|Spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus)|
There has been considerable debate over the taxonomy of towhees in recent years. Two species complexes have been identified, the rufous-sided complex (involving Pipilo erythrophthalmus, P. maculatus, P. socorroensis, P. ocai and P. chlorurus), and the brown towhee complex (involving Melozone crissalis, M. fuscus, M. aberti and M. albicollis). The distinction of species within these is uncertain and opinions have differed over the years. Modern authorities distinguish all four species in the brown towhee complex, though M. fuscus and M. crissalis were formerly treated as a single species. Hybrids are frequent between some of the species, particularly between the Mexican races of P. maculatus (olive-backed towhee, P. maculatus macronyx) and P. ocai.
- Abert's towhee (Pipilo aberti, = Melozone aberti),
- California towhee (Pipilo crissalis, = Melozone crissalis),
- Canyon towhee (Pipilo fusca, = Melozone fusca),
- Green-tailed towhee, Pipilo chlorurus,
- Collared towhee, Pipilo ocai,
- Eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus
- Spotted towhee, Pipilo maculatus
- Bermuda towhee Pipilo naufragus (extinct)
- White-throated towhee (Pipilo albicollis, = Melozone leucotis)
- "ITIS Report: Pipilo". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Zink, Robert M.; Dittmann, Donna L. (1991). "Evolution of Brown Towhees: Mitochondrial DNA Evidence" (PDF). Condor. 93 (1): 98–105. doi:10.2307/1368611.
- Olson, Storrs L.; Wingate, David B. (2012). "A new species of towhee Aves: Emberizidae: Pipilo) from the Quaternary deposits on Bermuda". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 125 (1): 85–96. doi:10.2988/11-21.1.
- Towhee videos, photos and sounds on the Internet Bird Collection