Pinyin table

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This pinyin table is a complete listing of all Hanyu Pinyin syllables used in Standard Chinese. Each syllable in a cell is composed of an initial (columns) and a final (rows). An empty cell indicates that the corresponding syllable does not exist in Standard Chinese.

The below table indicates possible combinations of initials and finals in Standard Chinese, but does not indicate tones, which are equally important to the proper pronunciation of Chinese. Although some initial-final combinations have some syllables using each of the five different tones, most do not. Some utilize only one tone.

Pinyin entries in this page can be compared to syllables using the (unromanized) Zhuyin phonetic system in the Zhuyin table page.

Finals are grouped into subsets a, i, u and ü.

i, u and ü groupings indicate a combination of those finals with finals from Group a. For example:

Group Special combination
i i + ê = ie i + ou = iu
u u + ei = ui u + en = un
ü ü + ê = ue

Most syllables are a combination of an initial and a final. However, some syllables have no initials. This is shown in Pinyin as follows:

  • if the syllable begins with an i, it is replaced with a y
  • if the syllable begins with an u, it is replaced with a w
  • if the syllable begins with an ü, it is replaced with yu
  • exceptions to the rules above are indicated by yellow in the table's no initial column:

Note that the y, w, and yu replacements above do not change the pronunciation of the final in the final-only syllable. They are used to avoid ambiguity when writing words in pinyin. For example, instead of:

  • "uen" and "ian" forming "uenian", which could be interpreted as:
    • "uen-ian"
    • "uen-i-an" or
    • "u-en-i-an"
  • the syllables are written "wen" and "yan" which results in the more distinct "wenyan"

There are discrepancies between the Bopomofo tables and the pinyin table due to some minor differences between the Mainland standard, putonghua, and the Taiwanese standard, guoyu, in the standard readings of characters. For example, the variant sounds (ruá; ㄖㄨㄚˊ), (dèn; ㄉㄣˋ), (tēi; ㄊㄟ) are not used in guoyu. Likewise the variant sound 孿 (lüán; ㄌㄩㄢˊ) is not recognized in putonghua, or it is folded into (luán; ㄌㄨㄢˊ). A few readings reflect a Standard Chinese approximation of a regionalism that is otherwise never encountered in either putonghua or guoyu. For instance, (fiào; ㄈㄧㄠˋ) is a borrowing from Shanghainese (and other dialects of Wu Chinese) that are commonly used, and are thus included in most large dictionaries, even though it is usually labeled as a nonstandard regionalism (, short for 方言 (topolect)), with the local reading viau [vjɔ], which is approximated in Standard Chinese as fiào.

Overall table[edit]

Syllables in italics are considered nonstandard, and only exist in the form of regionalisms, neologisms or slang.

Pinyin table Initials Pinyin table
b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s
i zhi chi shi ri zi ci si i Group
a a ba pa ma fa da ta na la ga
[note 1]
ka ha zha cha sha za ca sa a
o o
[note 2]
bo po mo fo lo
[note 3]
e e me
[note 4]
de te ne le ge ke he zhe che she re ze ce se e
ê ê
[note 5]
ai ai bai pai mai dai tai nai lai gai kai hai zhai chai shai zai cai sai ai
ei ei
[note 6]
bei pei mei fei dei
[note 7]
[note 8]
nei lei gei kei
[note 9]
[table 1]
hei zhei
[note 10]
shei zei cei
[note 11]
[note 12] [table 1]
ao ao bao pao mao dao tao nao lao gao kao hao zhao chao shao rao zao cao sao ao
ou ou pou
[note 13]
mou fou dou tou nou
[note 14]
lou gou kou hou zhou chou shou rou zou cou sou ou
an an ban pan man fan dan tan nan lan gan kan han zhan chan shan ran zan can san an
en en ben pen men fen den
[note 15]
nen len
[note 16]
gen ken hen zhen chen shen ren zen
[note 17]
[note 18]
sen en
ang ang bang pang mang fang dang tang nang lang gang kang hang zhang chang shang rang zang cang sang ang
eng eng
[note 19]
beng peng meng feng deng teng neng leng geng keng heng zheng cheng sheng reng zeng ceng seng eng
ong ong
[note 20]
dong tong nong long gong kong hong zhong chong rong zong cong song ong
er er er
i yi bi pi mi di ti ni li ji qi xi i Group
ia ya pia
[note 21]
[note 22]
[note 23] [table 1]
[note 24]
jia qia xia ia
io yo
[note 25]
ie ye bie pie mie die tie nie lie jie qie xie ie
iai yai
[note 26] [table 1]
iao yao biao piao miao fiao
[note 27]
diao tiao niao liao jiao qiao xiao iao
iu you miu
[note 28]
diu niu liu kiu
[note 29]
jiu qiu xiu iu
ian yan bian pian mian dian tian nian lian jian qian xian ian
in yin bin pin min nin lin jin qin xin in
iang yang biang
[note 30]
[note 31] [table 1]
niang liang jiang qiang xiang iang
ing ying bing ping ming ding ting ning ling jing qing xing ing
iong yong jiong
[note 32]
qiong xiong iong
u wu bu pu mu fu du tu nu lu gu ku hu zhu chu shu ru zu cu su u Group
ua wa gua kua hua zhua chua
[note 33]
shua rua
[note 34]
uo wo duo tuo nuo luo guo kuo huo zhuo chuo shuo ruo zuo cuo suo uo
uai wai guai kuai huai zhuai
[note 35]
[note 36]
shuai uai
ui wei dui tui nui
[note 37]
gui kui hui zhui chui shui rui zui cui sui ui
uan wan duan tuan nuan luan guan kuan huan zhuan chuan shuan ruan zuan cuan suan uan
un wen dun tun nun
[note 38]
lun gun kun hun zhun chun shun run zun cun sun un
uang wang duang
[note 39]
guang kuang huang zhuang chuang shuang uang
ueng weng ueng
ü yu ju qu xu ü Group
üe yue nüe lüe jue que xue üe
üan yuan lüan
[note 40]
[table 1]
juan quan xuan üan
ün yun lün
[note 41]
jun qun xun ün
Pinyin table b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s Pinyin table
Color Legend:
"regular" initial or final

Final is in Group a or is a direct combination of:

  • i+Group a final
  • u+Group a final
  • ü+Group a final
Final of i, u, ü groups is a modified combination of:
  • i+Group a final
  • u+Group a final
  • ü+Group a final
syllable is direct combination of initial and final (or follows rules for no-initial syllables outlined at the top of the page) syllable is modified combination of initial and final

There are also a very small number of syllables consisting only of consonants: m (呣), n (嗯), ng (嗯), hm (噷), hng (哼).

Erhua contraction[edit]

Additional syllables in pinyin exist to represent the erhua phenomenon by combining the affected syllable with an -r ending, rather than transcribing 兒/儿 as a separate ér syllable. This can be seen as analogous to certain contractions in English such as "they're" in place of "they are".

Original characters 那裡、那里 人緣、人缘 兒媳婦、儿媳妇
Original pinyin nàli rényuán érxífu
Erhua characters 那兒、那儿 人緣兒、人缘儿 兒媳婦兒、儿媳妇儿
Erhua pinyin nàr rényuánr érxífur

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See .
  2. ^ See .
  3. ^ See .
  4. ^ See .
  5. ^ See .
  6. ^ See .
  7. ^ See .
  8. ^ See .
  9. ^ See .
  10. ^ See .
  11. ^ See 𤭢.
  12. ^ See and the neologism C.
  13. ^ See .
  14. ^ See .
  15. ^ See .
  16. ^ See .
  17. ^ See .
  18. ^ See .
  19. ^ See .
  20. ^ See the variant pronunciation of .
  21. ^ See .
  22. ^ See .
  23. ^ See .
  24. ^ See .
  25. ^ See .
  26. ^ See the Taiwan variant pronunciations of e.g. , , , .
  27. ^ See 𧟰.
  28. ^ See .
  29. ^ See the neologism Q.
  30. ^ See 𰻞 and biangbiang noodles.
  31. ^ See .
  32. ^ See .
  33. ^ See .
  34. ^ See .
  35. ^ See .
  36. ^ See .
  37. ^ See .
  38. ^ See .
  39. ^ See the neologism duang.
  40. ^ See the Taiwan variant pronunciations of e.g. , , 孿, , .
  41. ^ See the Beijing variant pronunciation of .

External links[edit]

  • Standard Mandarin Pinyin Table The complete listing of all Pinyin syllables used in Standard Chinese, along with native speaker pronunciation for each syllable.
  • Pinyin table Pinyin table, syllables are pronounced in all four tones.
  • Pinyin Chart for Web Pinyin Chart for Web, every available tones in the Chinese language included.
  • Pinyin Chart for iPad Pinyin Chart app for iPad, every available tone in the Chinese language included.
  • Pinyin Chart for iPhone Pinyin Chart app for iPhone, every available tones in the Chinese language included.
  • Pinyin Table for Android Pinyin Table for Android, every available tones in the Chinese language included.