Pipoidea

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Pipoidea
Pipa pipa01.jpg
Pipa pipa, the common Surinam toad
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Clade: Pipoidea
Subgroups[1]

Pipoidea are a clade of frogs that have variously been defined as a suborder,[2] superfamily,[3] or an unranked node-based taxon.[1] There is no single, authoritative higher-level classification of frogs, and Vitt and Caldwell (2014) use name Xenoanura for a similar clade, skipping Pipoidea altogether,[4] as did Frost et al. (2006).[5]

In 1993 Pipoidea was defined by Ford and Cannatella as the node-based taxon that contains the most recent common ancestor of living Pipidae and Rhinophrynidae as well as all its descendants:[1]

 Pipoidea

 Pipimorpha 

Pipidae



Palaeobatrachidae



"pipids"





Rhinophrynidae



"Pipids" are a group of fossil taxa with uncertain relationships: Thoraciliacus, Cordicephalus, Saltenia, and Eoxenopoides.[1] Cannatella (2008) added Shomronella to this group.[6]

The synapomorphies that define Pipoidea are the absence of mentomeckelian bones, absence of lateral alae of the parasphenoid, fusion of the frontoparietals into an azygous element, greatly enlarged otic capsules, and a tadpole with paired spiracles and which lacks beaks and denticles.[1][6] Later genetic work has supported Pipoidea as a monophyletic group.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Ford, Linda S.; Cannatella, David C. (1993). "The major clades of frogs". Herpetological Monographs. 7: 94–117. doi:10.2307/1466954. JSTOR 1466954. 
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Anura Fischer von Waldheim, 1813". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 25 April 2016.  Frost assigns authority "Laurent in Fuhn, 1960" to this name.
  3. ^ "Superfamily Pipoidea Fitzinger 1843". Paleobiology Database. Fossilworks. Retrieved 25 April 2016. 
  4. ^ Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. pp. 92–95. 
  5. ^ a b Frost, D. R.; Grant, T.; Faivovich, J. N.; Bain, R. H.; Haas, A.; Haddad, C. L. F. B.; De Sá, R. O.; Channing, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Donnellan, S. C.; Raxworthy, C. J.; Campbell, J. A.; Blotto, B. L.; Moler, P.; Drewes, R. C.; Nussbaum, R. A.; Lynch, J. D.; Green, D. M.; Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "The amphibian tree of life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 297: 1–291. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/5781. 
  6. ^ a b Cannatella, David (11 January 2008). "Anura: Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships (Pipimorpha)". Tree of Life Project. Retrieved 25 April 2016.