. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Vol. 1 – via Southern Research Station.
  5. ^ a b Tauer, Charles G.; Stewart, John F.; Will, Rodney E.; Lilly, Curtis J.; Guldin, James M.; Nelson, C. Dana (2012-06-01). "Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression". Journal of Forestry. 110 (4): 216–224. doi:10.5849/jof.11-044. ISSN 0022-1201.
  6. ^ "Silvics of Shortleaf Pine" (PDF). North Carolina Forest Service. January 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-24. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. ^ Stearn, William (2004). Botanical Latin. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN 9780881926279.
  8. ^ "Plants Profile for Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine)". plants.sc.egov.usda.gov. Retrieved 2020-09-30.
  9. ^ Hedrick, Larry D.; Bukenhofer, George A.; Montague, Warren G.; Pell, William F.; Guldin, James M. (2007). "Shortleaf pine-bluestem restoration in the Ouachita National Forest". In: Shortleaf Pine Restoration and Ecology in the Ozarks: Proceedings of a Symposium: 206-213.

External links[edit]