Pippi Longstocking

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Pippi Longstocking
Långstrump Går Ombord.jpeg
Pippi Goes On Board in Swedish
First appearancePippi Longstocking (1945)
Last appearancePippi in the South Seas (1948)
Created byAstrid Lindgren
Portrayed byInger Nilsson
Information
Nickname(s)Pippi
GenderFemale
NationalitySwedish

Pippi Longstocking (Pippilotta Delicatessa Windowshade Mackrelmint Ephraim's Daughter Longstocking) (Swedish: Pippi Långstrump) (Pippilotta Viktualia Rullgardina Krusmynta Efraimsdotter Långstrump) is the main character in an eponymous series of children's books by the Swedish author Astrid Lindgren. Pippi was named by Lindgren's daughter Karin, then nine years old like Pippi, who asked her mother for a get-well story when she was off school.

Pippi is red-haired, freckled, unconventional and superhumanly strong – able to lift her horse one-handed. She is playful and unpredictable. She often makes fun of unreasonable adults, especially if they are pompous and condescending. Her anger comes out in extreme cases, such as when a man ill-treats his horse. Pippi, like Peter Pan, does not want to grow up. She is the daughter of a buccaneer captain and has adventure stories to tell about that too. Her four best friends are her horse and monkey, and the neighbours' children, Tommy and Annika.

After being rejected by Bonnier Publishers in 1944, Lindgren's first manuscript was accepted by Rabén and Sjögren. The first three Pippi chapter books were published in 1945–48, followed by three short stories and a number of picture book adaptations. They have been translated into 70 languages[1] and made into several films and television series.

Character[edit]

Pippi Longstocking is a fictional nine-year-old girl living in a village.[2] She moves into Villa Villekulla, her house that she shares with her monkey named Mr. Nillson and her horse, and quickly befriends the two children living next door, Tommy and Annika Settergren.[3][4] With her suitcase of gold coins, she maintains an independent lifestyle without her parents: her mother died soon after her birth, and her father, Captain Ephraim Longstocking, is first missing at sea, and then, king of a South Sea island.[5][6] Despite periodic attempts by village authorities to make her conform to cultural expectations of what a child's life should be, such as unsuccessfully sending her to school, Pippi happily lives free from social conventions.[7][8] According to Eva-Maria Metcalf, Pippi "loves her freckles and her tattered clothes and makes not the slightest attempt to suppress her wild imagination or to adopt good manners."[8] She has a penchant for storytelling, which often takes the form of tall tales.[9]

When discussing Pippi, Astrid Lindgren explained that "Pippi represents my own childish longing for a person who has power but does not abuse it. And pay attention to the fact that Pippi never does that."[10] Although she is the self-proclaimed "strongest girl in the world," Pippi often uses nonviolence to solve conflicts or protect other children from bullying.[11][12] Pippi has been variously described by literary critics as "warm-hearted,"[7] compassionate,[13] kind,[14] clever,[6] generous,[7][15] playful,[16] and witty to the point of besting adult characters in conversation.[7] Laura Hoffeld wrote that while Pippi's "naturalness entails selfishness, ignorance, and a marked propensity to lie," the character "is simultaneously generous, quick and wise, and true to herself and others."[17]

Development[edit]

Biographer Jens Andersen locates a range of influences and inspiration for Pippi not only within educational theories of the 1930s, such as those of A. S. Neill and Bertrand Russell, but also contemporary films and comics that featured "preternaturally strong characters" (e.g. Superman and Tarzan).[18] Literary inspiration for the character can be found in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, The Strange Child, Anne of Green Gables, and Daddy Long Legs in addition to myths, fairytales, and legends.[18] Andersen argues that the "misanthropic, emotionally stunted age" of the Second World War, during which Lindgren was developing the character, provided the most influence: the original version of Pippi, according to Andersen, "was a cheerful pacifist whose answer to the brutality and evil of war was goodness, generosity, and good humor."[18]

Pippi originates from bedside stories told for Lindgren's daughter, Karin. In the winter of 1941, Karin had come down with an illness and was confined to her sickbed; to entertain her, Lindgren improvised stories about an "anything-but-pious" girl with "boundless energy."[19] In April 1944, Lindgren wrote her stories about Pippi in shorthand, a method she used throughout her writing career, and posted the finished manuscript to Bonnier Förlag on the 27th.[20] There, it was rejected in September on the grounds of being "too advanced."[21] However, another manuscript that Lindgren had entered in a competition, "Britt Hagström, Aged 15," placed second, earning her a prize of 1,200 kroner; it was published by Rabén and Sjögren in November 1944 as The Confidences of Britt-Mari to generally positive reviews.[21] In May 1945, Lindgren sent the manuscript for Pippi Longstocking to her editor at Rabén and Sjögren, the children's librarian and critic Elsa Olenius who became an advocate for the book. Olenius advised her to revise some of the "graphic" elements, such as "a chamber pot full of urine thrown over people to put out a fire," and then submit it to the next children's book competition at Rabén and Sjögren.[22] Pippi Longstocking placed first and was subsequently published in November 1945 with illustrations by Ingrid Vang Nyman.[23]

Books[edit]

There are three full length Pippi Longstocking books:[24]

There were three original picture books that were translated into English:[25]

  • 1971: Pippi on the Run
  • 1950: Pippi's After Christmas Party
  • 2001: Pippi Longstocking in the Park

There are many picture books and short books based on chapter excerpts from the original three including:

  • Pippi Goes to School (1999)
  • Pippi Goes to the Circus (1999)
  • Pippi's Extraordinarily Ordinary Day (1999)

Adaptations[edit]

Film[edit]

Films were distributed by G.G. Communications, a film distribution company based in Boston, Massachusetts[26][better source needed]

Pippi Longstocking (1949 film)[edit]

The first movie adaptation of Pippi Longstocking was filmed in 1949. The film was based on three of the books, but several storylines were changed and characters were removed and added. Pippi's character was played by Viveca Serlachius,[27] who as Pippi made 10 other movies between 1944 and 1954. It was directed by Per Gunvall and released on October 20, 1950.

Pippi in the South Sea (1970 film)[edit]

In 1970 Pippi in the Sea is a pirate adventure as she request the help from her friends Annika and Tommy as she ventures out onto the Sea to rescue her father who was captured by pirates. This came originally from a Swedish title PIPPI LÅNGSTRUMP PÅ DE SJU HAVEN [motion picture] alternate title: PIPPI IN TAKA-TUKA-LAND. Pippi Longstocking was played by Inger Nilsson, Annika played by Maria Persson and directed by Olle Hellbom.[28]

Pippi Longstocking (1971 film)[edit]

In 1971, Japanese animators Hayao Miyazaki and Isao Takahata had expressed great interest in doing an anime feature adaptation of Pippi Longstocking. The proposed project was titled Pippi Longstocking, The Strongest Girl in the World (長靴下のピッピ 世界一強い女の子, Nagakutsushita no Pippi, Sekai Ichi Tsuyoi Onna no Ko). They traveled to Sweden, and not only did research for the film (they went location scouting in Visby, one of the major locations where the 1969 TV series was filmed), but also personally visited creator Astrid Lindgren, and discussed the project with her. After their meeting with Lindgren, however, their permission to complete the film was denied, and the project was canceled. Among what remains of the project are watercolored storyboards by Miyazaki himself.[29]

Peppi Dlinnyychulok (1984 film)[edit]

A Mosfilm television film version, Peppi Dlinnyychulok, was released in 1984. It was produced by Margaret Mikalan, and starred Mikhail Boyarsky, Lev Durov and Tatiana Vasilieva. Pippi was played by Svetlana Stupak, and her singing voice was provided by Svetlana Stepchenko.[30]

The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking (1988 film)[edit]

An American feature film version from Columbia Pictures was released in 1988, directed by British veteran director Ken Annakin, starring Tami Erin as Pippi with Eileen Brennan, Dennis Dugan, John Schuck and Dick Van Patten in supporting roles. While the title suggests a continuation, the film is in fact just a retelling of the original story. The original songs and the score were composed by Misha Segal.

Pippi Longstocking (1997 film and TV series)[edit]

An animated film adaptation by Nelvana, Pippi Longstocking, was released in 1997 and was further adapted into an animated television series, Pippi Longstocking also by Nelvana, which aired for one season (1997) on Canada's Teletoon channel and later (1998) on HBO in the United States. Reruns are shown on the Qubo digital subchannel. While the movie used traditional animation, the series used the digital inking process.

Television[edit]

Shirley Temple's Storybook (1961 episode)[edit]

In 1961, the American children's anthology TV series Shirley Temple's Storybook (hosted by Shirley Temple) included an adaptation of Pippi Longstocking, Episode 2-15, aired on January 8. This was the first American adaptation of Astrid Lindgren's character, not to mention the first adaptation done in color, and the first to feature a child actress playing Pippi—in this case, Gina Gillespie, who also plays the girl named Susan Scholfield, who appears at the beginning and end of the story with her sister Betsy (played by Gina's younger sister Jennifer), both dreaming up the whole story after being sent to bed early.

Gina (1951) is the younger sister of former Mouseketeer Darlene Gillespie (1941), a lead singer and dancer of the original 9 member Red Team in 1955. Although the story is mostly faithful to the original books, a few liberties are taken; Pippi is shown to be extremely intelligent (flawlessly answering a strict but well-meaning teacher's questions), which she attributes to her firsthand experiences in her world travels, and Pippi can fly (rather, she lands softly onto the ground from the rooftop of her house, à la Peter Pan). Among the characters, Pippi's originally nameless pet horse is named Horatio, and Thunder-Karlsson and Bloom are renamed "Scar Face" Seymour and "Mad Dog" Jerome. Also of note is Swedish wrestler/actor Tor Johnson, in one of his final roles, playing a circus strongman, the Mighty Adolf, whom Pippi challenges to a match of strength at the circus.[31]

Pippi Longstocking (1969 TV series)[edit]

A Swedish Pippi Longstocking television series was created based on the books in 1968. The first episode was broadcast on Sveriges Radio TV in February 1969. The production was a Swedish–West German co-production and several German actors had roles in the series.

As Astrid Lindgren was unhappy with the 1949 adaptation, she wrote the script herself for this version. The series was directed by Olle Hellbom who also directed several other Astrid Lindgren adaptations. Inger Nilsson gave a confident, oddball performance that was uncommonly consistent and eccentric for a child actress.[citation needed]

This version is the most well-known version in Sweden and has been repeated numerous times by SR/SVT. In other European countries this is the most favoured version of Pippi Longstocking.

The Swedish series was re-edited as two dubbed feature films for United States distribution:

Another two feature film spin-offs were also shown in the United States:

They became weekend television staples in several cities in the United States throughout the 1970s and 1980s. The first 6 episodes of the original TV series, newly dubbed using British actors, became available on DVD in 2002.

Pippi Longstocking (1985 TV special)[edit]

In 1985, Carrie Kei Heim played the title role in the 2-part ABC Weekend Special, entitled Pippi Longstocking. Directed by veteran special effects wizard Colin Chilvers, Part 1 of the special aired on November 2, and Part 2 aired on November 9.[32]

Name[edit]

The original Swedish language books set Pippi's full name as Pippilotta Viktualia Rullgardina Krusmynta Efraimsdotter Långstrump, which contains some words that cannot be translated directly.[33] English language books and films about Pippi have given her name in the following forms:

  • Pippilotta Rollgardinia Victualia Peppermint Longstocking[34]
  • Pippilotta Delicatessa Windowshade Mackrelmint Efraim's Daughter Longstocking[35]
  • Pippilotta Delicatessa Windowshade Mackrelmint Efraimsdotter Longstocking[36]
  • Pippilotta Provisionia Gaberdina Dandeliona Ephraimsdaughter Longstocking[37]

As of 2009, the book has been translated into 64 languages.[38] Here are the character's names in some languages other than English.

  • In Afrikaans "Pippi Langkous"
  • In Albanian "Pipi Çorapegjata"
  • In Arabic "جنان ذات الجورب الطويل"
  • In Armenian "Երկարագուլպա Պիպին" ("Erkaragulpa Pipin")
  • In Azerbaijani "Pippi Uzuncorablı"
  • In Basque "Pipi Galtzaluze"
  • In Belarusian "Піпі Доўгаяпанчоха"
  • In Bulgarian "Пипи Дългото чорапче"
  • In Breton "Pippi hir he loeroù"
  • In Catalan "Pippi Calcesllargues"
  • In Chinese "长袜子皮皮" ("Cháng wà zi Pí pí")
  • In Czech "Pipi Dlouhá Punčocha"
  • In Danish "Pippi Langstrømpe"
  • In Dutch "Pippi Langkous"
  • In Esperanto "Pipi Ŝtrumpolonga"
  • In Estonian "Pipi Pikksukk"
  • In Faroese "Pippi Langsokkur"
  • In Filipino "Potpot Habangmedyas"
  • In Finnish "Peppi Pitkätossu"
  • In French "Fifi Brindacier" (literally: "Fifi Steelwisp")
  • In Galician "Pippi Mediaslongas"
  • In Georgian "პეპი მაღალიწინდა" ("Pepi Magalitsinda") or "პეპი გრძელიწინდა" ("Pepi Grdzelitsinda")
  • In German "Pippi Langstrumpf"
  • In Greek "Πίπη Φακιδομύτη" ("Pipe Phakidomyte") which actually means Pippi the freckle-nosed girl
  • In Hebrew "בילבי בת-גרב" ("Bilbi Bat-Gerev"), "גילגי" ("Gilgi") in old translations
  • In Hindi "पिप्पी लम्बेमोज़े" ("Pippi Lambemoze")
  • In Hungarian "Harisnyás Pippi"
  • In Icelandic "Lína Langsokkur"
  • In Indonesian "Pippi Si Kaus Kaki Panjang"
  • In Irish, it is the same as English "Pippi Longstocking"
  • In Italian "Pippi Calzelunghe"
  • In Japanese "長靴下のピッピ" ("Nagakutsushita no Pippi")
  • In Korean "말괄량이 소녀 삐삐" ("Malgwallyang'i Sonyŏ Ppippi")
  • In Kurdish "Pippi-Ya Goredirey"
  • In Latvian "Pepija Garzeķe"
  • In Lithuanian "Pepė Ilgakojinė"
  • In Macedonian "Пипи долгиот чорап"
  • In Norwegian "Pippi Langstrømpe"
  • In Persian "پیپی جوراببلنده" ("Pipi Joorab-Bolandeh")
  • In Polish "Pippi Pończoszanka" or "Fizia Pończoszanka"
  • In Portuguese "Píppi Meialonga" (Brazil), "Pipi das Meias Altas" (Portugal)
  • In Romanian "Pippi Șosețica" (Romania), "Pepi Ciorap-Lung" (Moldova)
  • In Russian "Пеппи Длинный Чулок" ("Peppi Dlinn'iy Chulok") or "Пеппи Длинныйчулок" ("Peppi Dlinn'iychulok")
  • In Serbian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Bosnian "Pipi Duga Čarapa" / "Пипи Дуга Чарапа"
  • In Slovak "Pipi Dlhá Pančucha"
  • In Slovene "Pika Nogavička"
  • In Spanish "Pipi Calzaslargas" (Spain), "Pippi Mediaslargas" or "Pepita Mediaslargas" (Latin America)
  • In Sinhalese "දිගමේස්දානලාගේ පිප්පි" ("Digamasedaanalaagee Pippi")
  • In Thai "ปิ๊ปปี้ ถุงเท้ายาว" ("Pippi Thung-Taow Yaow")
  • In Turkish "Pippi Uzunçorap"
  • In Ukrainian "Пеппі Довгапанчоха" ("Peppi Dovhapanchokha")
  • In Vietnamese "Pippi Tất Dài"
  • In Welsh "Pippi Hosan-hir"
  • In Yiddish "פּיפּפּי לאָנגסטאָקקינג" ("Pippi Longstocking")

Legacy[edit]

The Swedish town of Vimmerby, located near Astrid Lindgren's place of birth, has a theme park, based on her books. Scenes from the book are recreated at one-third scale, and actors roam the park dressed as Pippi and other characters.[39]

The most popular children's festival in Slovenia, annually held in Velenje since 1990, is named Pika's Festival after Pippi Longstocking.[40]

Swedish author Stieg Larsson, in writing his Millennium series, has stated that one of the main characters in the three novels, Lisbeth Salander, was fashioned on a grown-up Pippi Longstocking. In the only interview he ever did about the series, Larsson stated that he based the character on what he imagined Pippi Longstocking might have been like as an adult.[41][42]

Pippi appears on the obverse of the Swedish 20 kronor note. The note, released in October 2015, also features a portrait of Lindgren and a motif of Småland, the province in which she grew up.[43]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Astrid Lindgren and the world | Astrid Lindgren". Astridlindgren.se. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
  2. ^ Metcalf 1995, p. 69.
  3. ^ Lundqvist 1989, p. 99.
  4. ^ Erol 1991, p. 118–119.
  5. ^ Erol 1991, pp. 114–115.
  6. ^ a b Metcalf 1995, p. 75.
  7. ^ a b c d Lundqvist 1989, p. 100.
  8. ^ a b Metcalf 1995, p. 65.
  9. ^ Hoffeld 1977, pp. 48–49.
  10. ^ Metcalf 1995, p. 70.
  11. ^ Metcalf 1995, p. 71.
  12. ^ Hoffeld 1977, p. 50.
  13. ^ Metcalf 1995, p. 74.
  14. ^ Holmlund 2003, p. 3.
  15. ^ Hoffeld 1977, p. 51.
  16. ^ Metcalf 1995, p. 85.
  17. ^ Hoffeld 1977, p. 48.
  18. ^ a b c Andersen 2018, p. 145.
  19. ^ Andersen 2018, p. 144.
  20. ^ Andersen 2018, p. 140, 143.
  21. ^ a b Andersen 2018, p. 156.
  22. ^ Andersen 2018, p. 162.
  23. ^ Andersen 2018, p. 164.
  24. ^ "Astrid (Ericsson) Lindgren." Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults, 2nd ed., 8 vols. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (requires login)
  25. ^ "Astrid (Ericsson) Lindgren." Major Authors and Illustrators for Children and Young Adults, 2nd ed., 8 vols. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC (requires login)
  26. ^ G.G. Communications
  27. ^ Pippi Långstrump, Svenska Filminstitutet (The Swedish Film Database), Retrieved 11 June 2016
  28. ^ pippi långstrump på de sju haven. Hellbom, O. and Georg Riedel, J. J. (Directors). ().[Video/DVD]
  29. ^ "Miyazaki and Studio GHIBLI – Pippi Longstocking". Live Journal. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2016-07-18.
  30. ^ "Peppi Dlinnyychulok". 29 April 1984 – via IMDb.
  31. ^ "Pippi Longstocking". 8 January 1961 – via IMDb.
  32. ^ "Pippi Longstocking". 1 January 2000 – via IMDb.
  33. ^ Surmatz, Astrid (2005). Pippi Långstrump als Paradigma. Beiträge zur nordischen Philologie (in German). 34. A. Francke. pp. 150, 253–254. ISBN 978-3-7720-3097-0.
  34. ^ Pashko, Stan (June 1973). "Making the Scene". Boys' Life. p. 6. Retrieved 2018-06-10.
  35. ^ Pilon, A. Barbara (1978). Teaching language arts creatively in the elementary grades, John Wiley & Sons, page 215.
  36. ^ Metcalf, Eva-Maria (1995). Astrid Lindgren. Twayne Publishers. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8057-4525-2.
  37. ^ Pippi Longstocking, 2000
  38. ^ "Characters in Other Countries". Astrid Lindgren official site. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  39. ^ Lawson, Kristan; Rufus, Anneli S. (1999). Weird Europe: A Guide to Bizarre, Macabre, and Just Plain Weird Sights. Macmillan. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-312-19873-2.
  40. ^ "Pika's Festival". Culture.si. Ljudmila Art and Science Laboratory. 25 November 2011.
  41. ^ Rich, Nathaniel (5 January 2011). "The Mystery of the Dragon Tattoo: Stieg Larsson, the World's Bestselling — and Most Enigmatic — Author".Rolling Stone Article . Retrieved 2016-01-02
  42. ^ Rising, Malin (17 February 2009). "Swedish Crime Writer Finds Fame After Death".Washington Post Article. Retrieved 2016-01-02.
  43. ^ Riksbanken. "20-krona banknote".

References[edit]

  • Andersen, Jen (2018). Astrid Lindgren: The Woman Behind Pippi Longstocking. Translated by Caroline Waight. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Erol, Sibel (1991). "The Image of the Child in Lindgren's Pippi Longstocking". Children's Literature Association Quarterly: 112–119. doi:10.1353/chq.1991.0005.
  • Hoffeld, Laura (1977). "Pippi Longstocking: The Comedy of the Natural Girl". The Lion and the Unicorn. 1 (1): 47–53. doi:10.1353/uni.0.0247.
  • Holmlund, Christine Anne (2003). "Pippi and Her Pals". Cinema Journal. 42 (2): 3–24. doi:10.1353/cj.2003.0005.
  • Lundqvist, Ulla (1989). "The Child of the Century". The Lion and the Unicorn. 13 (2): 97–102. doi:10.1353/uni.0.0168.
  • Metcalf, Eva-Maria (1995). Astrid Lindgren. New York: Twayne Publishers.

Further reading[edit]

  • Frasher, Ramona S. (1977). "Boys, Girls and Pippi Longstocking". The Reading Teacher. 30 (8): 860–863. JSTOR 20194413.
  • Metcalf, Eva-Maria (1990). "Tall Tale and Spectacle in Pippi Longstocking". Children's Literature Association Quarterly. 15 (3): 130–135. doi:10.1353/chq.0.0791.

External links[edit]