|Subgenus:||P. subg. Strobus|
|Section:||P. sect. Quinquefoliae|
|Subsection:||P. subsect. Strobus|
Pinus pumila (common names Siberian dwarf pine, dwarf Siberian pine, dwarf stone pine, Japanese stone pine, or creeping pine) is a native of northeastern Asia, including the islands of Japan. It shares the common name creeping pine with several other plants.
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It is a coniferous evergreen shrub ranging from 1–3 m (3–10 ft) in height, exceptionally up to 5 m (16 ft), but may have individual branches that extend farther along the ground in length. In the mountains of northern Japan, it sometimes hybridises with the related Japanese white pine (Pinus parviflora); these hybrids (Pinus × hakkodensis) are larger than P. pumila, reaching 8–10 m (26–33 ft) tall on occasion.
The range covers the Far East, Eastern Siberia, north-east of Mongolia, north-east of China, northern Japan and Korea. Siberian dwarf pine can be found along mountain chains, passing the upper forest border, where it forms uninterrupted hard-to-pass thickets, also it grows in the sea bank of the Okhotsk and the Bering Seas, Tatarsk and Pacific coast (the Kurils).
It grows very slowly and is a perennial plant. It can live up to 300 and even 1000 years.[full citation needed] For example, in harsh conditions of Siberia region there are trees of Siberian dwarf pine, which are 250 years-old and older.
The seeds are harvested and dispersed by the spotted nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes).
- Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus pumila". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T42405A2977712. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T42405A2977712.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Pinus pumila". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Pinus pumila". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 18 December 2017.
- Fukui, K.; Sone, T.; Yamagata, K.; Otsuki, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Vetrova, V.; Vyatkina, M. (2008). "Relationships between permafrost distribution and surface organic layers near Esso, central Kamchatka, Russian Far East". Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. 19 (1): 85–92. doi:10.1002/ppp.606.
- Koropachinsky, Vstovskaya, 2002
- "RHS Plant Selector - Pinus pumila 'Glauca'". Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Conifers Around the World: Pinus pumila - Hai-Matsu.
- Media related to Pinus pumila at Wikimedia Commons
- Data related to Pinus pumila at Wikispecies