Pir Panjal Range
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The Pir Panjal Range is a group of mountains in the Inner Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan administered Kashmir, where the average elevation varies from 1,400 m (4,600 ft) to 4,100 m (13,500 ft). The Himalayas show a gradual elevation towards the Dhauldhar and Pir Panjal ranges. Pir Panjal is the largest range of the lower Himalayas. Near the bank of the Sutlej river, it dissociates itself from the Himalayas and forms a divide between the rivers Beas and Ravi on one side and the Chenab on the other. The famous Murree and Galliat mountains are also located in this range.
Deo Tibba (6,001 m (19,688 ft)) and Indrasan (6,221 m (20,410 ft)) are two important peaks at the eastern end of the mountain range. They can be approached from both the Parvati-Beas Valley (Kulu District) and the Chandra (Upper Chenab) Valley (Lahaul and Spiti District) in Himachal Pradesh. The hill station of Gulmarg in Kashmir lies in this range.
The Pir Panjal pass lies to the west of Srinagar.
The Sinthan pass connects Jammu and Kashmir with Kishtwar.
Pir ki Gali connects Kashmir valley with Rajouri and Poonch via Mughal road. Pir ki Gali is the highest point of Mughal road (11500 ft approx) and lies to the south west of the Kashmir valley. Nearest town to Pir Ki Gali is Shupian, the apple town of Kashmir valley.
A 2.5 km (1.6 mi) long tunnel through Pir Panjal mountain under the Banihal pass connects Banihal with Qazigund on the other side of the mountain. The tunnel named Jawahar tunnel after the first Prime Minister of India was constructed in early 1950s and commissioned in December 1956 to ensure snow-free passage throughout the year. It is at elevation of about 2,100 m (6,900 ft). It was designed for 150 vehicles per day but now used by more than 7,000 vehicles per day. Therefore, a new wider and longer tunnel has been planned at a lower elevation.
Construction of a new 8.45 km (5.25 mi) long twin-tube Banihal-Qazigund road tunnel started in 2011. The new tunnel is at a lower elevation than the existing Jawahar tunnel and, when completed, would reduce the road distance between Banihal and Qazigund by 16 km (9.9 mi). It would also be less prone to snow avalanche as it will be at a lower elevation.
Rohtang tunnel is being built under the Rohtang Pass in the eastern Pir Panjal range of the Himalayas on the Leh-Manali Highway. With 8.8 km (5.5 mi) length, the tunnel will be the longest road tunnel in India and is expected to reduce the distance between Manali and Keylong by about 60 km (37 mi). The tunnel is at 3,100 metres (10,171 ft) elevation whereas the Rohtang pass is at 3,978 metres (13,051 ft) elevation. Lying on the Manali-Leh axis, this is one of the two routes to Ladakh..
Banihal Railway Tunnel
The Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel, an 11.215 kilometres (6.969 mi) railway tunnel, passes through the Pir Panjal Range in Jammu and Kashmir. It connects Quazigund and Banihal and is a part of the Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla railway project. The tunnel was commissioned on 26 June 2013 for regular service. It is India's longest and Asia's third longest railway tunnel.
- Pir Panjal Range (mountain system, Asia) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- Beacon Light in the Tunnel
-  - The Hindu
- "India's longest railway tunnel unveiled in Jammu & Kashmir". The Times of India. 14 October 2011.