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Piranshahr

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Piranshar

پیرانشار
City
Piranshahr (Pîranşar)
Piranshahr2014.jpg
Piranshar is located in Iran
Piranshar
Piranshar
Coordinates: 36°41′40″N 45°08′30″E / 36.69444°N 45.14167°E / 36.69444; 45.14167Coordinates: 36°41′40″N 45°08′30″E / 36.69444°N 45.14167°E / 36.69444; 45.14167
Country Iran
ProvinceWest Azerbaijan
CountyPiranshahr
BakhshCentral
Population
 (2016 census)
 • Total95,716
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Area code(s)+984444
Websitehttp://www.pirancity.net

Piranshahr (Persian: پیرانشهر‎; Kurdish: پیرانشار‎ ;Azerbaijani: پیرانشهر‎Kurmancî Kurdish: Pîranşar) is a city located in West Azarbaijan Province in west Iran.[1] It is the capital of Piranshahr County.[2]

Piranshahr is the center of the traditional region of Mokrian.[3][4][5]

Piranshahr is one of the Iran's oldest cities and its foundations date back to the pre-Islamic era of Iran and the emergence of the kingdom of Media.

The city is one of the fastest-growing cities in Iran.[6] The government's mid-year census for 2016 puts Piranshahr's population at 91,515 compared with the 1996 figure of 34,000.[6]

Etymology

According to the Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi, the name of the city is derived from the famous figure of Shahnameh Piran son of Viseh[7][8][9] Piran is a Turanian figure in Shahnameh, the national epic of Greater Iran. Beside Shahnameh, Piran is also mentioned in other sources such as Tabari and Tha'ālibī. He is the king of Khotan and the spahbed of Afrasiab, the king of Turan. He is described as a wise and intelligent man, seeking to bring peace to Iran and Turan. In old Iranian writings, Piran and Aghrirat are the only Turanians that have been described positively. Piran plays a vital role in the story of Siavash, the story of Kay Khosro and the story of Bizhan and Manizhe. In Persian culture, Piran is a symbol of wisdom.[10] It has been said that Karim Khan called Mohammad Khan Qajar "Piran Viseh".[10][11] Piran is often compared to Bozorgmehr.[9]

According to Djalal Khaleghi Motlagh, Piran may be the Median Harpagus that saved Cyrus the Great.[12]

Prehistory

The history of Piranshahr can be traced back to the Palaeolithic period. In recent discoveries, archeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages.The earliest evidence of settlement in the Piranshar region date to about 14,000 years ago.

There have been recovered more than 200 sites in Piranshahr.

Parsua civilization

The city of Piranshahr is a very ancient settlement. Its locale was the capital of some ancient Aryan civilizations such as Mehr, Parsua and the kingdoms of the Mannaeans.

According to Minorsky, the ancient Parsua is identical with the name of the town Pasveh, which is located in Lajan district (Bakhsh) in Piranshahr.[13] According to Minorsky, The name Persian is connected to the name of Parsua and Pasva and it is believed that the present day Persians (Persian speakers of Iran) dwelled in this district before later migrating to southern and central parts of Iran.

Pasveh is in the vicinity of Piranshahr. Pasva is a village near Piranshahr whose name, according to the Iranist Vladimir Minorsky has existed since the 9th century BC and was built by the "Parsua tribes". It was also mentioned in the records of the Assyrian ruler Shalmaneser III (reign 858-824 BC).[14]

Climate

Piranshahr experiences variable weather, including four distinct seasons. In July, the warmest month, high temperatures average 29 °C (84 °F), and low temperatures 17 °C (63 °F). In January, the coldest month, High temperatures average −2 °C (28 °F), with low temperatures averaging −11 °C (12 °F).

Piranshahr's yearly precipitation averages about 965 mm (38.0 in). Summer is the rainiest season, with short-lived rainfall and thunderstorms more common than prolonged rainy periods [3]. Winter is the driest season, with most of the precipitation falling as snow.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Piranshahr is an unofficial 44 °C (111 °F) on July 24, 1935. The highest official temperature ever recorded is 42 °C (108 °F) on July 17, 1995 during the Piranshahr Heat Wave. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Piranshahr is −33 °C (−27 °F) on January 20, 1985. On December 24, 1983, the high temperature at Piranshahr reached only −23 °C (−9 °F), and on July 30, 1916, the low temperature sank to only 29 °C (84 °F), both of which are records.

Winter in Piranshahr is a variable and fickle season. The average Piranshahr winter produces 940 mm (37 in) of snow. This number can prove unreliable, as Piranshahr winters have produced between 249 and 2,210 mm (9.8 and 87.0 in) of snow. Snow tends to fall in light accumulations of around 50.8 mm (2.00 in), but about once per year Piranshahr experiences a storm that can produce 254 to 356 mm (10.0 to 14.0 in) of snow in one day. Temperatures can vary wildly within the span of one week, but extended periods of temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are not uncommon in January and February. The temperature in January averages about −4 °C (25 °F) in the afternoon, and −12 °C (10 °F) at night. Temperatures can be expected to drop below −18 °C (0 °F) on 15 days throughout the winter season. Although rare, temperatures in Piranshahr even in the middle of winter can reach 10 °C (50 °F).

Piranshahrs climate is classed under the Köppen climate classification as a Mediterranean climate (Csa) with continental influences.

Climate data for Piranshahr, Iran
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
26.0
(78.8)
31.0
(87.8)
33.0
(91.4)
41.0
(105.8)
43.0
(109.4)
47.0
(116.6)
46.0
(114.8)
43.0
(109.4)
37.0
(98.6)
30.0
(86.0)
24.0
(75.2)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
13.3
(55.9)
17.5
(63.5)
22.6
(72.7)
28.9
(84.0)
36.0
(96.8)
39.5
(103.1)
39.1
(102.4)
35.0
(95.0)
27.7
(81.9)
19.7
(67.5)
13.1
(55.6)
25.3
(77.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
7.1
(44.8)
11.0
(51.8)
15.7
(60.3)
21.2
(70.2)
27.0
(80.6)
30.8
(87.4)
29.8
(85.6)
25.3
(77.5)
19.1
(66.4)
12.3
(54.1)
6.9
(44.4)
17.6
(63.7)
Average low °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
1.4
(34.5)
4.6
(40.3)
8.3
(46.9)
11.9
(53.4)
15.4
(59.7)
19.5
(67.1)
18.7
(65.7)
14.1
(57.4)
10.0
(50.0)
5.5
(41.9)
1.8
(35.2)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F) −14.6
(5.7)
−11.0
(12.2)
−11
(12)
−2.0
(28.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
7.0
(44.6)
9.2
(48.6)
8.0
(46.4)
4.6
(40.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.8
(18.0)
−8.6
(16.5)
−14.6
(5.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 86.0
(3.39)
73.1
(2.88)
82.5
(3.25)
71.6
(2.82)
36.5
(1.44)
0.3
(0.01)
0.1
(0.00)
0.2
(0.01)
1.2
(0.05)
23.5
(0.93)
54.3
(2.14)
83.6
(3.29)
512.9
(20.19)
Average rainy days 11.9 10.7 12.9 11.0 6.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 4.8 7.6 10.1 76.5
Average snowy days 2.6 1.5 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.9 5.8
Average relative humidity (%) 69 64 58 54 43 28 24 25 28 39 55 66 46.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 163.4 170.8 187.2 206.0 264.2 340.4 347.2 330.1 302.7 257.3 191.4 160.5 2,921.2
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[15]

Geology

Piranshahr has no active or dormant volcanoes and few earthquakes, however many residents of Piranshahr feel one or two minor earthquakes per year, which do little or no damage. Imperceptible quakes are detected by seismometers on a daily basis.

Agriculture

West Azarbaijan Rural Cooperative Organization has bought some 470,000 tons of wheat, valued at Rls.840 billion, from farmers since the beginning of the year.[specify] Among West Azarbaijan cities, Piranshar is considered a fine example in agriculture improvements. Since 2002, most of the investments in the city are made in the agricultural sector. Consequently, farm and garden coverage in Piranshar has extended from 80 square kilometres in 2002 to 190 km2 in 2004.

Economy

The Piranshar economy includes that of the city of Piranshar and the surrounding towns and villages. The Piranshar area is an engine of the provincial economy. The city of Piranshar has the most important sugar company in the province. There are four Sugar Companies in the province including the Sugar Company of Piranshar.

The plant, in the course of years of its activity, has been constantly renovated by making use of the existing capabilities in the plant. The plant produces 30,000 tons of sugar annually (from 1500 tons of sugar beet per day), and by-products include 100 tons of dried waste per day, which is used for animal food, and 3000 tons of medico-industrial alcohol produced annually from molasses.

Considering the national demand for sugar of 1.5 million tons per year, and the supply thereof by 35 manufacturing units equivalent to 800 thousand tons, and the consequent considerable shortage of sugar, the manufacture of such a product is significant.

Sugar beet is supplied by 70 km2 of farmland around the plant.

The Sugar Company of Piranshahr is the province's largest producer of raw sugar, accounting for over 60% of all of the province's sugar.

Education

The main institutions of higher education in the area are Payame Noor University and Islamic Azad University.[16] The city is also home to a number of conservatories and art schools.

Transportation

Road 26 is a road in north-western Iran connecting Mianeh to Miandoab, Mahabad and Piranshahr with Iraq.

Neighborhoods

The city of Piranshahr includes some of the following neighborhoods:

Balashahr, Kuy Omid, Kuy Baradaran, Kuy As´habe kahf, Kuy Khayyam, Kuy Kamran, Kuy Mokrian, Kuy Lajan (Lahijan), Niloufar park, Sardaran, Bazarcheh. Kuy Edalat, Nirougah, Azadegan, Isargaran, Padash, Farhangian 1, 2, 3 and 4, Ghods, Chahar-Rahe Madar (22 Bahman), Ashianeh 32 metri, Darreh Garav, Zargatan, Seyyed Ghotb, Azadi, Molla Reza, Qapan, Kohne Khaneh, Kanie Kohneh Khaneh.

Demographics

According to Piranshahr's organization for Civil Registration, the highest average annual growth rate in the province is in Piranshahr.[17]

The population history of the city proper is as follows. All figures are official census figures from the Iranian Statistics Institute.[18][citation needed]

1956 1966 1976 1986 1991 2000 2006 2016
5,251 8,076 12,963 18,242 23,923 50,351 78,470 95,716

Law and government

The city's chief administrator is the mayor, who is elected by the municipal board of the city. According to Iranian laws the municipal board is periodically elected by the city residents.

Mayor: Kamran Fateh[19]

Governor: Ardavan Nasouti[20]

Friday prayer: Mamousta Mostafa Mahmoudi[21]

Majlis representative: Dr Rassoul Khezri[22]

References

  1. ^ "West Azerbaijan Province". Iran-China Chamber of Commerce and Industries. January 9, 2010. Retrieved 2015-10-16.
  2. ^ "English/Iran's non-oil exports via Piranshahr customs hit $125mn in 9 months". mefa.ir. Archived from the original on 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2015-04-06. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2017-03-04. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Douglass, Carl (2016-01-01). Though They Come from the Ends of the Earth: A Novel of the Iran Nuclear Weapons Interdiction Project. ISBN 9781594334597.
  5. ^ http://exhibition.saramad.ir/fa/ostani/azarbaijangharbi
  6. ^ a b https://www.citypopulation.de/php/iran-azarbayjanegharbi.php
  7. ^ Bashiri, Iraj. "Characters of Firdowsi's Shahname". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  8. ^ "مغز متفکر شاهنامه (تحلیلی بر شخصیت پیران ویسه)". noormags. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  9. ^ a b "Piran in Shahnameh". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Piran Viseh". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  11. ^ "دلبستگی موسس قاجاریه به شاهنامه/ شاهی که کریم‌خان وی را "پیران ‌ویسه" نامید". IBNA.ir. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  12. ^ "Cyrus and Kay Khosro". Retrieved 15 February 2016.
  13. ^ Gershevitch, I; Fisher, William Bayne; Boyle, John Andrew; Yarshater, Ehsan; Frye, Richard Nelson (1968). The Cambridge History of Iran. ISBN 9780521200912.
  14. ^ Minorsky, V (1957). "Mongol Place-Names in Mukri Kurdistan (Mongolica, 4)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 19 (1): 58–81. JSTOR 609632.
  15. ^ "Khoram Abad Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  16. ^ "دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی پیرانشهر". piranshahr-iau.ac.ir. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  17. ^ http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8502110201
  18. ^ "Iran Statistics Institute". Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  19. ^ http://picity.net/
  20. ^ http://www.piranshahr-ag.ir/
  21. ^ http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13950622000352
  22. ^ http://drkhezri.ir/